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  • 1
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    Tsukuba : AIST ; Nachgewiesen 2013 -
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    URL: Volltext  (kostenfrei)
    Parallel Title: Druckausg.: Directory of geoscience organizations of the world
    Language: English , Japanese
    Note: Text engl., japan
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0943-4771
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Series Statement: International series of monographs on chemistry ...
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    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Boulder, Colo : Condé Nast Publications | San Francisco, Calif : Wired Ventures Ltd | Boulder, Colo : Condé Nast Publ ; 1.1993 -
    ISSN: 1059-1028 , 1078-3148
    Parallel Title: Engl. Ausg. Wired
    Parallel Title: Ab 2011 dt. Ausg. Wired
    Parallel Title: Online-Ausg. Wired
    Parallel Title: Londoner Ausg. Wired
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Lower Hutt : Inst. of Geological and Nuclear Sciences
    Language: English
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0179-0072
    Former Title: Vorg. Report to SCAR on antarctic research activities of Germany (FRG)
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Call number: Z 06.0500
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1824-7741
    Former Title: Vorgänger Geologisch-paläontologische Mitteilungen, Innsbruck
    Language: German , English
    Note: Ersch. unregelmäßig , Beiträge teilweise in Englisch
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 8
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    Rome : Italian National Scientific Commission for Antarctic Research ; 1988/90(1989) nachgewiesen
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Parallel Title: Zugl. einzelne Bd. von WMO
    Former Title: Vorg. World weather watch / Consolidated list of voluntary assistance programme projects approved for circulation
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Unknown
    Amsterdam [u.a.] : North Holland
    ISBN: 0444864253 (U.S.)
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    London : Humphries
    Pages: 2 Bd.
    Language: English
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  • 12
    Unknown
    London : Penguin Books
    ISBN: 9780141985206
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 13
    Parallel Title: 1=10; 2=11 von University of Washington 〈Seattle, Wash.〉 / Department of Meteorology and Climatology: Occasional report
    Language: English
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  • 14
    In: AFCRL Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Office of Aerospace Research, United States Air Force
    In: Technical report / University of Washington, Department of Meteorology and Climatology
    Series Statement: Technical report / University of Washington, Department of Meteorology and Climatology ...
    Language: English
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  • 15
  • 16
    Pages: CD-ROMs
    Language: English
    Note: Systemvoraussetzungen: Minium hardware requirements are: Intel Pentium 133 MHz; 32 MB RAM; 60 MB hard disk space; VGA or compatible graphic card; resolution 640 x 480; 16 colours or greater; Recommended hardware: Intel Pentium III 700 Mhz or greater; 64 MB RAM; 60 MB hard disk space; VGA or compatible graphic card; resolution 1024 x 768; HIColor; The application is operable under Windows 95/98/ME and Windows NT/2000/XP;
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  • 17
    Pages: CD-ROMs
    Former Title: Vorg. Industrial statistics database / 4-digit level of ISIC Code
    Language: English
    Note: Systemvoraussetzungen: Minium hardware requirements are: Intel Pentium 133 MHz; 32 MB RAM; 60 MB hard disk space; VGA or compatible graphic card; resolution 640 x 480; 16 colours or greater
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  • 18
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    München : Spotlight Verlag
    ISSN: 1617-1888
    Language: English
    Note: Ersch. alle zwei Monate, bis 2005: vierteljährl
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  • 19
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    [Edgecumbe, N.Z.] : A. Muller
    Call number: M 15.89146
    Description / Table of Contents: An account of the results of the 2 March 1987 earthquake in the eastern Bay of Plenty and the aftermath's effects on the people and places on the Rangitaiki Plains
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 223 S., , Ill.
    Language: English
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 20
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Garmisch-Partenkirchen : Institut für atmosphärische Umweltforschung der Fraunhofer- Gesellschaft
    Call number: MOP 44829 / Mitte
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 25 S. , graph. Darst.
    Language: English
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 21
    Type of Medium: 11
    Pages: XVI, 1243 S.
    ISBN: 9781862392984
    Language: English
    Note: S. May, R. Kleist, E. Kneller, C. Johnson, and S. Creaney: Global petroleum systems in space and time, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:1-9, doi:10.1144/0070001 --- J. R. Underhill: The GeoControversies debates, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:11-17, doi:10.1144/0070011 --- K. J. W. McCaffrey, D. Hodgetts, J. Howell, D. Hunt, J. Imber, R. R. Jones, M. Tomasso, J. Thurmond, and S. Viseur: Virtual fieldtrips for petroleum geoscientists, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:19-26, doi:10.1144/0070019 --- G. J. Hampson, J. D. Collinson, and P. Gutteridge: Colin Oakman core workshop, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:27-28, doi:10.1144/0070027 --- G. Goffey: Europe overview, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:31-33, doi:10.1144/0070031 --- D. Erratt, G. M. Thomas, N. R. Hartley, R. Musum, P. H. Nicholson, and Y. Spisto: North Sea hydrocarbon systems: some aspects of our evolving insights into a classic hydrocarbon province, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:37-56, doi:10.1144/0070037 --- R. Milton-Worssell, K. Smith, A. McGrandle, J. Watson, and D. Cameron: The search for a Carboniferous petroleum system beneath the Central North Sea, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:57-75, doi:10.1144/0070057 --- P. C. Knutz: Channel structures formed by contour currents and fluid expulsion: significance for Late Neogene development of the central North Sea basin, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:77-94, doi:10.1144/0070077 --- H. I. Petersen, H. P. Nytoft, H. Vosgerau, C. Andersen, J. A. Bojesen-Koefoed, and A. Mathiesen: Source rock quality and maturity and oil types in the NW Danish Central Graben: implications for petroleum prospectivity evaluation in an Upper Jurassic sandstone play area, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:95-111, doi:10.1144/0070095 --- F. Bertello, R. Fantoni, R. Franciosi, V. Gatti, M. Ghielmi, and A. Pugliese: From thrust-and-fold belt to foreland: hydrocarbon occurrences in Italy, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:113-126, doi:10.1144/0070113 --- P. N. Johannessen, K. Dybkjær, C. Andersen, L. Kristensen, J. Hovikoski, and H. Vosgerau: Upper Jurassic reservoir sandstones in the Danish Central Graben: new insights on distribution and depositional environments, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:127-143, doi:10.1144/0070127 --- P. N. Johannessen, L. H. Nielsen, L. Nielsen, I. Møller, M. Pejrup, and T. J. Andersen: Architecture of an Upper Jurassic barrier island sandstone reservoir, Danish Central Graben: implications of a Holocene-Recent analogue from the Wadden Sea, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:145-155, doi:10.1144/0070145 --- R. L. Kieft, C. A.