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  • ddc:330  (58)
  • Finnish  (32)
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  • 2015-2019  (58)
  • 1945-1949
  • 1
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-07
    Description: Bu çalışmanın amacı uluslararası emtia piyasalarından kaynaklanan asimetrik ve doğrusal olmayan fiyat hareketlerinin iç fiyatlara geçişkenliğini Türkiye için ölçmektir. Bu amaçla 2003M02-2015M02 dönemine ait aylık bazda(145 gözlem) çeşitli uluslararası emtia fiyatları(petrol ve gıda fiyatları) ve iç fiyatları temsilen tüketici fiyat endeksleri ele alınmıştır. Çalışmanın ekonometrik tahminlemesinde yakın zamanda geliştirilen Doğrusal Olmayan Gecikmesi Dağıtılmış Otoregresif (NARDL) Modeli kullanılmıştır. Böylece uluslararası emtia fiyatlarının pozitif ve negatif “Kısmi Ayrıştırma Toplamları” kullanılarak kısa ve uzun dönem doğrusalsızlık ve asimetrik etkiler eşanlı olarak test edilmektedir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre uluslararası petrol ve gıda fiyatlarından yurtiçi enflasyon oranlarına doğru asimetrik bir fiyat geçişkenliğinin olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. Öte yandan, pozitif ve negatif uluslararası emtia fiyat şoklarına karşı iç fiyatların verdiği kısmi tepkiler “Asimetrik Dinamik Hızlandıran” yaklaşımı kullanılarak ölçülmektedir. Buna göre yurtiçi enflasyon oranlarının petrol ve gıda fiyat şoklarına verdiği tepki asimetrik ve sırasıyla 20 ve 15 ay olduğu görülmüştür.
    Description: The aim of this paper is to measure asymetric and nonlinear pass-through of international commodity prices to internal prices in the Turkish case. For this purpose, monthly data set of various international commodity prices(oil and food prices) and internal prices (ie. consumer price indices) fort the period 2003M02-2015M02 (145 observations) are utilized. The econometric estimation of the study is based on the recently developed NARDL Model. This model offers a proper possibility to simultaneously test the short and long-run nonlinearity through positive and negative 'Partial Sum Decompositions' of the international commodity prices to internal prices (ie. consumer price indices). According to our findings, it is concluded that there is a pass-through from international oil and food prices to domestic prices or inflation rate in an asymmetrical sense. The NARDL Model, in hand, also allows us to quantify the respective responses of the internal prices to positive and negative commodity price shocks from the 'Asymetric Dynamic Multipliers'. Hence, domestic inflation rates' response to international oil and food prices is asymmetrical respectively in 20-month and 15-month periods.
    Keywords: C22 ; Q40 ; Q47 ; ddc:330 ; international commodity price shocks ; NARDL Model ; asymetric pass-through ; Uluslararası emtia fiyat şokları ; NARDL Modeli ; asimetrik geçişkenlik
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 4
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-08-07
    Description: Bu yazıda özellikle iktisat alanında değişmenin önemini vurgulayan açıklamalar sunacağım. Açıklamalarımda önce dünyada ve Türkiye’de özellikle son zamanlarda yaşanan değişimleri özetleyeceğim. Sonra sırasıyla kapitalizmde, teknolojide, küreselleşmede ve iktisat biliminde meydana gelen, önemli saydığım değişmeleri anlatacağım. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: D31 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 6
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    Ankara: Turkish Economic Association
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-08-07
    Description: 1914 ve 1918 yılları arasında, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu iktisadi anlamda yıkım yaratan Birinci Dünya Savaşı’na dahil olmuştu. Savaşın sonunda ülke işgal edilmiş ve işgal kuvvetleri ile çatışmalar ortaya çıkmıştı. Tarihsel çalışmalarda, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun Bulgaristan’ın Eylül 1918 tarihinde yaptığı ateşkes teklifi ve iktisadi yaşamında yarattığı baskı ile savaştan çekilme noktasına geldiği iddia edilmekteydi. Yazı, çatışmaların sonlanmakta olduğu süreçteki barış çabalarının Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda ortaya çıkartmış olduğu iktisadi etkileri Tasvir-i Efkar ve Vakit gibi Osmanlı gazetelerindeki yazılar, İstanbul Borsası’na ait döviz kuru ve mal fiyatı verileri ile incelemiştir. Sonuçlar, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun Ekim 1918 tarihi itibariyle savaştan çıkışına kadar olan dönem içerisinde iktisadi olarak iyileşmeler ile karşı karşıya kaldığını ifade etmektedir.
    Description: Between 1914 and 1918, the Ottoman Empire was involved in the World War I, leading to disruptions in economic life. The end of the war created the occupation of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies and struggle against the Allies' occupation. The historical literature argued that when Bulgaria asked for an armistice in September 1918, it was realized that the end of the war was approaching, as the Ottoman economy went into recession. Based on articles in the Ottoman newspapers, i.e., Tasvir-i Efkar and Vakit, in addition to data of foreign exchange rates and prices in the çIstanbul Bourse, this paper examines how the Ottoman economy was affected by the end of the World War I. The findings imply the presence of the higher economic recovery by October 1918 when the Ottoman Empire asked for armistices.
    Keywords: G1 ; N25 ; N45 ; ddc:330 ; The World War I ; the armistice of Salonica ; İstanbul Stock Exchange ; foreign exchange rates ; prices ; economic recovery ; Birinci Dünya Savaşı ; Selanik Mütarekesi ; İstanbul Borsası ; döviz kurları ; mal fiyatları ; ekonomik iyileşme
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-09-21
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 9
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    Istanbul: Koç University-TÜSİAD Economic Research Forum (ERF)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: Bu calisma, Turkiye'nin 2001 krizi sonrasinda uyguladigi maliye politikasina butce harcamalari perspektifinden baktiktan sonra, 2016 ve sonrasinda beklenen dusuk buyume doneminde genisleyici bir maliye politikasinin ekonomik buyume uzerindeki etkilerini tartismaktadir. Calismanin son bolumunde ise kamu harcamalarinin buyumeye katki verecek sekilde dagitilmasi, dinamik bir model cercevesinde incelenmektedir. Sonuclar, 2001 sonrasinda izlenen maliye politikasinin butce disiplini uzerindeki olumlu etkilerini gostermekle beraber, son donemde butcenin harcama katiliginda ve yapisal butce dengesinde bazi olumsuzluklari da tartismaya acmaktadir. Bununla beraber, mevcut kamu borc stoku ve butce disiplini altinda, kamunun tuketim harcamalari yoluyla onumuzdeki dusuk buyume doneminde ekonomiye bir ivme kazandirabilecegi sonucu da elde edilmektedir. Yuksek buyume doneminde ise genisleyici bir maliye politikasinin olumsuz bir etki yapacagi da bulgular arasindadir. Kamu harcamalarinin dagiliminin incelendigi son bolumde, kamunun uretimi arttiracak altyapi yatirimlarina daha fazla agirlik vermesi gerektigi bulunmaktadir. Egitim ve sagliga ayrilan kamu sermaye stokunun buyume uzerindeki etkileri ise fiziksel altyapi yatirimlarina ayrilan kamu sermaye stoku kadar yuksek degildir. Harcama dagilimi ile ilgili bir baska bulgu ise kamunun sermaye yatirimlarina daha fazla agirlik verirken hane halki transferlerini azaltmasi gerektigidir. Son olarak, kamunun idari harcamalarinda verimlilik yoluyla saglanacak bir azalmanin toplumsal fayda uzerinde onemli ve pozitif etkileri gorulmektedir. Bu sonuc da, onumuzdeki donemde kamu verimliligini arttirip idari harcamalari kisacak onlemlerin bir politika onceligi olmasi gerektigini soylemektedir.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: The industrial internet has been described as a new industrial revolution, a significant re-shaper of markets and a global impetus for growth. Finland is looking for new growth opportunities and competitive edge in the industrial internet. The Prime Minister’s Office has identified it as one of its key themes. This project is run by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Aalto University and ETLA, the Research Institute of the Finnish Economy. The Finnish industrial internet – from challenge to opportunity is a project which will carry out an extensive evaluation of the grand scheme of internet economics, clarifying its social and economic impacts both within Finland and globally, while focusing on Finnish manufacturing industry. Furthermore, the project will cover other critical areas of business life (such as energy, transport and logistics, trade, property and infrastructure) as well as the functioning of the public sector. Finland has all the prerequisites for success: a competitive and international technology industry, solid ICT skills, and a public sector that is well-managed and capable of reform. The Finnish industrial internet – from challenge to opportunity project will produce suggestions for policy and measures that would enable Finnish society and Finnish industry to best create and capture value added from this opportunity. This report serves as a background synthesis for the theme.
