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  • 1
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    Leiden: Brill | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-02-14
    Description: The Gnassingbé clan has ruled the country since 1967. The demand for political alternance, initiated by institutional and electoral reforms, constituted the major contentious issue between the government and the challengers of the Gnassingbé regime throughout the survey period. An alliance of opposition parties and civil society groups organized peaceful demonstrations in opposition to the regime, which were often violently suppressed. Civil society organizations and representatives of the Christian church supported the demands of the opposition. The legislative elections of 20 December 2018, boycotted by the major opposition parties, resulted in an easy victory of the ruling party. The local elections, crucial for democratization at the grass-roots, but postponed time and again since 1987, were again postponed in December 2018 sine die. The human rights record of the government has improved but remains poor. Despite undeniable improvements to the framework and appearance of the regime's key institutions during the review period, democracy remains far from complete. However, the international community, notably Togo’s African peers, the AU and ECOWAS, followed a ‘laissez-faire’ approach in the interests of regional stability and their national interests in dealing with Togo. Economic growth remained stable at about 5% per annum. Public investment in infrastructure (e.g. roads, harbour) and increases in agricultural productivity, notably of export crops, had been the key drivers of economic growth. However, growth remains vulnerable to external shocks and the climate and has not been inclusive. Positive growth was overshadowed by increasing inter-personal and regional inequality as well as an increase in extreme poverty. Moreover, money-laundering, illegal money transfers and trafficking grew alarmingly. The business climate improved considerably nevertheless.
    Description: Author’s extended and up-dated version of ‘BTI 2020 – Togo Country Report’ (forthcoming)
    Description: RÉSUMÉ: Le clan Gnassingbé dirige le pays depuis 1967. La demande d'alternance politique, initiée par des réformes institutionnelles et électorales, a constitué le principal différend entre le gouvernement et les rivaux du régime de Gnassingbé tout au long de la période d'enquête. Une alliance de partis d'opposition et de groupes de la société civile a organisé des manifestations pacifiques contre le régime, qui ont souvent été réprimées avec violence. Les organisations de la société civile et les représentants de l'église chrétienne ont soutenu les revendications de l'opposition. Les élections législatives du 20 décembre 2018, boycottées par les principaux partis de l'opposition, ont permis une victoire facile du parti au pouvoir. Les élections locales, cruciales pour la démocratisation à la base, mais reportées à plusieurs reprises depuis 1987, ont été à nouveau reportées en décembre 2018 sine die. Le bilan du gouvernement en matière de droits de l'homme s'est amélioré mais reste médiocre. Malgré des améliorations indéniables du cadre et de l’apparence des principales institutions du régime au cours de la période considérée, la démocratie est loin d’être achevée. Cependant, la communauté internationale, notamment ses homologues africains du Togo, l’UA et la CEDEAO, a adopté une approche de «laisser-faire» dans l’intérêt de la stabilité régionale et de leurs intérêts nationaux face au Togo. La croissance économique est restée stable à environ 5% par an. Les investissements publics dans les infrastructures (par exemple, les routes et les ports) et l’augmentation de la productivité agricole, notamment des cultures d’exportation, ont été les principaux moteurs de la croissance économique. Cependant, la croissance reste vulnérable aux chocs extérieurs et au climat et n’a pas été inclusive. La croissance positive a été éclipsée par l'augmentation des inégalités interpersonnelles et régionales ainsi que par l'augmentation de l'extrême pauvreté. En outre, le blanchiment d’argent, les transferts d’argent illégal et le trafic se sont multipliés de manière alarmante. Le climat des affaires s’est néanmoins considérablement amélioré. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Der Gnassingbé-Clan hat das Land seit 1967 regiert. Die Forderungen nach institutionellen und Wahlrechtreformen sowie nach politischem Wandel bildeten während des Erhebungszeitraums das umstrittenste Thema zwischen der Regierung und den Herausforderern des Gnassingbé-Regimes. Ein Bündnis von Oppositionsparteien und zivilgesellschaftlichen Gruppen organisierte friedliche Demonstrationen gegen das Regime, die oft gewaltsam unterdrückt wurden. Zivilgesellschaftliche Organisationen und Vertreter der christlichen Kirche unterstützten die Forderungen der Opposition. Die Parlamentswahlen vom 20. Dezember 2018, die von den großen Oppositionsparteien boykottiert wurden, führten zu einem leichten Sieg der Regierungspartei. Die für die Demokratisierung an der Basis entscheidenden Kommunalwahlen, die seit 1987 immer wieder verschoben wurden, wurden im Dezember 2018 erneut auf unbestimmte Zeit verschoben. Die Menschenrechtsbilanz der Regierung hat sich verbessert, ist aber nach wie vor schlecht. Trotz unbestreitbarer Verbesserungen der Rahmenbedingungen und des Erscheinungsbildes der wichtigsten Institutionen des Regimes im Überprüfungszeitraum ist die Demokratisierung bei weitem nicht vollständig. Die internationale Gemeinschaft, insbesondere die afrikanischen peers des togosichen Präsidenten, die AU und die ECOWAS, verfolgten jedoch einen "Laissez-faire" -Ansatz im Interesse der regionalen Stabilität und ihrer nationalen Interessen im Umgang mit Togo. Das Wirtschaftswachstum blieb stabil bei etwa 5% pro Jahr. Öffentliche Investitionen in die Infrastruktur (z. B. Straßen, Häfen) und die Steigerung der landwirtschaftlichen Produktivität, insbesondere von Exportkulturen, waren die Hauptfaktoren des Wirtschaftswachstums. Das Wachstum bleibt jedoch anfällig für externe Schocks und das Wachstum war nicht inklusiv. Das positive Wachstum wurde durch die zunehmende Ungleichheit zwischen Personen und Regionen sowie durch die Zunahme extremer Armut überschattet. Darüber hinaus nahmen Geldwäsche, illegale Geldüberweisungen und Menschenhandel alarmierend zu. Das Geschäftsklima hat sich dennoch deutlich verbessert.