-L. Jackson, G. J. Hampson, and E. Larsen: Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Hugin Formation, Quadrant 15, Norwegian sector, South Viking Graben, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:157-176, doi:10.1144/0070157 --- P. J. Sansom: Reappraisal of the sequence stratigraphy of the Humber Group of the UK Central Graben, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:177-211, doi:10.1144/0070177 --- J. M. Hollywood and R. C. Olson: The Huntington discoveries: efficient exploration in the UK Central North Sea, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:213-223, doi:10.1144/0070213 --- S. Archer, S. Ward, S. Menad, I. Shahim, N. Grant, H. Sloan, and A. Cole: The Jasmine discovery, Central North Sea, UKCS, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:225-243, doi:10.1144/0070225 --- J. M. Rodriguez, G. Pickering, and W. J. Kirk: Prospectivity of the T38 sequence in the Northern Judd Basin, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:245-259, doi:10.1144/0070245 --- F. F. N. Van Hulten: Can stratigraphic plays change the petroleum exploration outlook of the Netherlands?, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:261-275, doi:10.1144/0070261 --- A. Gordon, T. Younis, C. Bernard-Graille, R. Gray, J.-M. Urruty, L. Ben-Brahim, J.-C. Navarre, B. Paternoster, and G. Evers: Laggan; a mature understanding of an undeveloped discovery, more than 20 years old, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:279-297, doi:10.1144/0070279 --- A. J. Witt, S. R. Fowler, R. M. Kjelstadli, L. F. Draper, D. Barr, and J. P. McGarrity: Managing the start-up of a fractured oil reservoir: development of the Clair field, West of Shetland, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:299-313, doi:10.1144/0070299 --- R. Nesbit and K. Overshott: Overcoming multiple uncertainties in a challenging gas development: Chiswick Field UK SNS, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:315-323, doi:10.1144/0070315 --- K. Purvis, K. E. Overshott, J. C. Madgett, and T. Niven: The Ensign enigma: improving well deliverability in a tight gas reservoir, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:325-336, doi:10.1144/0070325 --- J. M. Hampson, S. F. Walden, and C. Bell: Maximizing production and reserves from offshore heavy oil fields using seismic and drilling technology: Alba and Captain Fields, UKNS, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:337-347, doi:10.1144/0070337 --- C. E. Gill and M. Shepherd: Locating the remaining oil in the Nelson Field, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:349-368, doi:10.1144/0070349 --- F. M. Ray, S. J. Pinnock, H. Katamish, and J. B. Turnbull: The Buzzard Field: anatomy of the reservoir from appraisal to production, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:369-386, doi:10.1144/0070369 --- G. R. Brook, J. R. Wardell, S. F. Flanagan, and T. P. Regan: The Scott Field: revitalization of a mature field, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:387-403, doi:10.1144/0070387 --- S. Kape, O. Diaz De Souza, I. Bushnaq, M. Hayes, and I. Turner: Predicting production behaviour from deep HPHT Triassic reservoirs and the impact of sedimentary architecture on recovery, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:405-417, doi:10.1144/0070405 --- J. G. Quin, P. Zweigel, E. Eldholm, O. R. Hansen, K. R. Christoffersen, and A. Zaostrovski: Sedimentology and unexpected pressure decline: the HP/HT Kristin Field, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:419-429, doi:10.1144/0070419 --- R. R. A. Reekie, E. L. Davies, N. J. Hart, A. T. McInally, J. R. Todd, J. R. McAteer, L. Franoux, and E. L. M. Ferguson: An old field in a new landscape: the renaissance of Donan, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:431-450, doi:10.1144/0070431 --- P. F. Worthington: A road map for the identification and recovery of by-passed pay, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:453-462, doi:10.1144/0070453 --- I. L. Fabricius and M. A. Rana: Tilting oil-water contact in the chalk of Tyra Field as interpreted from capillary pressure data, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:463-472, doi:10.1144/0070463 --- M. J. Hampton, H. W. Bailey, and A. D. Jones: A holostratigraphic approach to the chalk of the North Sea Eldfisk Field, Norway, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:473-492, doi:10.1144/0070473 --- R. E. Swarbrick, R. W. Lahann, S. A. O'Connor, and A. J. Mallon: Role of the Chalk in development of deep overpressure in the Central North Sea, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:493-507, doi:10.1144/0070493 --- J.-F. Dutzer, H. Basford, and S. Purves: Investigating fault-sealing potential through fault relative seismic volume analysis, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:509-515, doi:10.1144/0070509 --- E. C. Rushmere, M. Dyce, S. Campbell, and A. J. Hill: 4D acquisition and processing: a North Sea case study on the relative contributions to improved 4D repeatability, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:517-522, doi:10.1144/0070517 --- J. V. Herwanger, C. R. Schiøtt, R. Frederiksen, F. If, O. V. Vejbæk, R. Wold, H. J. Hansen, E. Palmer, and N. Koutsabeloulis: Applying time-lapse seismic methods to reservoir management and field development planning at South Arne, Danish North Sea, Petroleum Geology Conference series, 7:523-535, doi:10.1144/0070523 --- T. Abramovitz, C. Andersen, F. C. Jakobsen, L. Kristensen, and E. Sheldon: 3D seismic mapping and porosity variation of intra-chalk units in the southern Danish North Sea, Petroleum Geology Co , Erschienen: 1 - 2
    Branch Library: CONF
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  • 22
    Edition: Mikrofiche Mikrofiche-Ausg. Washington, DC : US Gov. Print. Off.
    ISSN: 0501-5839 , 0375-7935
    Parallel Title: Einzelne Bd. zugl. Bd. von International Association for Hydraulic Research / Working Group on Ice Forces: State of the art report
    Language: English
    Note: SuDocs-Class.-Nr.: D 103.33/2
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  • 23
    Call number: M 18.91571
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 134 Seiten
    ISSN: 2363-7196
    Series Statement: Global tectonics and metallogeny : special issue Vol. 10/2-4
    detail.hit.classification_display:
    A.3.4.
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Global tectonics and metallogeny
    Language: English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 24
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Bonn : Helmholtz Association ; 2006-
    Associated volumes
    Call number: 3/S 07.0034(2016)
    In: Annual report
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 51 Seiten
    ISSN: 1865-6439 , 1865-6447
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Annual report ... / Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
    Language: English
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  • 25
    In: ZfI-Mitteilungen, [Nr. 69-71]
    Pages: In 3 Bänden
    ISSN: 0323-8776
    Series Statement: ZfI-Mitteilungen [69-71]
    Language: English
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  • 26
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    Praha : Czech Phycological Society
    Series Statement: Czech Phycology Suppl...