    Keywords: L6 ; L86 ; L8 ; ddc:330 ; Industrial internet ; Disruption ; Automation ; Digitalization ; Competitiveness ; Industry ; Computerunterstützung ; Industrie ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 11
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In this report, we analyze the Finnish R&D tax incentive scheme of the years 2013 and 2014. Under the scheme, firms were eligible for double corporate tax deduction incentive on labor expenses incurred for undertaking R&D activities. Our report consists of a literature review, an empirical analysis of the Finnish register data, and an internet survey. We find that the scheme failed to reach its anticipated impact. The deduction was claimed far less than expected, the actual tax loss being only 8 % of the expected tax loss. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that the R&D tax incentive failed to reach clear, blind spots in the current Finnish, mainly direct-subsidy-based innovation system. Although the scheme’s design does not allow an unambiguous analysis of its impact on the R&D expenditure, our tentative results suggests that its impact remained rather small. The previous, international literature shows that the R&D tax incentives have an increasing effect on the R&D expenditures, but the impact tends not to exceed the amount of the tax subsidy. Based on our results it is unlikely that even a better-designed R&D tax deduction scheme would bring great value-added to the current, Finnish innovation system.
    Keywords: O38 ; H25 ; ddc:330 ; R&D ; Tax credits ; Forschungsfinanzierung ; Steuervergünstigung ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 12
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In this report, we follow up the situation of individuals having re-entered the labour market with the help of a so-called job bank. The follow-up period extends over the next two years after their job-bank-mediated transition into the open labour market. We present two different sets of results concerning individuals’ near-future labour market experiences. The first set illustrates the development of their employment situation more generally while the second set reports results obtained from using statistical evaluation methods. The results show, inter alia, that the labour market prospects of those having been employed via a job bank have, on average, been clearly better than for identical individuals not having used the services of a job bank.
    Keywords: I38 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Job bank ; Employability ; Employment ; Active labour market policies ; Impact ; Evaluation ; Arbeitsmarktintegration ; Arbeitsvermittlung ; Erwerbstätigkeit ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 13
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: We characterize increases and decreases in plant-product -level output sales in the Finnish manufacturing sector during years 2006 to 2015. We show that during the recession of 2008 to 2009, the intensity of variation in plant-product -level sales diminished, and it took several years until the intensity of variation reached its pre-recession level. However in 2015 the intensity of variation was largest since 2006. We also decompose the changes in the plant-product -level output sales into changes in volume and changes in price.
    Keywords: L11 ; L23 ; L25 ; L60 ; O12 ; ddc:330 ; Production ; Renewal of product structures ; Measurement of prices and quantities ; Manufacturing ; Diversifikation ; Industrie ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 14
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In this study we analyse the development of business investments in Finland and in other countries of comparison on the basis of national accounts, survey data and a sector-level general equilibrium model. According to the results, the decline in investments in Finland is mainly explained by two factors: the decrease in the investments in construction and the collapse of the research and development costs of the Nokia cluster. The aggregate production has, however, dropped almost at a corresponding rate with the investments. For this reason, the investment rate of companies is currently almost at the same level as in the years 2000–2008. However, after the financial crisis the development of investment volume has been weaker in Finland than in many other countries. The differences cannot be explained by the availability of debt financing, as access to capital in clearly better in Finland than in most other European countries. The investment rate in Finland is reduced especially by weak future prospects for the growth of productivity. The anticipated decline in the labour force also somewhat hinders the rate of investment. The analyses also show that Finland competes against Estonia for manufacturing investments as well as for headquarter locations. In the long term, the greatest concern is that in industries other than electronics, the Finnish private R&D investments are no higher than the European average. In other words, Finland does not seem to have an especially strong ambition to seek for a competitive advantage in innovations.
    Keywords: E22 ; O34 ; ddc:330 ; Investment ; Business ; Structural change ; Comparison ; Financial constraint ; Investition ; Strukturwandel ; Fremdkapital ; Produktivitätsentwicklung ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 15
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: We examine the growth of real value added, labour input and labour productivity of immigrant-owned firms in Finland in 2007–2016. In our analysis we use the so-called FLOWN (Finnish Longitudinal OWNer-Employer-Employee) data by Statistics Finland that allows linking register information on firms, their owners and employees. As immigrant-owned firms account for a few percent of all firms and about one percent of all labour in the business sector, their contribution to the growth of output and employment must be limited. However, the growth rate of their real value added is markedly stronger than in other firm groups. Their job creation rates are exceptionally high but their job destruction rates are, however, about the same magnitude as in the indigenous-owned firms. The immigrant-owned firms have created a relatively large amount of low productivity and low wage jobs. On an average, their wage growth has been somewhat higher than in other firms, but pro-cyclical variation of wages has been stronger.
    Keywords: J15 ; J21 ; J24 ; E24 ; ddc:330 ; Immigrants ; Output growth ; Employment growth ; Productivity growth ; Creative destruction
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 16
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: We analyse how alternative reforms of the student financial aid would influence average study duration, government expenditures, and tax revenues. We also consider the reform that has been proposed by the current government (in 2016) which consists of lowering the monthly student grant and decreasing the maximum eligibility period while increasing the maximum study grant. Our results are based on a structural model that describes the financial constraints and incentives faced by the students. The model is calibrated with register based panel data on students’ study progress, withdrawal of study grants and student loans, and wage income. According to the results, the reform proposed by the current government will reduce government expenditures on student aid by about 20 percent, which is close to the government’s target. However, the reform is also likely to increase the average study duration. The size of this effect depends on how willing the students are to take student loans.
    Keywords: D14 ; H24 ; J22 ; ddc:330 ; Student financial aid ; Study duration ; Studienfinanzierung ; Studium ; Dauer ; Bildungspolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 17
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: This report uses an international input-output dataset to present an analysis of Finland’s position in global value chains. The results show that intermediate products account for a larger share – some three-quarters – of Finnish exports than they do in most other countries. The share of foreign value added in Finnish export production is around the international average, but it has grown more rapidly than average. A higher share of foreign value added means that exports, on average, have less capacity to generate economic growth. The share of domestic value added has fallen particularly sharply in the fuel refining industry as well as in metal processing and the manufacture of metal products. The share of domestic value added has decreased more in Finnish than in Swedish industry. A value added based analysis changes the picture of Finland’s most important trade partners and our international economic dependencies. Based on the analysis Finnish economic growth is heavily dependent on Chinese and US final demand. Over 10% of Finland’s value added exports are ultimately destined for China, and almost the same proportion goes to the United States. However, the combined final demand from EU-28 countries still outweighs the demand from these two countries.
    Keywords: F14 ; F6 ; F62 ; F68 ; ddc:330 ; Globalisation ; Value chain ; Value network ; Global ; Value added ; Intermediate ; Input-output ; Internationale Wirtschaft ; Wertschöpfung ; Internationale Produktion ; Internationale Arbeitsteilung ; Vorleistungen ; Input-Output-Analyse ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 18
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: This report examines whether Google search queries can be used to predict the present and the near future house prices in Finland. Compared to a simple benchmark model, Google searches improve the prediction of the present house price index by 7.5 % measured by mean absolute error. In addition, search queries improve the forecast of near future house prices. Predicting the present and near future house prices is relevant information to many agents, such as realtors and political decision makers.
    Keywords: C1 ; C22 ; C43 ; C53 ; C82 ; E27 ; ddc:330 ; Google Trends ; Internet ; Nowcasting ; Forecasting ; Housing market ; Time series ; Prognoseverfahren ; Online-Recherche ; Immobilienpreis ; Zeitreihenanalyse ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 19
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: About half of all new business activity in Finland can be categorized as being entrepreneurial. The number of this kind of new businesses has not increased dramatically during the last ten years. However, the characteristics of these businesses have changed. Nowadays, new entrepreneurs have higher education background, they have more likely work experience from a relevant field, they are more innovation-oriented, and they have higher initial growth aspirations. Their businesses are more likely to seek sales growth by utilizing international markets and by focusing more on consumer markets and less on business-to-business markets. On the other hand, maybe due to prolonged recession in the Finnish economy, the higher share of new entrepreneurial businesses is being started because there are no better opportunities to get a job. Heavy regulation and tight legislation are being seen as the most significant disincentives at the start-up phase. Growth-oriented new entrepreneurial firms see financial issues and labor market rigidities as significant restrictions for growth.
    Keywords: D92 ; L26 ; L53 ; M13 ; ddc:330 ; Entrepreneurship ; Growth firm ; Start-ups ; Growth-orientation ; Enterprise policy ; Unternehmensgründung ; Entrepreneurship ; Mittelstandspolitik ; Unternehmenswachstum ; Unternehmenserfolg ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 20
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: There is a lack of comprehensive information on the quality of management in Finland as compared to other countries. Funded by the Strategic Research Council, the Skills, Education and the Future of Work research project has started filling this gap. As part of the project, an extensive survey concerning management practices has been implemented for Finnish manufacturing establishments. Its design meticulously follows the Management and Organizational Practices Survey (MOPS), a survey conducted by the US Census Bureau. The United States is a useful benchmark for international comparisons, because its management practices have been recognised as the best in the world in studies that utilise a long-standing survey project called the World Management Survey (WMS). Even though the WMS is an open-ended interview survey, whereas the MOPS is based on closed-ended questions, the two surveys are based on the same theoretical framework. This report introduces the Finnish Management and Organizational Practices (FMOP) survey data and presents some interesting preliminary observations. The FMOP data do not contain establishments that belong to firms with fewer than 50 employees. When calculating averages for Finnish manufacturing, two different imputation methods are used to estimate management scores for these missing establishments: a baseline and a (very) conservative one. Our conservative method provides us with an approximate lower limit for the scores. The analysis reveals large dispersion in management practices between establishments and that the average management score for manufacturing is 0.52, with a lower limit of 0.46. Furthermore, a clear positive connection is found between number of employees and management. Rather than looking at unweighted averages, it is more relevant, in terms of competitiveness, to study how much of the workforce is allocated into well-managed establishments. A decomposition of industry management practices shows that labour is more heavily allocated to larger establishments with higher quality management. The allocation effect is between 29% and 20% of the aggregate (employment weighted) average management score, depending on the imputation method applied. Further analysis shows that, even though the allocation effect is significant in size, it appears to be substantially smaller than in the United States. This reflects the fact that, when compared to Finland, a much larger share of the US workforce is employed by very large, well-managed establishments. The management scores are only slightly behind those of the US and, depending on the imputation method, and either a bit higher than or on par with those of Germany. This suggests that management practices in Finnish manufacturing are on an internationally competitive, high quality level.
    Keywords: L2 ; M2 ; O32 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Management practises ; Productivity ; Competitiveness ; Reallocation ; Management ; Produktivität ; Industrie ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In Finland, universities have the explicit mandate to support the transformation of high-quality knowledge into profitable business, as well as to promote the creation of new businesses and workplaces within the boundaries of their so-called third mission. This report looks at how Finnish universities perform in the task. The results point at a clear lack of dedicated resources. The underlying reason is systemic: performance is not linked to incentives in the form of public university funding. Currently, resources for the implementation of the third mission are largely obtained via competition from external sources, endangering the continuity of the technology transfer function and creating disincentives to invest in its development. The lack of incentives is echoed among researchers: Nearly half of the scientists who, according to their own view, have made economically valuable findings state they do not find the time to promote their exploitation. The report proposes several remedies: (1) the performance of universities in their third mission needs to be metered. (2) These metrics need to be linked to earmarked public university funding; (3) Individual-level metrics concerning the exploitation of their findings should encourage researchers and promote their academic careers. In order to support more rapid cultural change, universities could (4) recruit professors directly from the business world; and (5) set up cooperative, joint laboratories with industry in their respective strategic research areas.
    Keywords: O31 ; O32 ; O33 ; O38 ; O43 ; O52 ; D02 ; I23 ; I25 ; I26 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Technology transfer ; Third mission ; Commercialization ; University ; Higher education ; Hochschule ; Technologietransfer ; Kommerzialisierung ; Bewertung ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 22
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: The aim of this paper is to broaden the knowledge concerning the development of Finnish firms’ innovation activities. The results show that during 2008–2017 the share of overseas R&D has risen. Currently, 14–25% of Finnish firms’ total R&D are conducted overseas. If Nokia is taken into account, the share of overseas R&D rises to 53–65%. Furthermore, the results suggest that Finnish firms invest approximately Eur 1.8 billion in innovation activities outside the traditional R&D definition.
    Keywords: O31 ; O32 ; ddc:330 ; Research ; Development ; R&D ; Company ; BERD ; Internationalization ; Globalisation ; Innovation ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 23
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: We study the use of pension funds in the Finnish earnings-related pension system with the aim of smoothing contributions over time under demographic and economic risks. Smoothing is affected by the revisions in long-term forecasts and is thus imperfect. As a partially funded defined-benefit system, demographic risks and asset yield risks directly affect the contributions. In a general equilibrium setup, these risks also affect wages and thus pension benefits and replacement rates. We also consider alternative benefit rules where risks are transferred more to the pensioners.
    Keywords: E17 ; H55 ; ddc:330 ; Pensions ; Funding ; Contribution smoothing ; Risks ; Generational fairness
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In the report we analyse the reasons for the weakness of Finland’s economic performance over the past decade and assess the growth prospects in the coming 5 years. The weakness of Finland’s performance relative to comparative EU-countries since 2009 can largely be explained by the collapse of Nokia’s production and the deterioration of cost competitiveness. The recovery in turn stems from a stronger export market growth, the fading away of the negative Nokia shock, and the improvement of cost competitiveness. Of the rise of employment by some 100 000 jobs since 2015 about half can be explained by a number of policy measures to increase labour supply and the so-called competitiveness pact. Based on a realistic assumption on productivity growth, we estimate that Finland could achieve an annual growth rate of about 2 per cent in the coming 5 years. This requires, nevertheless, that the employment rate increases by 2023 to the level reached by comparative countries. Although such a change would not be greater than what is taking place during the current government period, ambitious reforms are needed to achieve this.
    Keywords: E37 ; E61 ; E62 ; F10 ; J11 ; J20 ; O11 ; ddc:330 ; Growth ; Employment ; Productivity ; Labour supply ; Competitiveness ; Finland’s economy ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Produktivitätsentwicklung ; Arbeitsangebot ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In the beginning of the 1990’s, various fragmented information networks of the Internet were combined into one integrated network of systems. As a result, the commercial utilization of the Internet boomed, creating completely new business models and economic structures in the process. A similar reaction is now anticipated from the digitalization of industry and society at large. However, the big question is, how can all the separately structured, isolated systems be fused into one seamless network of systems? So far the problem has mainly been addressed from the stand-point of centralized and decentralized system architectures. Our analysis shows, however, that completely new and innovative technological approaches, such as block chain technology, are emerging to address this problem. These new distributed architecture solutions may completely revolutionize the anticipated structures and business models of the digitalization currently in progress, as they allow machines to autonomously share much more than just data, e.g. computational capacity, storage space or even electric power. As a result, understanding digitalization in its full capacity requires a systems approach and new kind of higher-level thinking on the scale of a network of systems.