    Language: English
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  • 27
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    Praha : Czech Phycological Society ; 7.2007 -
    ISSN: 1802-5439
    Language: English , Czech
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  • 28
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    Stuttgart : Cramer in der Gebr. Borntraeger-Verlagsbuchhandlung ; 1.1962 -
    ISSN: 0078-2238
    Parallel Title: 39=1; 45=2; 53=3; 54=4 von Proceedings / Symposium on Recent and Fossil Marine Diatoms
    Parallel Title: 64=5 von Proceedings of the ... Symposium on Recent and Fossil Diatoms
    Parallel Title: 21=1; 31=2; 73=3 von Diatomaceae
    Parallel Title: 42=1; 56=2 von Verhandlungen / ... Internationales Desmidiadensymposium
    Parallel Title: 95=2 von Proceedings of the ... International Chrysophyte Symposium
    Parallel Title: 71=3 von Proceedings of the International Association of Bryologists Taxonomic Workshop Meeting
    Language: German , English
    Note: Ersch. unregelmäßig
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  • 29
    Former Title: Vorg. Report to SCAR on antarctic scientific activities for the years ... and planned program for
    Language: English
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  • 30
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1864-6123 , 2190-7072
    Former Title: Vorg. Countdown
    Language: German , English
    Note: Ersch. vierteljährl.
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  • 31
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Leiden : Nijhoff ; 1.2009 -
    Call number: IASS 17.92082
    Type of Medium: Monograph non-lending collection
    ISSN: 1876-8814
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1755-9030
    Language: English
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  • 33
    Unknown
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISBN: 0444418830
    Language: English
    Note: 1 (1976) - 8 (2003)
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  • 34
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    Zurich : PERMOS ; Nachgewiesen 2000 -
    ISSN: 2296-6145
    Language: English
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  • 35
  • 36
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    Chicago: University of Chicago Press | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-22
    Description: 9-ending prices, which comprise between 40%–95% of retail prices, are popular because shoppers perceive them as being low. We study whether this belief is justified using scanner price-data with over 98-million observations from a large US grocery-chain. We find that 9-ending prices are higher than non 9-ending prices, by as much as 18%. Two factors explain why shoppers believe, mistakenly, that 9-ending prices are low. First, we find that among sale-prices, 9-ending prices are indeed lower than non 9-ending prices, giving 9-ending prices an aura of being low. Second, at first, 9-ending prices were indeed lower than other prices. Shoppers, therefore, learned to associate 9-endings with low prices. Over time, however, 9-ending prices rose substantially, which shoppers failed to notice, because the continuous use of 9-ending prices for promoting deep price cuts draws shoppers’ attention to them, and helps to maintain-and-preserve the image of 9-ending prices as bargain prices.
    Description: Special Issue on Behavioral Pricing
    Keywords: M30 ; M31 ; L11 ; L16 ; L81 ; D12 ; D22 ; D40 ; D90 ; D91 ; E31 ; ddc:330 ; Behavioral Pricing ; Psychological Prices ; Price Perception ; Image Effect ; 9-Ending Prices ; Price Points ; Regular Prices ; Sale Prices
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 37
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-29
    Description: We document an asymmetry in the rigidity of 9-ending prices relative to non-9-ending prices. Consumers have difficulty noticing higher prices if they are 9-ending, or noticing price-increases if the new prices are 9-ending, because 9-endings are used as a signal for low prices. Price setters respond strategically to the consumer-heuristic by setting 9-ending prices more often after price-increases than after price-decreases. 9-ending prices, therefore, remain 9-ending more often after price-increases than after price-decreases, leading to asymmetric rigidity: 9-ending prices are more rigid upward than downward. These findings hold for both transaction-prices and regular-prices, and for both inflation and no-inflation periods.
    Keywords: L16 ; C91 ; E31 ; C93 ; D80 ; M31 ; ddc:330 ; Asymmetric Price Adjustment ; Sticky/Rigid Prices ; 9-Ending Prices ; Psychological Prices ; Price Points ; Regular/Sale Prices
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2019-11-23
    Description: This open access book addresses an urgent issue on which little organized information exists. It reflects experience in Africa but is highly relevant to other fragile states as well. - Constantine Michalopoulos, John Hopkins University, USA and former Director of Economic Policy and Co-ordination at the World Bank. Fragile countries face a triple data challenge. Up-to-date information is needed to deal with rapidly changing circumstances and to design adequate responses. Yet, fragile countries are among the most data deprived, while collecting new information in such circumstances is very challenging. This open access book presents innovations in data collection developed with decision makers in fragile countries in mind. Looking at innovations in Africa from mobile phone surveys monitoring the Ebola crisis, to tracking displaced people in Mali, this collection highlights the challenges in data collection researchers face and how they can be overcome.
    Keywords: ddc:320 ; Data collection ; Fragile states ; Development economics ; Economic development ; African economics ; African innovations ; Mobile phone surveys ; Rapid emergency response survey ; Displaced people ; Central African Republic ; Geo-spatial sampling ; Rapid consumption surveys ; Vulnerable populations
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019-12-20
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This data set includes the results of digital image correlation of ten brittle-viscous experiments on crustal extension and four benchmark experiments performed at the Tectonic Modelling Lab of the University of Bern (UB). The experiments demonstrate the differences in rift development in orthogonal versus rotation extension. Detailed descriptions of the experiments and monitoring techniques can be found in Zwaan et al. (2019) to which this data set is supplementary. Additional background information concerning the general modelling approach are available in Zwaan et al. (2016).. The data presented here consist of movies displaying digital image correlation (DIC) derived surface and internal displacement fields as well as profiles of the lateral cumulative surface displacements.Digital photographs of the experimental surface and digital image cross section of the computed CT-scans were analyzed with DIC (Adam et al., 2005, 2013) techniques to quantify displacements in the image plane at high precision (〈0.1 mm). DIC was undertaken with the software DaVis 8.0 (LaVision) applying 2D-DIC (FFT-legacy) multipass processing with a final interrogation window size of 32x32 (CT: 12x12) pixels and 50% (CT: 25%) overlap.
    Keywords: analogue models of geologic processes ; EPOS ; Multi-scale laboratories ; analogue modelling results ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 DATA ANALYSIS AND VISUALIZATION ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH ; tectonic setting 〉 extended terrane setting 〉 continental rift setting ; tectonic process 〉 continental_breakup 〉 rifting ; rift valley ; depression ; Silicon/Silly putty/PDMS ; Sand 〉 Quartz Sand ; Sand 〉 Corundum Sand ; Extension box ; Digital Image Correlation (DIC) / Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) 〉 StrainMaster (La Vision GmbH) ; X-ray computed tomographic scanner (CT-scan) ; SLR camera ; Surface image
    Language: English
    Type: Dataset , Dataset
    Format: 3 Files
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  • 40
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-12-17
    Description: We show that in a exogenous growth model with Epstein-Zin (1989, 1991) recursive preferences calibrated to Bulgarian data under the progressive taxation regime (1993-2007), the economy exhibits equilibrium indeterminacy. These results are in line with the findings in Benhabib and Farmer (1994, 1996) and Farmer (1999). Also, the fi ndings in this paper are in contrast to Guo and Lansing (1988) who argue that progressive taxation works as an automatic stabilizer. In contrast, under the flat tax regime (2008-16), the same economy calibrated to Bulgarian data now displays saddle-path stability. The decrease in the average effective tax rate addresses the indeterminacy issue and eliminates the "sink" dynamics.