    Keywords: L14 ; L15 ; L86 ; L96 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Digitalization ; Industrial Internet ; Platforms ; Block chain ; Internetportal ; Computernetz ; Netzwerkökonomik
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In this report we present the definition for a digital platform. We also define what kinds for characteristics and features are associated with platforms and the platform economy. This report provides background information for policy-makers on digital platforms. It also serves as an introduction to a policy implications report for the Prime Minister’s Office due later in 2016. The platform economy, digital platforms and their ecosystems are rapidly changing the business models and information technology architectures across traditional industry boundaries. Internet as an operating environment has a central key role to play in this transformation. Thanks to new digital architectures, pioneering actors can now take the leap from intranet towards supply-chain and Internet centric platform train of thought. We define a platform as follows: Digital platforms refer to information technology systems upon which different actors — that is, users, service providers and other stakeholders across organizational boundaries — can carry out valued-adding activities in a multi-sided market environment governed by agreed boundary resources. Typically these actors create, offer and maintain products and services that are complementary to one another. Platforms quintessentially lure and lock in various types of actors with their network effects and economic benefits thereof. In this report we present the developmental history of platforms and the relevant terminology to their definition. We also examine the definitions of the characteristics of platforms from the standpoint of Apple’s platform. Our analysis shows that there are two angles of approach to platforms: the point of view relating to the internal business operations of a company, and the wider aspect arising from managing social and technical boundary resources of Internet-based platforms ecosystems. Actors now require a new kind of grasp and strategic foresight to become significant players in the platform economy.
    Keywords: L6 ; L8 ; L86 ; L89 ; ddc:330 ; Platform ; Platform economy ; Disruption ; Digitalization ; Internetportal ; Integriertes Informationssystem ; Marktstruktur ; Computerunterstützung ; Informationstechnik
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: The aim of this report has been to produce an analysis of the state of the social enterprises in Finland. Based on a comprehensive survey, there are roughly 19 000 social enterprises in Finland that employ around 125 000 persons. These estimates produced in this report multiply the views on the magnitude of the phenomenon. Self-identified Finnish social enterprises produce social value though their products or services and mostly in the field of social services and welfare. The main hindrances on the way of the growth of the sector are the lack of an unambiguous definition of a social enterprise and the shortages in measuring the most important outcome, social impact. Measuring and valuing the impact is a key element in attracting funding for social enterprises. New means of impact investment attract not only attention but also capital that seeks for targets, especially in Europe. This additional funding is a much needed in the sector that attracts it’s outside financing currently mostly from public sector and struggles to find financing critical for future growth.
    Keywords: L38 ; L26 ; N34 ; P13 ; G23 ; G24 ; M14 ; G11 ; G14 ; ddc:330 ; Social enterprises ; Impact investment ; Sozialwirtschaft ; Corporate Social Responsibility ; Nachhaltige Kapitalanlage ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 28
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: We consider the taxation of non-listed companies and their owners in Finland. We analyse how the current highly non-linear dividend taxation influences the allocation of labour and capital across different firms, average labour productivity and the equilibrium wage level. To this end, we use a general equilibrium model of firm investment where firms may have different production technologies. We find that the current tax system is likely to distort resource allocation compared to linear dividend taxation. This works to lower the average labour productivity as well as the general wage level.
    Keywords: D92 ; G35 ; H24 ; ddc:330 ; Dividend taxation ; Non-listed companies ; Productivity ; Kapitalertragsteuer ; Allokation ; Arbeitsproduktivität ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 29
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: This report analyzes the role of the largest companies in the Finnish economy. According to the results, the ten largest companies in terms of their value added together produce 7,6 % of the Finnish GDP. In addition, these companies generate notable multiplicative effects in the economy. According to the findings, the productivity and the growth rates of the ten largest companies clearly surpass the economy average. In this study, it was also analyzed what kinds of macroeconomic effects will generated by Metsä Fibre’s investment into their new bioproduct factory in Äänekoski, Finland. The calculations were conducted for the construction phase and the production phase individually. According to these analyses, the construction phase alone will generate a positive impact on employment reaching thousands of man-years. However, the true significance of the investment will only become evident in the production phase, since not all investments of equal scale produce similar macroeconomic effects. Besides the characteristics of the examined industries, the size of these effects also depends on which countries acquisitions are made from.
    Keywords: F23 ; L25 ; E22 ; M21 ; L11 ; ddc:330 ; Large ; Largest ; Companies ; Firms ; GDP ; Productivity ; Gross domestic product ; Concentration ; Multiplier effect ; Investment ; Pulp ; Äänekoski ; Group ; Granular ; Concentration ; Großunternehmen ; Wertschöpfung ; Bruttoinlandsprodukt ; Produktivitätsentwicklung ; Multiplikator ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 30
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: We analyze 51 medium-sized manufacturing industry companies identified by Ali-Yrkkö and Rouvinen in their earlier research in 2015. Currently, out of these 51 companies with a staff of 250–499 employees in 2013, none are using digital platforms for business network management. It is typical for digital platforms that different actors can create, provide and maintain complementary products and services to the various distribution channels and markets, within the framework of mutually agreed business and contract rules, technical bourdary resources and a predefined user experience. Only seven companies (14%) offer digitally featured products and services. Digital product and service features are charted by using 26 different Finnish and English search terms, such as ’internet of things’, ’sensor’, ’cloud service’ and ’preventive maintenance’. Finally we consider four strategic questions for open boundary resources.
    Keywords: L6 ; L8 ; L86 ; L89 ; ddc:330 ; Digital platforms ; Boundary resources ; Digital offering ; Kemppi ; Internetportal ; Unternehmensnetzwerk ; Virtuelle Organisation ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 31
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: The amount of work done in the economy has been subject to a lot of debate in Finland recently. Unemployment is considered a major problem. On the other hand, extending annual working time receives little support. In fact, a widely held view is that one should reduce the working time of the currently employed so that more people could be employed. The efforts of the Government to increase labour input, i.a. by reducing length of annual leave or the number of banking holidays are widely criticised. In the report we first describe how much work is done in Finland. Secondly, we recall the key messages of economics about the determination of labour input in a market economy. Thirdly, we endeavour to argue why, in the current Finnish circumstances, increasing the amount of work is useful and important, why the idea of work sharing is flawed, and why reducing labour costs makes sense.
    Keywords: J2 ; J3 ; H5 ; E24 ; ddc:330 ; Work ; Labour input ; Employment ; Sustainability of public finances ; Erwerbstätigkeit ; Arbeitskosten ; Öffentliche Finanzen ; Nachhaltigkeit ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In this report, we study the development of Finnish startup firms based on both survey and register data. The sample includes all firms that were founded in the first half of the year 2005, and those firms have been monitored for eight years. We find that entrepreneurs in growth-oriented startups have had typically already some experience from being an entrepreneur or managing business, and have had success in risk-taking activities. Growth-oriented startup firms are in turn more likely to be networked with other firms and institutions, and are already in the startup phase larger than others. Growth-orientation correlates significantly with ex-post growth, but does not boost failure rates. Besides growth-orientation, the larger size of the firm in the startup phase and the limited liability company form correlate significantly positively with ex-post growth.
    Keywords: D92 ; L26 ; L53 ; M13 ; ddc:330 ; Entrepreneurship ; Growth firm ; Start-up ; Enterprise policy ; Entrepreneurship ; Unternehmensgründung ; Strategisches Management ; Unternehmenserfolg ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 33
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: International literature suggests that productivity growth of the global frontier firms – those in the best five percent – has diverged from the others during the 2000s. We study this issue using Finnish firm-level data. We find that the productivity of the Finnish frontier firms does not diverge from the others to such a degree as in the international comparisons. The findings do not provide clear evidence of a slowdown in the diffusion process. We also analyze whether frontier firms are associated with characteristics related to digitalization – and do not find clear evidence of that either. This might be related to the fact that the employed measures are related to technology adoption – not to the creativity or efficiency of its use.