    Keywords: H22 ; J46 ; ddc:330 ; progressive taxation ; equilibrium (in)determinacy ; Epstein-Zin preferences ; Bulgaria
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 41
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2020-01-10
    Description: This article examines the effect of Aid for Trade (AfT) flows on services export diversification in recipient-countries. The empirical analysis has relied on a sample of 100 recipient-countries (of which 31 Least developed countries – LDCs) over the period 2002-2014 and used the two-step system Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) approach. It shows that total AfT flows always exert a positive effect on services export diversification over the full sample, with the magnitude of this positive effect being higher for less advanced countries such as LDCs than for relatively advanced economies. This finding also applies to the effect of the cumulated AfT flows on services export diversification. However, we find that the components of total AfT flows - namely AfT for services sectors and AfT for non-services sectors - exert a higher positive effect on services diversification in less advanced countries, notably LDCs than in relatively advanced countries. Specifically, for countries whose real per capita income exceed a certain level, these two types of capital inflows are associated with greater services export concentration. These findings have important policy implications for developing countries and notably the poorest countries among them.
    Keywords: F1 ; F14 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; Aid for Trade ; Services Export Diversification
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2020-01-10
    Description: Apart from the traditional contribution of geographers to the study of population, this particular thesis attempts to divert the emphasis of geographical enquiry towards the examination of how particular innovations affect the population distribution and the organization of human society. It deals specifically with questions concerning the demographic, social and economic impact of population mobility on both sending in receiving areas. It attempts to shed light on the different variables that work to produce a selective type of population mobility within a particular socio—economic set-up. Although various aspects of population mobility have been studied in some detail during the present decade, no attempt has been made, however, towards a concrete presentation of its multiple causes and its socio-economic impact on the areas and people that are left behind. Far from assuming complete coverage of all interrelated fields of study we attempt here to draw attention t0 the expected socio-economic repercussions of population mobility as induced by a particular factor, namely agricultural mechanization. Certain limitations‚ however, have made it difficult to deal with every aspect of population mobility in the Sudan.
    Description: DFG, SUB Göttingen
    Description: thesis
    Keywords: Wanderungen {Entwicklungsländerforschung} ; Wirtschaft {Entwicklungsländerforschung} ; Sudan {Geographie} ; Mechanisierung ; Landwirtschaft ; Mobilität ; Landwirtschaft ; Mechanisierung ; Mobilität ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: English
    Type: monograph_digi
    Format: V, 287 Seiten, 2 Karten
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  • 43
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    London: Taylor & Francis | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: This article revisits the effects of life expectancy (LE) on economic growth (IPC) reported in previous research. Maximum likelihhod (ML) estimates are obtained based on the monotonic nonlinear flexible Box-Cox power transformation regression model. This variance stabilizing model, unlike the a priori restrictive nested log and linear forms, is a parametrically richer flexible functional form for transforming the dependent and independent variables separately with different power parameters. The conditional life expectancy elasticity of income estimates are found to vary across fitted models and the more robust flexible Box-Cox power model outperforms the restrictive linear and log specifications fitted in past work. Contrary to past findings indicating large negative and highly elastic (statistically significant) life expectancy (LE) elasticity of income (INC), new results from the preferred fully flexible Box-Cox model incorporating the nonlinear effect yield a much smaller negative (statistically significant) and inelastic life expectancy elasticity of income estimate. Study explores some policy options for enhancing economic growth during periods of high or rising life expectancy.
    Description: This is the pre-print of the published article. Refer to the Applied Economics Letters for the published version of this work.
    Keywords: I1 ; O1 ; ddc:330 ; flexible Box-Cox transformation ; non-linearity ; economic growth ; elasticity
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 44
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    Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: We decompose permanent earnings risk into contributions from hours and wage shocks. To distinguish between hours shocks, modeled as innovations to the marginal disutility of work, and labor supply reactions to wage shocks we formulate a life-cycle model of consumption and labor supply. Both permanent wage and hours shocks are important to explain earnings risk, but wage shocks have greater relevance. Progressive taxation strongly attenuates cross-sectional earnings risk, its life-cycle insurance impact is much smaller. At the mean, a positive hours shock of one standard deviation raises life-time income by 10%, while a similar wage shock raises it by 12%.
    Keywords: D31 ; J22 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Earnings Risk ; Wage Risk ; Labor Supply ; Progressive Taxation ; Consumption Insurance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: Abstract
    Description: During the 2018 “Mackenzie Delta Permafrost Field Campaign” (mCan2018), a test campaign within the “Modular Observation solutions for Earth Systems” (MOSES) program, ambient seismic noise recordings at the sea bottom were acquired along two 300 m long transects from the shoreline to shallow marine area close to Tuktoyaktuk Island (Canada). In total, 21 measurements were taken. Raw data is provided in proprietary “Cube” format and standard mseed format.
    Description: Other
    Description: The Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam (GIPP) provides field instruments for (temporary) seismological studies (both controlled source and earthquake seismology) and for magnetotelluric (electromagnetic) experiments. The GIPP is operated by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The instrument facility is open for academic use. Instrument applications are evaluated and ranked by an external steering board. See Haberland and Ritter (2016) and https://www.gfz-potsdam.de/gipp for more information.
    Keywords: MOSES ; Modular Observation solutions for Earth Systems ; submarine permafrost ; ambient seismic noise ; H/V measurements ; Mackenzie Delta ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 CRYOSPHERE 〉 FROZEN GROUND 〉 PERMAFROST ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 OCEANS 〉 MARINE GEOPHYSICS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH ; In Situ Land-based Platforms 〉 GEOPHYSICAL STATIONS/NETWORKS 〉 SEISMOLOGICAL STATIONS ; 201899 ; Modular Observation solutions for Earth Systems (MOSES)
    Language: English
    Type: Dataset , temporary seismological network
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  • 46
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    Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: This paper studies the welfare effects of wholesale price discrimination between downstream firms operating under different regulatory systems. I model a monopolistic intermediate good market in which production cost differences between downstream firms may be due to regulatory or technological asymmetries. Price discrimination reduces regulatory distortions but may lower productive efficiency. Therefore, price discrimination increases welfare if regulation is the dominant source of cost differences. This provides a novel welfare rationale for exempting wholesale markets from the recent ban on geo-blocking in the EU.