    Keywords: D22 ; O30 ; O40 ; ddc:330 ; Productivity ; Divergence ; Diffusion ; Ddigitalization ; Finland ; Produktivität ; Betriebsgröße ; Unternehmen ; Computerunterstützung ; Automatisierung ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 34
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: Banking and financial services have traditionally been a heavily regulated industry where technology alone has not been a sufficient factor to transform the operating architectures of the industry. The pervasive view in the financial industry has been that digitalization and its integrational development will take place on the platforms of the banks. Due to the inherent secondary nature of financial services, however, it is more likely that the customer interface of financial services will increasingly migrate towards primary service platforms. As a result, the commoditization of payment processing services is expected to increase. Additionally, the visibility into customer data will become more opaque and the value capturing capabilities of the financial industry will be radically redefined. Furthermore, a strategic impact can also be anticipated on several public institutions, such as financial supervisory authorities, the tax administration and other public registry holders.
    Keywords: G2 ; L2 ; L22 ; ddc:330 ; Platform: embedded banking ; Distributed banking ; Open banking ; Platform ; Distributed ledgers ; Blockchain ; FinTech ; Bank ; Finanzdienstleistung ; Digitalisierung ; Branchenentwicklung
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 35
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In this study, we analyze the characteristics and development of Finnish startups based on firm-level data available in public databases. By startups we refer to young, small, and independent firms holding basic elements for growth. Some 4 000–5 000 of such firms are being established annually, of which 6–7% grow to employ at least 10 workers in three years and have had simultaneously increased their employment by at least 20% per annum. About one third of all startups operate in knowledge intensive services and altogether around 70% in services; only few dozen of new startups are in high-tech manufacturing industries. Approximately 70% of startups survive for at least five years. During this period, their employment has on average doubled. The most intensive growth spurt emerges usually in the very first years after establishing the business. Only a few percent of startups get venture capital investments or public innovation subsidies.
    Keywords: D92 ; L26 ; L53 ; M13 ; ddc:330 ; Entrepreneurship ; Growth firm ; Start-up ; Enterprise policy ; Unternehmensgründung ; KMU ; Unternehmenswachstum ; Unternehmenserfolg ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 36
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: Unlike conventional contracts established through speech, written words, or actions, smart contracts are algorithmic, self-executing and self-enforcing computer programs. In this article, we analyze smart contracts from the perspective of digital platforms and the Finnish contract law. We examine how well the formation mechanisms of the general principles of contract law can be applied to the new technological framework of smart contracts. In addition, the adoptability of smart contracts as a part of our current legislation is evaluated on the basis of this analysis. We find that instead of a clearly defined single use case, smart contracts can be applied in a multitude of different ways, with highly varying goals and circumstances. We conclude that at least in some cases, smart contracts can create legally binding rights and obligations to their parties. The mechanism best suited for describing the formation of a smart contract seems to be analogous to a vending machine where the declaration of intent is implicitly expressed by performing contractual obligations. Contracts have not been formerly percieved as a technical boundary resource in the sense that platform ecosystems could foster broader network effects by opening their technical contracting interfaces to third parties. Smart contracts are an example of the new kinds of technology-enabled contracting practices to which companies and public policy makers should start preparing well ahead of time. However, due to the relative immaturity of the smart contract technology, the number of current real-world applications is still very limited. The evolution of digital platforms requires an approach with a combination of technological, economic and legal perspectives.
    Keywords: K12 ; K19 ; O33 ; O38 ; ddc:330 ; Digital platforms ; Boundary resources ; Blockchain ; Smart contracts ; Internetportal ; Vertragsrecht ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 37
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    Helsinki: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: This report is a synthesis of the previous literature analyzing the role of different types of companies on economic growth and employment, and an overlook on the impacts of different policy measures on companies. The role of large companies in the economy is still significant, although diminishing. However, the size of a company is nearly always determined at the company level, rather than at the group level, which brings some uncertainty to the interpretation of the results. Majority of the research on public corporate funding concerning Finland focuses on R&D subsidies; there are fewer studies covering other business subsidies and public venture capital investments. R&D subsidies have mostly positive impacts on employment, especially among young and small companies. Impacts on the productivity are, however, uncertain. Cooperation of public and private investors maximizes the impact of public venture capital investments. The other business subsidies may help firms to grow larger but do not improve their productivity.
    Keywords: L25 ; O14 ; O47 ; J21 ; J23 ; ddc:330 ; Growth ; Company ; Employment ; Firm size ; Small ; SME ; Value added ; Productivity ; Forschungsfinanzierung ; Risikokapital ; KMU ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Erwerbstätigkeit ; Produktivität ; Betriebsgröße ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2019-08-03
    Description: In this report, we re-assess the role of so-called job banks as mediators into the open labour market but also as employers of unemployed job-seekers. The focus is primarily on the unemployed who became job bank clients during 2013. We follow up the labour market situation of these individuals during one year’s timeahead, until the end of 2014. In the latter part of the report, we compare the main findings to those obtained for the unemployed having re-entered the labour market with the help of a job bank either in 2011 or 2012. We present two different sets of results concerning individuals’ near-future labour market experiences. The first set illustrates the development of their employment situation more generally both before and after employment via a job bank while the second set reports results obtained from using statistical evaluation methods. The results indicate that the labour market prospects of those having been employed via a job bank have, on average, been clearly better than for identical unemployed persons who did not use the services of a job bank. Moreover, those employed via a job bank often also seem to have faced better opportunities to stay employed. The results are the same irrespective of whether or not the job bank client‘s employment involves wage subsidies.
    Keywords: I38 ; J64 ; ddc:330 ; Job bank ; Employability ; Employment ; Active labour market policies ; Impact ; Evaluation ; Subsidies ; Youth ; Arbeitsvermittlung ; Arbeitsmarktintegration ; Aktivierende Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Finnland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 39
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    Istanbul: Koç University-TÜSİAD Economic Research Forum (ERF)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-05
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019-09-07
    Description: Günümüzde kültür, teknoloji, tasarım ya da insan sermayesi gibi elle tutulur faydaları muğlak olan kavramlar en çok; bir şirketin, sanat eserinin, yazılımın ya da herhangi bir ürünün finansal değerini belirlemede etkin rol oynar hale gelmiştir. Bu durum da, bu muğlaklığın hem sektörde hem de akademide analiz edilebilmesi ve ölçülebilmesi çalışmalarını tetiklemiştir. Kentteki fiziksel çevrenin değerine etki eden önemli bir girdi olan “iyi tasarım”ın ne olduğu konusu ve ölçülebilme sorunsalı da, mimarlık alanında araştırma gündemini meşgul etmeye başlamıştır. Ne kadar çok elle tutulamayan fayda tespit ve ifşa edilirse, kentlerde o kadar daha çok “iyi” tasarım olacağı hakim görüşü, bu alanda araştırma yapanları çok kapsamlı modeller geliştirmeye yöneltmiştir. Fakat, 90’lardan itibaren başlamış bu çalışmalar, ne yazık ki, daha yaşanılır kentlerin oluşup gelişmesine beklenildiği gibi etki edememiştir. Bu bağlamda, finans sektörünün bu faydaları nasıl okuduğuyla ilgili daha içsel bir anlayış elde etmek için, “değerin güç teorisi” çerçevesinde, bu teorinin merkezine aldığı köksüz transnasyonel kapitalist sınıf lehine olan diferansiyel kapitalizasyon ve stratejik sabotaj kavramlarının fiziksel mekandaki izleri aranarak konu tartışmaya açılmış ve şehirlerdeki en büyük bütçeli projeleri finanse eden %1lik mimari patronajın mülkü olan günümüz seküler mabetlerine ve uzamsal boyutlarına bu mercekten bakılmıştır. Çalışmanın çıktısı olarak; bu mabetlerin ve onları ilgilendiren uzamsal boyutun farklı aktörler için ifade ettiği farklı değerler ve bu farklı değerlerin ya da faydaların nasıl kapitalize edildiği ve neden olduğu sabotaj biçimleri detaylandırılarak açıklanmış, ayrıca literatüre provokatif bir katkı sağlamak hedeflenmiştir.