    Keywords: D43 ; L11 ; L42 ; ddc:330 ; Price discrimination ; Intermediate good markets ; International price discrimination ; Geo-blocking
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 47
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    Leiden: Brill | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: The Gnassingbé clan has ruled the country since 1967. The demand for political alternance, initiated by institutional and electoral reforms, constituted the major contentious issue between the government and the challengers of the Gnassingbé regime throughout the survey period. An alliance of opposition parties and civil society groups organized peaceful demonstrations in opposition to the regime, which were often violently suppressed. Civil society organizations and representatives of the Christian church supported the demands of the opposition. The legislative elections of 20 December 2018, boycotted by the major opposition parties, resulted in an easy victory of the ruling party. The local elections, crucial for democratization at the grass-roots, but postponed time and again since 1987, were again postponed in December 2018 sine die. The human rights record of the government has improved but remains poor. Despite undeniable improvements to the framework and appearance of the regime's key institutions during the review period, democracy remains far from complete. However, the international community, notably Togo’s African peers, the AU and ECOWAS, followed a ‘laissez-faire’ approach in the interests of regional stability and their national interests in dealing with Togo. Economic growth remained stable at about 5% per annum. Public investment in infrastructure (e.g. roads, harbour) and increases in agricultural productivity, notably of export crops, had been the key drivers of economic growth. However, growth remains vulnerable to external shocks and the climate and has not been inclusive. Positive growth was overshadowed by increasing inter-personal and regional inequality as well as an increase in extreme poverty. Moreover, money-laundering, illegal money transfers and trafficking grew alarmingly. The business climate improved considerably nevertheless.
    Description: Author’s extended and up-dated version of ‘BTI 2020 – Togo Country Report’ (forthcoming)
    Description: RÉSUMÉ: Le clan Gnassingbé dirige le pays depuis 1967. La demande d'alternance politique, initiée par des réformes institutionnelles et électorales, a constitué le principal différend entre le gouvernement et les rivaux du régime de Gnassingbé tout au long de la période d'enquête. Une alliance de partis d'opposition et de groupes de la société civile a organisé des manifestations pacifiques contre le régime, qui ont souvent été réprimées avec violence. Les organisations de la société civile et les représentants de l'église chrétienne ont soutenu les revendications de l'opposition. Les élections législatives du 20 décembre 2018, boycottées par les principaux partis de l'opposition, ont permis une victoire facile du parti au pouvoir. Les élections locales, cruciales pour la démocratisation à la base, mais reportées à plusieurs reprises depuis 1987, ont été à nouveau reportées en décembre 2018 sine die. Le bilan du gouvernement en matière de droits de l'homme s'est amélioré mais reste médiocre. Malgré des améliorations indéniables du cadre et de l’apparence des principales institutions du régime au cours de la période considérée, la démocratie est loin d’être achevée. Cependant, la communauté internationale, notamment ses homologues africains du Togo, l’UA et la CEDEAO, a adopté une approche de «laisser-faire» dans l’intérêt de la stabilité régionale et de leurs intérêts nationaux face au Togo. La croissance économique est restée stable à environ 5% par an. Les investissements publics dans les infrastructures (par exemple, les routes et les ports) et l’augmentation de la productivité agricole, notamment des cultures d’exportation, ont été les principaux moteurs de la croissance économique. Cependant, la croissance reste vulnérable aux chocs extérieurs et au climat et n’a pas été inclusive. La croissance positive a été éclipsée par l'augmentation des inégalités interpersonnelles et régionales ainsi que par l'augmentation de l'extrême pauvreté. En outre, le blanchiment d’argent, les transferts d’argent illégal et le trafic se sont multipliés de manière alarmante. Le climat des affaires s’est néanmoins considérablement amélioré. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Der Gnassingbé-Clan hat das Land seit 1967 regiert. Die Forderungen nach institutionellen und Wahlrechtreformen sowie nach politischem Wandel bildeten während des Erhebungszeitraums das umstrittenste Thema zwischen der Regierung und den Herausforderern des Gnassingbé-Regimes. Ein Bündnis von Oppositionsparteien und zivilgesellschaftlichen Gruppen organisierte friedliche Demonstrationen gegen das Regime, die oft gewaltsam unterdrückt wurden. Zivilgesellschaftliche Organisationen und Vertreter der christlichen Kirche unterstützten die Forderungen der Opposition. Die Parlamentswahlen vom 20. Dezember 2018, die von den großen Oppositionsparteien boykottiert wurden, führten zu einem leichten Sieg der Regierungspartei. Die für die Demokratisierung an der Basis entscheidenden Kommunalwahlen, die seit 1987 immer wieder verschoben wurden, wurden im Dezember 2018 erneut auf unbestimmte Zeit verschoben. Die Menschenrechtsbilanz der Regierung hat sich verbessert, ist aber nach wie vor schlecht. Trotz unbestreitbarer Verbesserungen der Rahmenbedingungen und des Erscheinungsbildes der wichtigsten Institutionen des Regimes im Überprüfungszeitraum ist die Demokratisierung bei weitem nicht vollständig. Die internationale Gemeinschaft, insbesondere die afrikanischen peers des togosichen Präsidenten, die AU und die ECOWAS, verfolgten jedoch einen "Laissez-faire" -Ansatz im Interesse der regionalen Stabilität und ihrer nationalen Interessen im Umgang mit Togo. Das Wirtschaftswachstum blieb stabil bei etwa 5% pro Jahr. Öffentliche Investitionen in die Infrastruktur (z. B. Straßen, Häfen) und die Steigerung der landwirtschaftlichen Produktivität, insbesondere von Exportkulturen, waren die Hauptfaktoren des Wirtschaftswachstums. Das Wachstum bleibt jedoch anfällig für externe Schocks und das Wachstum war nicht inklusiv. Das positive Wachstum wurde durch die zunehmende Ungleichheit zwischen Personen und Regionen sowie durch die Zunahme extremer Armut überschattet. Darüber hinaus nahmen Geldwäsche, illegale Geldüberweisungen und Menschenhandel alarmierend zu. Das Geschäftsklima hat sich dennoch deutlich verbessert.
    Keywords: A14 ; F35 ; N97 ; O17 ; O55 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; Togo ; West Africa ; ECOWAS ; WAEMU ; Democratization ; Good Governance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:bookPart
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: This paper compares two methods for meta-analysis: fixed-effect models and random- effects models. Both models are applied to pass-through rates of excise taxes on alcohol beverages. Using a sample of estimates from 30 primary studies, weighted means are first reported for each method and compared against a fully- passed tax or rate of unity. Dispersion and heterogeneity statistics are used to assess the performance of each method. Second, means and dispersion statistics are reported by subgroups for country source; beverage (beer, wine-spirits); and published status. Third, tests are conducted forpublication selection bias using funnel plots and regression asymmetry tests. Fourth, threeprocedures are undertaken to reduce selection bias: trim-and-fill; cumulative meta-analysis; and meta-regressions. Based on a variety of tests and procedures, three conclusions arereached. First, a random-effects model is more appropriate for these data, reflecting diverse estimates of pass-through rates. Second, pass-through rates are approximately unity regardless of beverage. Third, greater attention needs to be given to choice of model for meta-analysis in economics.