    Description: The concepts such as culture, technology, design, or human capital, the tangible benefits of which are vague, are mostly effective in setting the financial value of a company, a work of art, a software, or any product. This situation triggered both sectoral and academic studies intended for analyzing and measuring this vagueness. The subject of what the “good design” is, which is an important input affecting the value of the physical environment in the cities, and the problematic of its measurability started to occupy the architectural research agenda. The prevalent view that the more intangible benefits are detected and disclosed the more “good” designs the cities will have has prompted the people who conduct research in this field to develop very comprehensive models. However, these studies that started in the ‘90s unfortunately failed to have the expected impact on creation and development of more livable cities. In this context, to get a better insight of how the financial sector reads these benefits, the subject has been opened up for discussion within the framework of the “power theory of value”, by searching for traces of the differential capitalization and strategic sabotage concepts in the physical space, which are in favor of the rootless transnational capitalist class that is at the center of this theory and the modern-day secular temples owned by the 1% of the architectural patronage who finance the highest budget projects in cities and its spatial dimension have been seen through this lens. As an outcome of the study, different values these temples and the spatial dimension concerning them carry for different actors, and how these different values or benefits are capitalized, and the types of sabotages they cause have been explained in detail, and it has been targeted to make a provocative contribution to the literature.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; architecture ; capital as power ; differential accumulation ; capitalization ; radical imaginary ; sabotage
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: Keskuspankit ovat perinteisesti laskeneet liikkeeseen seteleitä yleisön käytettäviksi. Digitalisaation myötä setelit alkavat olla teknisesti vanhentunut maksuväline, ja jotkut keskuspankit ovat harkinneet vähittäismaksamiseen soveltuvaa elektronista keskuspankkirahaa. Elektroninen keskuspankkiraha tarjoaisi yleisölle mahdollisuuden pitää hallussaan keskuspankkirahaa mahdollisessa setelittömässä tulevaisuudessa. Lohkoketjuteknologia nykyisellään todennäköisesti sopisi tarkoitukseen huonosti, sillä se ei pysty käsittelemään riittävän suurta määrää transaktioita. Elektronisella keskuspankkirahalla olisi todennäköisesti muille keskuspankkipolitiikan lohkoille merkittäviä vaikutuksia, joita olisi selvitettävä huolellisesti.
    Description: An English translation of this article was published under the title ”Central bank digital currency”, BoF Economics Review 5/2017: http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:bof-201711211668
    Description: Central banks have traditionally issued cash to the general public. With digitalisation, banknotes are becoming a technically outdated payment instrument, and some central banks have explored the possibility of central bank-issued electronic money applicable to retail payments. Electronic central bank money would offer the public the possibility to hold central bank money in a potentially cashless future. In its present form, blockchain technology would probably not be a suitable solution, since it is unable to process a sufficiently large number of transactions. Electronic central bank money would potentially have significant implications for other areas of central bank policy, which should be meticulously analysed.
    Keywords: G21 ; E58 ; E42 ; ddc:330 ; keskuspankkiraha ; digitaalinen keskuspankkiraha ; money ; central banks ; central bank electronic money
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: Talouden kehitystä kuvaavat tilastoaineistot valmistuvat viiveellä, ja tilastojen lukuja tarkennetaan eli revisioidaan lähdeaineistojen täydentyessä ja tarkentuessa. Tässä artikkelissa tarkastellaan kansantalouden neljännesvuositilinpidon tavaroiden ja palveluiden tilin (entinen huoltotase) revisioita. Artikkelissa kuvaillaan Suomen bruttokansantuotteen kausitasoitetun volyymin ja sen kysyntäerien revisioita ja testataan mahdollisuuksia ennakoida revisioita. BKT:n kasvun estimaatit ovat tulosten mukaan hieman harhaisia tarkastelujakson aikana, ja revisiot ovat suurimmillaan suhdanteen käännepisteissä sekä kahdella ensimmäisellä vuosineljänneksellä. BKT:n neljännesvuosikasvun revisiot eivät ole ennakoitavissa pelkkää BKT-aineistoa käyttämällä, mutta tavaroiden ja palveluiden tilin tilastollisella erolla on jonkin verran ennustekykyä. Kysyntäeristä mittaluokaltaan suurimmat revisiot ovat voimakkaasti vaihtelevilla tuonnilla ja viennillä, mutta nettoviennin revisiot jäävät pieniksi tuonnin ja viennin tarkentuessatyypillisesti samaan suuntaan. Yksityisen kulutuksen revisiot ovat maltillisia, mutta erän suuresta koosta johtuen revisiot ovat merkittäviä kokonaiskysynnän kannalta.
    Keywords: E01 ; E20 ; E23 ; ddc:330 ; Suomi
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 43
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    Unknown
    Helsinki: Bank of Finland
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: Tässä artikkelissa tarkastellaan yritysdynamiikan vaikutuksia talouteen makrotasolla käyttämällä hyväksi tietoja aloittaneiden ja lopettaneiden yritysten lukumääristä ja joukosta keskeisiä makrotalouden muuttujia. Tulosten mukaan erityisesti uusien yritysten syntymisellä on tärkeä rooli työllisyyden, tuottavuuden ja talouskasvun näkökulmasta Suomessa. Koko kansantalouden tasolla työllisyyden, tuottavuuden ja tuotannon vaihteluista selittyy jopa 40 % yritysten syntymiseen ja tuhoutumiseen vaikuttavilla sokeilla. Uusien yritysten syntyminen nopeuttaa talouskasvua sekä työllisyyden että tuottavuuskasvun kiihtymisen kautta. Tuottavuuskasvun kiihtyminen ei siis johda työllisyyden heikkenemiseen koko kansantalouden tasolla vaan päinvastoin. Tämä voi heijastaa tuottavuuskasvun kiihtymisen yleisen tasapainon vaikutuksia.
    Keywords: E32 ; E24 ; ddc:330 ; luova tuho ; yritysdynamiikka
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Finnish
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2020-02-05
    Description: This study asks how the Ottoman bondholders traded at the Paris stock exchange evaluated the outcomes of tax and constitutional reforms, based on the data for the most traded bond's price, i.e., the Turkish unified bond, at the Paris stock exchange from 1903 to 1909. The reforms aimed at higher tax income and decreasing arbitrary implications of the Ottoman state. The data are manually collected from The Times. The findings show that the constitutional reform was negatively related to perceived risk of the investors, since there was again a parliamentary system in the Ottoman Empire to blockage the arbitrary policies.
    Keywords: G1 ; N25 ; N45 ; ddc:330 ; Tax reform ; Constitutional monarchy ; the Ottoman debt management ; Price fluctuations ; the Turkish unified bond
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Turkish
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  • 45
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO)
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: Данный отчет представляет основные моменты земельной реформы и аграрной реструктуризации в Туркменистане. В первой части отчета основное внимание уделяется описанию хода аграрной реформы с представлением хронологии основных осуществленных мер аграрной политики, а также рассмотрена организация поставки материалов и ресурсов в сельскохозяйственное производство. Центральная часть отчета отведена на описание изменений в структуре посевов, а также динамики развития различных категорий сельскохозяйственных производителей и их вклад в развитие аграрного сектора и продовольственной безопасности страны. Как показывает исследование, земельная реформа и аграрная реструктуризация в стране в целом проводились со значительными функциями государства в регулировании этих процессов. На основе реформирования сельского хозяйства за период с 1992-2013 гг. общая посевная площадь в стране возросла на 25 %, в то время как, крестьянские объединения остаются основной категорией в сфере производства сельскохозяйственной продукции, базирующейся на арендной системе земледелие с целью выполнения государственного заказа стратегических культур.
    Description: This report presents the main issues of land reform and agricultural restructuring in Turkmenistan. The first part of the report focuses on the progress of agrarian reform by providing a chronicle of the main agricultural policies, before presenting an overview of the organizational structure of input and resource supply in agriculture. The main body describes the changes in cropping pattern, and the development of different types of agricultural producers by highlighting their contribution to sectoral development and food security. The study shows that land reforms and agricultural restructuring in Turkmenistan were carried out under the central role of the state. As a result of the progress of agricultural reforms, the total sown area in Turkmenistan expanded by 25 %. However, peasant associations based on the land lease system, remain the main farm category in agricultural production and are assigned the primary task of fulfilling the state order in strategic crops.
    Keywords: P41 ; P47 ; Q15 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; продовольственная политика ; реструктуризация хозяйств ; диверсификация сельского хозяйства ; food policy ; farm restructuring ; agricultural diversification
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Russian
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: Перед агропромышленным комплексом Казахстана стоят кардинальные задачи по устойчивому развитию и наращиванию сельскохозяйственного производства, увеличению выпуска экспортоориентированной, конкурентоспособной продукции и обеспечению продовольственной безопасности страны. Сегодня для решения поставленных задач перед АПК страны принята Государственная программа развития АПК на 2017–2021 годы и внедряются в производство новые Законы «О сельскохозяйственных кооперативах», «О пастбищах» и др. Особое внимание в этих документах уделяется созданию крупных товарных хозяйств на основе кооперации. Анализ современного состояния развития сельского хозяйства в республике показал, что мелкие крестьянские хозяйства, состоящие из одной семьи или из группы людей, слабо оснащенные материально-техническими средствами, в одиночестве без объединений общих сил не в состоянии вести расширенное производство и установить межотраслевые связи в процессе производства и переработки. Эти хозяйства не в состоянии самостоятельно решать проблемы повышения конкурентоспособности производимой ими продукции, внедрения инноваций, поставок безопасных для здоровья населения продуктов питания и лишены возможности получать услуги высококвалифицированных специалистов. Основными сдерживающими факторами развития кооперативного движения в республике являются недостаточные меры государственной поддержки сельского хозяйства, кадрового обеспечения, несовершенство правого законодательства, налогообложения и отсутствие механизмов организации взаимоотношений внутри кооператива. Для реализации поставленных выше задач перед АПК страны, необходимо объединить мелкие крестьянские хозяйства в крупные сельскохозяйственные кооперативы по производству, переработке, хранению, транспортировке и сбыту сельскохозяйственной продукции.
    Description: Kazakhstan's agriculture aims to achieve sustainable development and agricultural production growth, increased production of export and competitive products, and ensure national food security. To implement these tasks, the State Program for Agricultural Development for 2017-2021 has been adopted, and new laws "On agricultural cooperatives", "On pastures", etc. are being introduced. Particular attention is paid to the creation of large farms based on cooperation. The analysis of the current state of agricultural development showed that small peasant farms, consisting of one family or a group of people, poorly equipped with inputs and technical means, cannot expand production and establish inter-industrial links in production and processing. These farms lack capacity to independently address the issues of increasing competitiveness of their products, introduce innovations, supply healthy food, and access high quality services. The main constraining factors in the development of cooperatives in Kazakhstan are insufficient measures of state support of agriculture, personnel provision, imperfect legislation and taxation, and the absence of organizational mechanisms of intra-cooperative linkages. In order to fulfill these tasks, it is necessary to unite small peasant farms to form large agricultural cooperatives in production, processing, storage, transportation and marketing of agricultural products.
    Keywords: P41 ; P47 ; Q15 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; Кооперация ; крестьянские (фермерские) хозяйства ; коллективизация ; реформа ; cooperation ; peasant farms ; collectivization ; reforms ; Kooperation ; kleinbäuerliche Betriebe ; Kollektivierung ; Reformen
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Russian
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  • 47
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO)
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: With the transition to a market economy, there have been fundamental changes in the agriculture of Uzbekistan. At the onset of agricultural reforms, state farms were transformed into public, then into cooperative farms, i.e. shirkats. Finally, after the latter were disagregated, special attention was paid to the development of individual and dehkan farms via introduction of private property. At the same time, inter-farm economic relations formed over a decade had a negative impact on the development of agriculture. Economic relations with processing industries and enterprises became obstacles to the development of agriculture. Processing industries, as well as farms- monopolies did not timely pay for the delivered raw materials, prolonged the timing of product acceptance, set high prices for delivered services, and procured raw inputs at low prices. As a result, this led to the loss of production, increased costs, decreased quality of raw materials, and of course, to deterioration of farm incomes. To respond to this, a number of decrees were adopted. These documents repeatedly noted the need for cooperation between newly-established individual farms, and also discussed its role and importance in the societal development. To realize the above tasks set for the agrarian and industrial sectors of Uzbekistan, it was necessary to unite small farms into larger agricultural cooperatives in production, processing, storage, transportation and marketing activities. The creation of specialized cooperatives will solve a number of socio-economic problems, i.e. first of all, ensure integration of producers and consumers, reduce transaction costs, and reduce marketing channels which lower farm gate prices. The activities that combine efforts of a group of agricultural producers will increase the efficiency of resource use.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; land reform ; shirkat farms ; cooperatives ; individual farms ; dekhkans ; agricultural cooperative
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Russian
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  • 48
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO)
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: This publication highlights the development of livestock sector in Tajikistan. The paper begins with presentation of macroeconomic aspects of agricultural development pointing at the impact of transitional decline on the development of agricultural sector. At present, the share of agricultural sector in GDP is twice less than in 1990. Although, the growth rate of gross agricultural output after 2000 remains high the 1990 levels for a variety of products have not been reached yet. This applies to a variety of animal products. The development of this industry is characterized by imbalances and unbalanced development. The disproportion between livestock and feed resources is growing rapidly. The fodder capacity of summer and winter pastures decreases each year. Pasture land is degraded, and in many places this becomes irreversible. This requires the transfer of livestock to animal housing systems to give pastures the opportunity for natural restoration of green cover. To this end, the author recommends a reduction in unproductive livestock breeds, the conversion of cattle to stable housing by changing breeds, i.e. herd formations by replacing local unproductive breeds with highly productive meat and dairy breeds. In addition the author recommends to expand area under forage crops and to shift to intensive fodder production.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; livestock sector ; pastures ; Tajikistan
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Russian
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: Основная цель данной статьи - представить изменения в хлопковом секторе Таджикистана и роль диверсификации в сельском хозяйстве с момента обретения независимости. В первой части данной статьи представлена информация об изменениях в госрегулировании производства хлопка с момента независимости, включая динамику закупочных цен на хлопок-сырец, а также описание особенностей процесса приватизации хлопкоочистительных заводов. Также представлена картина изменений в основных категориях сельскохозяйственных производителей и их вклад в производство сельскохозяйственной продукции, и дано описание организационных изменений, которые произошли в секторах поставки материалов и производственных ресурсов. В следующей части статьи представлены вопросы государственной политики и меры по продовольственной безопасности по основным сельхозкультурам и их влияние на структуру сельского хозяйства. В этом плане дана оценка недавних реформ в сельскохозяйственном секторе, направленных на диверсификацию производства сельскохозяйственных культур; а также отражены вопросы продовольственной безопасности и экспорта сельхозпродукции на новые рынки.
    Description: The main aim of this report is to present the recent changes in the Tajik cotton sector, and the impact of agricultural diversification on food security and export promotion. The first part provides information about the changes in the state regulation of cotton production, including the dynamics of raw cotton prices, and privatization of ginneries. The second part focuses on the transformation of major categories of agricultural producers, their contribution to agricultural output, as well as related organizational changes and challenges in the input and resource supply sectors. The last section discusses the policy issues and food security concerns that have been influencing the structure of agriculture. In this respect, the report assesses the recent reforms towards diversification of crop production, reflecting on the issues of food security and agricultural exports to new markets.