    Keywords: C18 ; C52 ; H21 ; H22 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; meta-analysis ; fixed-effects ; random-effects ; publication bias ; excise taxes ; pass-through rate ; alcohol
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 49
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    Hamburg: University of Hamburg, Chair of International Economics
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: This paper aims to revisit the relationship between intangible capital and labour productivity growth using the largest, up-to-date macro database (2000-2015) available to corroborate the econometric findings of earlier work and to generate novel econometric evidence by accounting for times of crisis (2008-2013) and economic recovery (2014-2015). To achieve these aims, this paper employs a cross-country growth accounting econometric estimation approach using the largest, up-to-date database available encompassing 16 EU countries over the time-period 2000-2015. The paper accounts for times of crisis (2008-2013) and of economic recovery (2014-2015). It separately estimates the contribution of three distinct dimensions of intangible capital: i) computerized information, ii) innovative property and iii) economic competencies. First, when accounting for intangibles, the paper finds that these have become the dominant source of labour productivity growth in the EU, explaining up to 66 percent of growth. Second, when accounting for times of crisis (2008-2013), in contrast to tangible capital, the paper detects a solid positive relationship between intangibles and labour productivity growth. Third, when accounting for the economic recovery (2014-2015), the paper finds a highly significant and remarkably strong relationship between intangible capital and labour productivity growth. This paper corroborates the importance of intangibles for labour productivity growth and thereby underlines the necessity to incorporate intangibles into today's national accounting frameworks in order to correctly depict the levels of capital investment being made in European economies. These levels are significantly higher than is currently reflected in official statistics.
    Keywords: C23 ; G01 ; O34 ; O47 ; O52 ; ddc:330 ; intangible capital ; labour productivity growth ; crisis ; recovery ; European Union
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: This study revisits and tests empirically the Portfolio Theory of Inflation (PTI), which analyzes how the effectiveness of macroeconomic policy in open and globally financially integrated economies is influenced by global investor decisions (Bossone, The portfolio theory of inflation and policy (in)effectiveness, 2019). The PTI shows that when an economy is heavily indebted and is perceived by the market to be poorly credible, investors hold it to a tighter intertemporal budget constraint and policies aimed to stimulate output growth dissipate into domestic currency depreciation and higher inflation, with limited or no impact on output, or with lower output and lower inflation. On the other hand, markets afford highly credible economies much greater space for effective and noninflationary macro policies. The study leads to a very basic advice: policymakers of an internationally highly integrated economy should keep public liabilities (the stock of both central bank money and public debt) at low levels: the larger the liabilities, the higher the degree of surrender of the country's national policy sovereignty to external forces and interests.
    Keywords: E31 ; E4 ; E5 ; E62 ; F31 ; G15 ; H3 ; ddc:330 ; credibility ; exchange rate ; financial integration ; fiscal and monetary policies ; global investor(s) ; inflation ; intertemporal budget constraint ; policy effectiveness ; public debt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 51
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    Geounion Alfred-Wegener-Stiftung, Potsdam
    Publication Date: 2020-01-11
    Description: This volume contains the program, abstracts and field guides of the 25th Latin-American Colloquium of Geosciences (LAC). In the tradition of the holistic approach of Alexander von Humboldt in approaching complex research problems, the LAC celebrates transdisciplinary milestones achieved through German-Latin American cooperation in the geosciences. It also highlights the results of individual research projects and identify future avenues of cooperation. The following topics are central to the LAC: Ocean-continent transition, Continental growth and modification, Earth-surface processes and their climatic and tectonic forcings. The main topics of the LAC are complemented by contributions regarding methodological and technical advances, coIlection-based and paleo-environmental research, and resource formation. The scientific goal of the LAC is at the heart of a deeper understanding of the interactions between solid earth, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere with a focus on Latin America. The forcing factors governing the Earth's systems also involve the interaction with humankind.
    Description: conference
    Keywords: VEX 000 ; VEW 000 ; Mittelamerika und Karibischer Raum {Geologie} ; Lateinamerika ; Geologie ; Südamerika {Geologie} ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: English
    Type: anthology , publishedVersion
    Format: 106
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: Any energy efficiency impact evaluation can be done from different analytical perspectives, e.g. the investor/end-user perspective, program administrator perspective or the societal perspective. COMBI applies the "societal perspective", as this is most relevant for policy-making. COMBI draws on a reference scenario until the year 2030 including existing (partially already ambitious) policies. By modelling 21 sets of "energy efficiency improvement" (EEI) actions, a second efficiency scenario was modelled amounting to additional energy savings of around 8% p.a. in 2030, that is comparable to the EUCO+33 to EUCO+35 scenario. This D2.7 quantification report summarises the quantification approaches applied in the COMBI project and main project findings. It therefore draws on other COMBI reports that contain this information in greater detail in order to summarise quantifications. The report is structured in three main sections: 1. The COMBI approach and methods, explaining key methodological approaches both for individual impact quantifications and for the aggregation of impacts 2. Quantification results, giving an overview on main figures of quantified indicators and 3. Insights from cross-impact analysis, which gives a comparison between monetised impacts and presents their use for Cost-Benefit calculations in the COMBI online tool.
    Keywords: ddc:320
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2020-01-14
    Description: This doctoral research is located in the branch of sustainability sciences that has the realisation of sustainable development as its core subject of research. The most broadly accepted notion of sustainable development is that which evolves along the resolutions, declarations, and reports from international processes in the framework of the United Nations (UN). The consensual outputs from such processes feature global-generalised and context-free perspectives. However, implementation requires action at diverse and context-rich local levels as well. Moreover, while in such UN processes national states are the only contractual parties, it is increasingly recognised that other ("nonstate") actors are crucial to sustainability. The research presented here places the attention on bottom-up initiatives that are advancing innovative ways to tackle universal access to clean energy and to strengthen small-scale family farmers. This means, the focus is on bottom-up initiatives advancing local implementation of global sustainability targets, more precisely, targets that make part of the Sustainable Development Goals two and seven (SDG 2 and SDG7). The research asks how such bottom-up initiatives can contribute to the diffusion of sustainability innovations, thereby also contributing to social change.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: doctoralthesis , doc-type:doctoralThesis
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2020-01-14
    Description: The COMBI project aimed at quantifying the multiple non-energy benefits of energy efficiency in the EU-28 area and incorporate those multiple impacts into decision-support frameworks for policy-making. Therefore, all multiple impacts of energy efficiency are analysed from an overall societal view in the project. The COMBI policy recommendations resulting from the evaluation outcomes are presented in this report. COMBI draws on a reference scenario until the year 2030 including existing policies. By modelling 21 sets of "energy efficiency improvement" (EEI) actions, a second efficiency scenario was modelled amounting to additional energy savings of around 8% p.a. in 2030, and that is comparable to the EUCO+33 to EUCO+35 scenario. All figures quantified by COMBI relate to additional values, i.e. additional impacts resulting from additional EEI actions beyond the reference scenario as a consequence of additional policies. The project quantified in total 31 individual impact indicators with appropriate state-of-the-art models.