    Keywords: P41 ; P47 ; Q15 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; продовольственная политика ; диверсификация сельского хозяйства ; экспортный потенциал ; Таджикистан ; food policy ; agricultural diversification ; export potential ; Tajikistan
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Russian
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: В условиях развития глобального экономического кризиса проблемы занятости населения, безработицы и мобильности трудовых ресурсов в Казахстане приобретают все большую актуальность и всегда находятся в центре внимания научной, общественной, политической и хозяйственной деятельности соответствующих ведомств, организаций и предприятий. В кризисный период в целях защиты граждан от безработицы государством была разработана стратегия, которую можно условно охарактеризовать, как «стратегия выживания». Данная стратегия направлена на реализацию государственных программ: создания социальных рабочих мест, переобучения и переподготовки специалистов, и организации молодежной практики. В исследовании проводилось интервью с работниками акиматов, сельскохозяйственных ведомств, сельскими предпринимателями и представителями несельскохозяйственного бизнеса в Южно-Казахстанской области (ЮКО). Основными направлениями развития несельскохозяйственного бизнеса в сельской местности ЮКО являются переработка сельскохозяйственного сырья и продукции, торгово-закупочная деятельность, общественное питание в сельских населенных пунктах (придорожные магазины и кафе) и их бытовое обслуживание, строительство жилых и производственных построек, производство товаров народных промыслов, транспортные услуги. Развитие несельскохозяйственного бизнеса на селе будет содействовать диверсификации хозяйственной деятельности в сельской экономике, расширению источников формирования доходной базы местных бюджетов, повышению устойчивости развития сельских территорий в части расширения масштабов занятости и развития самозанятости сельского населения, а также повышению уровня его жизни.
    Description: As a result of the on-going global economic crisis, issues of employment, unemployment and labor mobility in Kazakhstan are becoming increasingly important and remain central to the scientific, public, political and economic activities of relevant departments, organizations and enterprises. In order to protect citizens from unemployment during the crisis, the state developed what can be described as a "survival strategy". This strategy aims at implementing state programs for the creation of social work places, the training of specialists, and the organization of youth internships. The study is based on interviews with workers from akimats and agricultural departments, rural entrepreneurs, and representatives of non-agricultural business in the South Kazakhstan province (SKP). The main areas of non-agricultural business in rural areas of SKP are processing of agricultural raw materials and products, trading and procurement activities, public catering in rural settlements (roadside shops and cafes) and related services, construction of residential and industrial facilities, handcrafts, and transport services. Non-agricultural business development in rural areas will contribute to the diversification of rural economic activities, expansion of sources of local budget revenues, increased sustainability of rural development via greater employment and self-employment opportunities, as well as raising the living standards of the rural population.
    Keywords: P41 ; J60 ; J68 ; ddc:330 ; Занятость ; несельскохозяйственный бизнес ; сельская местность ; стратегия ; господдержка ; employment ; non-agricultural business ; rural area ; strategy ; state support ; Beschäftigung ; außerlandwirtschafliche Beschäftigung ; ländlicher Raum ; Strategie ; staatliche Unterstützung
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Russian
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: В Казахстане ежегодно государство выделяет образовательные гранты на сельскохозяйственные специальности, однако агропромышленный комплекс (АПК) до сих пор не достаточно обеспечен квалифицированными аграрными кадрами, а сельские районы остаются малопривлекательными для молодых специалистов. Реализуемая государством с 2009 года программа «С дипломом в село» по привлечению молодых кадров в сельскую местность имеет низкую эффективность и охват аграрных специальностей. Развитие современной системы аграрного образования невозможно без анализа изменений внешней среды и влияния различных факторов на конкурентоспособность выпускников. Цель аналитического исследования - анализ мотивации, стремлений и карьерных ожиданий обучающихся аграрного университета и разработка рекомендаций по мотивации, планированию карьеры, повышению трудоустройства выпускников. В процессе исследования применялись общенаучные и статистические методы анализа, приемы сравнений и обобщений, особое место занимает метод анкетного опроса. По результатам исследования определяющими факторами выбора университета и специальности выступают домашние факторы. Среди бакалавров и магистрантов еще присутствуют не определившиеся с выбором профессии, более половины бакалавров не имеют четких карьерных планов, а их карьерные ожидания зачастую завышены. Большинство обучающихся хотят работать в городе, а его основными причинами выступают неудовлетворенность размером будущей зарплаты, экономическими и социально-бытовыми условиями села. Для достижения высокой конкурентоспособности и трудоустройства выпускников аграрных университетов рекомендуется усилить работу по формированию мотивированного контингента обучающихся, оказание помощи в построении карьерных планов бакалавров введением курсов по карьерному планированию, совершенствовать государственные программы занятости молодежи, включить в них больше нужных селу аграрных специальностей, развивать студенческое предпринимательство, практикоориентированное обучение, улучшить социально-бытовые условия села, повышение оплаты аграрного труда, расширение возможностей для карьерного роста молодых специалистов в АПК.
    Description: In Kazakhstan, the state allocates educational grants for agricultural specialties annually, but agriculture lacks qualified experts, and rural areas remain unattractive for young specialists. The 2009 program "With a diploma to the village" seeking to attract young professionals to the countryside has had low success. The modernization of the agricultural education system would be impossible without an analysis of the external environment and various factors influencing the competitiveness of graduates. This study aims to analyze the motivation, aspirations and career expectations of students at agrarian universities and to develop recommendations for career planning and increasing the employment rates of graduates. General scientific and statistical methods were used, based on a student survey. According to the study results, domestic factors determine the choices students make in terms of university and specialty. Among Bachelor and Master students, there are still those who have not yet decided on an eventual profession. Over half of the undergraduate respondents have no clear career plans, and often unrealistic career expectations. The majority of the respondents are interested in urban jobs due to dissatisfaction with rural wage levels and living conditions. To achieve high levels of competitiveness and employment among agricultural university graduates, the following is recommended: improve students' motivation, facilitate the career plans of Bachelor students by introducing career planning courses, strengthen youth employment programs, include more agricultural specialties that are needed in rural areas, develop student entrepreneurship and practice-oriented training, improve rural living conditions, increase rural wages, and expand opportunities for career growth for young specialists in agriculture.
    Keywords: I20 ; I21 ; I23 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Cельскохозяйственное образование ; мотивация ; карьерные ожидания ; agricultural education ; motivation ; career expectations ; Agrarausbildung ; Motivation ; Karriereerwartungen
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2020-04-06
    Description: В период независимого развития в Узбекистане производство пшеницы достигло восьмикратного роста, в то время как ее посевные площади увеличились почти в три раза. Рост валовых показателей не привел к улучшению качества пшеницы и повышению рентабельности ее производства для фермерских хозяйств. Существующая арендная система землепользователя перегружена дополнительными обязательствами для арендаторов, что снижает их мотивацию. При этом надо иметь в виду, что официальная статистика по производству пшеницы не достоверна. Главный вопрос для сельского хозяйства Узбекистана не в том, какая форма организации сельскохозяйственного производства лучше и не в размерах земельных участков, а в механизме закупок сельскохозяйственной продукции для государственных нужд и гарантиях прав собственности для субъектов сельскохозяйственного производства. Реформы в системе обязательного государственного заказа по хлопку и пшенице могли бы повысить стимулы к эффективному землепользованию у фермеров и расширить их возможности по диверсификации производства за счет увеличения посевов альтернативных культур (плодоовощные, кормовые и пр.), и тем самым увеличить экспортный потенциал сельскохозяйственного сектора.
    Description: During the period of independence following the collapse of the Soviet Union, official statistics show that wheat production in Uzbekistan increased eightfold, while the sown area almost tripled. This, however, had no positive impact on either the quality of the wheat or its profitability for the newly established farms. Currently the land tenure system overloads farmers with additional obligations and, thus, further reduces their economic incentives. The main question that needs to be asked, therefore, is how this increase in wheat production came about. Factors that could have led to this are the new organizational form of agricultural production, the change in farm size, the mechanism of state procurement of agricultural output as well as land tenure insecurity for farmers. In addition, one also needs to question the reliability of official statistics on wheat production and the accuracy of this expansion. Reforms in the system of obligatory state production targets in cotton and wheat could increase farmers' incentives for more efficient land use and expand their capacities for crop diversification towards high value crops such as fruits, vegetables and fodder. This would also have a direct effect on the export potential of the agricultural sector.
    Keywords: P41 ; P47 ; Q15 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; продовольственная политика ; система госзаказа ;