    Keywords: ddc:320
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 55
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    Berlin: Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre (arqus)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: This paper examines the effect of tax incentives in the form of bonus depreciation on the quality of investment. Using the expiration of tax incentives via bonus depreciation in East Germany and a representative panel of West German establishments, we show that bonus depreciation significantly lowers the quality of investment. The average quality of investments, measured by the responsiveness of future sales to current investment, reduces by 22.6-34.6%. This adverse effect of tax subsidies is greater for jurisdictions with higher tax rates as well as for large or high-productivity firms. Overall, while increasing investment quantity, as shown by prior literature, tax incentives such as bonus depreciation substantially reduce the quality of investments.
    Keywords: G11 ; H25 ; H32 ; M41 ; ddc:330 ; bonus depreciation ; tax incentive ; investment incentive ; investment quality
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: The present report reviews literature from throughout the world on methods and results of bioaerosol investigations in and around agricultural livestock farming and summarises the most important points. The global trend towards intensification and industrialisation of animal production, with regional concentration of livestock facilities and increasing numbers of animals and greater stock densities, has led to an increase in bioaerosol emissions to the environment in certain areas and to increasing concern about health impairment of the population in the vicinity. The main sources of the bioaerosols are the animals and their faeces, the litter and feed. If the particles become airborne, they can be emitted from the stables into the environment. Hundreds of different viruses, bacteria and moulds have been detected in agricultural livestock farming worldwide. The bacterial group of the Staphylococcaceae appears to be most suitable for animal husbandry as a specific indicator or guiding parameter. Bioaerosols can be measured online with particle spectrometers and offline using classical methods, i.e. sampling on site with subsequent evaluation by means of culture-based or molecular biological methods in the laboratory. The classical detection methods are best suited to the complexity of bioaerosols in agricultural livestock farming. The sampling of bioaerosols should be carried out as far as possible using standardised systems that have high physical and biological collection efficiency, in order to ensure comparability of the data. The selection of a suitable collection system should primarily depend on the issue in question. After the bioaerosols have been collected in a sample, evaluation is usually carried out via cultivation and / or various biochemical and molecular biological methods. Especially the latter, in combination with the classical culture-based methods, enable a detailed insight into the composition of bioaerosols. However, further standardisation of the methods for bioaerosols is necessary here. Endotoxins, on the other hand, are predominantly detected using the LAL test, although this test remains relatively susceptible to disturbances. Most data on bioaerosol measurements in agricultural livestock farming available for this review are from the USA and Germany. Here, the concentrations of bacteria, moulds and endotoxins were measured in the stalls of pigs, cattle and chickens. The highest concentrations of airborne bacteria were found in stalls for chickens, followed by turkeys, ducks, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, horses and rabbits, with the different husbandry and production stages having a significant influence. Emission factors published for airborne microorganisms also differ in part considerably depending on the animal species and the type of keeping, also as a result of different sampling conditions, collection methods and different methods for determination of the concentrations. The concentrations of the airborne bacteria in livestock during the day and night can deviate by a factor of ten. The deviation may further increase by a factor of 1000 if emission factors are calculated on the basis of the specific volumetric flow rates. This must be taken into account in the calculation of annual average values of emission factors. During transportation, i.e. the transport of bioaerosols via the air, the microorganisms are largely exposed to wind and weather. The extent to which they are carried is primarily dependent on two parameters: the tenacity, i.e. the ability to survive the airborne condition, and the size and composition of the bioaerosol particles, i.e. how quickly they sediment. How long microorganisms are viable in the air is dependent on very many factors and, due to the relatively unsuitable test systems used in the past, this aspect has not been studied sufficiently. Regarding particle size, most of the airborne microorganisms found in livestock farming have a significantly larger particle size or mass fraction than would be expected from the size of the individual cells of the organisms. 30% to 70% of the bacteria can be found in mass fractions larger than PM10, whereby the distribution of the different bioaerosol components can vary considerably and is not uniformly correlated with the distribution of the dust fractions. The immission concentrations of bioaerosols exponentially decrease with the distance from the emission source, mainly depending on the particle size and meteorological conditions. Instead of carrying out complex measurements, the spread of bioaerosols can also be simulated with computer models. Up to now, however, these models have often overestimated the emissions, since night reduction, particle size distributions and death rates of the microorganisms are still not taken into account. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:630 ; Bioaerosols ; agriculture ; animal husbandry ; emissions ; review ; methods
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 57
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    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Research Training Group (RTG) 1666 - GlobalFood
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: It is often assumed that voluntary sustainability standards - such as Fairtrade - could not only improve the socioeconomic wellbeing of smallholder farmers in developing countries but could also help to reduce negative health and environmental impacts of agricultural production. The empirical evidence is thin, as most previous studies on the impact of sustainability standards only focused on economic indicators, such as prices, yields, and incomes. Here, we argue that Fairtrade and other sustainability standards can affect agrochemical input use through various mechanisms with possible positive and negative effects. We use data from farmers and rural workers in Cote d'Ivoire to analyze effects of Fairtrade certification on fertilizer and pesticide use, as well as on human health and environmental toxicity. Fairtrade increases chemical input quantities and aggregated levels of toxicity. Nevertheless, Fairtrade reduces the incidence of pesticide-related acute health symptoms among farmers and workers. Certified cooperatives are more likely to offer training and other services related to the safe handling of pesticides and occupational health, which can reduce negative externalities in spite of higher input quantities. These results suggest that simplistic assumptions about the health and environmental effects of sustainability standards may be inappropriate.
    Keywords: O12 ; Q01 ; Q12 ; Q13 ; ddc:330 ; Agrochemicals ; certification ; Fairtrade ; pesticides ; sustainability standards ; toxicity
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Durham, NC: Duke University, Center for the History of Political Economy (CHOPE)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: During the last years of his life, the mathematician Karl Menger worked on a biography of his father, the economist and founder of the Austrian School of Economics, Carl Menger. The younger Menger never finished the work. While working in the Menger collections at Duke University's David M. Rubenstein Rare Book and Manuscript Library, we discovered draft chapters of the biography, a valuable source of information given that relatively little is known about Carl Menger's life nearly a hundred years after his death. The unfinished biography covers Carl Menger's family background and his life through early 1889. In this article, we discuss the biography and the most valuable new insights it provides into Carl Menger's life, including Carl Menger's family, his childhood, his student years, his time working as a journalist and newspaper editor, his early scientific career, and his relationship with Crown Prince Rudolf.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Carl Menger ; Karl Menger ; Austrian Economics ; Liberalism in Austria ; Crown Prince Rudolf ; Anton Menger
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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    Berlin: Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht Berlin, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: This paper discusses the development of Euroscepticism in France and the underlying actors and causes. First, the literature review presents a selection of distinct classifications, actors and sources for the analysis. Thus, the distinction between hard and soft Euroscepticism as well as diffuse and specific support for European integration guides the interpretation of Eurobarometer data, which show that there has been an actual increase of French discontent towards the European project since the early 1990s. The Front National represents the main actor within the Eurosceptic landscape. A socio-demographic analysis of the electorate describes the average frontiste likely to be a male, belonging to a household with lower levels of income and education, and besides immigration and security, ranking identity and national sovereignty very highly on their list of concerns. Eventually, the sources for rising Euroscepticism in France are examined in light of socio-economic, cultural and institutional factors. Once more, Eurobarometer data reveal that while economic concerns tend to fuel EU-critical positions rather than fundamental opposition, cultural aspects like national identity, immigration and national security should also be deemed as a crucial source of Euroscepticism. Institutional dissatisfaction at the national and European level -particularly related to the mismanagement of the financial and sovereign debt crisis as well as the migration crisis - has also contributed to the amplification of EU-critical attitudes.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Euroscepticism ; France ; Front National ; Rassemblement National ; Euro Crisis ; Migration Crisis
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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    Berlin: Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht Berlin, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: The development of renewable energy sources is central to the goal of gaining independence from conventional fossil fuels and achieving a sustainable energy supply. As these technologies are not yetfully developed and due to multi-dimensional selection environments cannotalwayscompete with conventional energy sources in the market, renewable energy sources initially require temporary protective space. Although some research has identified important factors with regard to the development of renewable technologies, there have not been any clear empirical studies, especially focusing on the new Member Statesof the European Union. Bulgaria and Poland in particular showed divergent results with regard to the deployment of the renewables. One, Bulgaria, achieved an outstanding increase in the share of energycoming from renewablessince its target was set in 2009, while another, Poland, has seen a sluggish result with regard to its policies. The aim of this paper is to identifythe factors leading to the successful promotion of renewable energy in the new Member States by using a comparative study of the cases of Bulgaria and Poland. The comparative study is conducted based on the three protective spaces advocated by Smith & Raven (2012). As a result, two main factors can be seen as the determinants of the success of renewable energy policies; "mprovement of connection to grid networks in shielding process" and "schemes for a transition from a niche space to a socio-technical regime in an energy industry structure in empowering process." Additionally, the delay of effective renewable energy policy implementation, which in the case of Poland, led to a failure of policy.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bulgaria ; Empowering ; EU ; Evolutionary theory ; New Member States ; Nurturing ; Protective space ; Poland ; Renewable energy policy ; Shielding
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, Department of Food and Resource Economics (IFRO)
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: Agricultural commodity markets in developing countries are characterized by high transaction costs and risks that reduce trade flows among spatial markets. In this article, we examine whether institutionalized agricultural commodity exchange markets reduce transaction costs and hence spatial price dispersion using the introduction of the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) as a quasi-experiment. We use a commodity level Difference-in-Difference identification strategy to compare the spatial price dispersion of cereals that are traded at ECX (maize and wheat) with a cereal traded only at the local market (teff). Results show that ECX significantly reduces the spatial price dispersion of maize and wheat compared to teff. This effect varies depending on crop type and the time length since the ECX started trading the commodity. The longer the duration, the larger the reduction in price dispersion. We also find that dissemination of price information is the main channel through which the commodity exchange affects spatial price dispersion.
    Keywords: O13 ; O18 ; Q12 ; Q13 ; ddc:330 ; Commodity Exchange ; Difference-in-Difference ; Ethiopia ; Price Dispersion ; Spatial market
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: We examine whether tax audit regimes become more efficient if (i) there are audited financial statements and (ii) tax auditors have access to the internal statutory audit report revealing information about statutory audit adjustments. Our analysis is based on a standard tax compliance game that we extend to model the strategic interaction among a firm issuing financial and tax reports, a statutory auditor, and a tax auditor. We find that the efficiency effects of additional information depend on the strength of tax auditor incentives and the weight that firms place on book income. For high-powered tax auditor incentives, we obtain no information effect on our efficiency measures. For low-powered tax auditor incentives, we find an ambiguous effect, and for mediumpowered tax auditor incentives and firms that place a high weight on book income, tax audit efficiency increases if the tax auditor has access to additional information. In the latter case, we find that granting the tax auditor access to the internal statutory audit report increases firms' tax compliance, raises tax revenues, and decreases tax audit frequency.
    Keywords: H26 ; M41 ; M42 ; ddc:330 ; Tax compliance game ; Tax audit ; Statutory audit ; Tax audit efficiency ; Strategic auditing
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Research Training Group (RTG) 1666 - GlobalFood
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: GlobalG.A.P. compliance has often become a key requirement for farmers to access high-value global markets. Yet, the global spread of certification is highly uneven among countries. We assess the drivers and dynamics behind these unequal patterns, applying panel data regressions. Findings show that global agricultural trade networks remain relevant, but are no longer sufficient in explaining certification. Fostering a favourable business environment - via providing secure land tenure and a functioning judicial system - as well as investing in transportation and information infrastructure may facilitate farmers' participation in certification schemes. Stringency of existing public regulations is helpful for overcoming entry barriers.
    Keywords: O31 ; Q13 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; global agricultural supply chains ; GlobalG.A.P. ; private food standards ; organisational innovations ; agricultural sector transformation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Research Training Group (RTG) 1666 - GlobalFood
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: Contract farming is typically seen as a useful mechanism to help smallholders. However, despite economic benefits, high dropout rates from contract schemes are commonplace. We use data from Ghana to show that smallholders benefit from a resource-providing contract in terms of higher yields and profits, but most of them still regret their decision to participate and would prefer to exit if they could. The main problem is insufficient information from the company. Farmers do not understand all contract details, which leads to mistrust. We argue that lack of transparency may explain high dropout rates in Ghana and other situations too.
    Keywords: L29 ; L49 ; O12 ; O13 ; Q13 ; ddc:330 ; contract farming ; continuity ; attrition ; information ; transparency
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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