    Keywords: A14 ; F35 ; N97 ; O17 ; O55 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; Togo ; West Africa ; ECOWAS ; WAEMU ; Democratization ; Good Governance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    London: Taylor and Francis | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: We introduce progressive consumption taxation into a real-business-cycle setup augmented with a detailed government sector. We calibrate the model to Bulgarian data for the period following the introduction of the currency board arrangement (1999-2016). We investigate the quantitative importance of the presence of of progressive taxation of consumption expenditures for the stabilization of cyclical fluctuations in Bulgaria. We find the quantitative effect of such a tax to be very small, and thus not important for either business cycle stabilization, or public finance issues.
    Keywords: E24 ; E32 ; ddc:330 ; business cycles ; progressive consumption taxation ; Bulgaria
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 3
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    Brussels: The Economics and Econometrics Research Institute | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: We show that in a exogenous growth model with non-market ("home") sector calibrated to Bulgarian data under the progressive taxation regime (1993-2007), the economy exhibits equilibrium indeterminacy due to the presence of non-market production. These results are in line with the findings in Benhabib and Farmer (1994, 1996) and Farmer (1999). Also, the findings in this paper are in contrast to Guo and Lansing (1988) who argue that progressive taxation works as an automatic stabilizer. Under the flat tax regime (2008-16), the economy calibrated to Bulgarian data displays saddle-path stability. The decrease in the average effective tax rate addresses the indeterminacy issue and eliminates the "stable focus" dynamics.
    Keywords: J46 ; D91 ; O41 ; ddc:330 ; Progressive taxation ; Non-market sector ; Home production ; Equilibrium (In)determinacy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 4
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    Leiden: Brill | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: Recognizing that identities are not static but instead forged in social interactions, this article explores how interplays of similarity and difference can stimulate identity development in organizations. Artistic interventions in organizations are conceived as opening spaces for interactions in which intercultural contention can stimulate identity development at the individual and organizational levels. The contribution draws on data generated from Webbased surveys of employees, managers, and artists who participated in artistic interventions in small and medium sized companies in Spain. Several tensions between their culturally distinct worlds emerge as drivers of a process in which the participants engage in identity development characterized by double-mirroring, coevolution, and resonance.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; artistic interventions ; identity development ; intercultural interactions ; creative processes ; discursive perspective ; lexical analysis
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: In the shadow of homeownership and public housing, social policy through the regulation of private rental markets is a neglected and underestimated field of social policy. This paper, therefore, presents unique new data on the development of private tenancy legislation through the binary coding of rent control, the protection of tenants from eviction, and rental housing rationing laws across more than 25 countries and 100 years. This long-run perspective reveals the dynamic effects of rent control on the rise of homeownership as the dominant tenure during the 20th century. We find that both rent regulation and rationing legislation effectively increased homeownership, but only up to a certain threshold. We suggest that the short-term lure of an inexpensive social policy for tenants has led to the long-term marginalization of rental markets in many countries.
    Keywords: C23 ; O18 ; R38 ; ddc:330 ; homeownership ; rent control ; tenure security ; housing rationing ; dynamic panel data model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: For four years, a group of experts from public administration, academia and practice has collaborated to highlight the important aspects of corridor development, to provide a first integrated assessment for the entire corridor system and to prepare a draft of an integrated strategy. Of course, this is just a beginning and should be followed up by additional initiatives to produce an organisational framework that will allow intensified collaboration on the corridors, which are so important for the cohesion of Europe. Moreover, we hope that our insights will also stimulate the development of the OEM Corridor and similar investigations into other European corridors. Due to the international nature of the project topic, the working group comprises prominent experts of spatial development and infrastructural engineering from both academia and from planning practice, and from various countries along the corridor [...].
    Keywords: ddc:710
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 8
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    Mannheim: ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: This review summarizes the empirical literature on the effects of natural disasters and weather variations on international trade flows. A first result is that the body of literature is actually not as small as previously suggested. In total, I summarize 19 studies of 18 independent research teams and show that there is a large diversity in terms of motivations, data sets used, methodologies, and results. Still, some overarching conclusions can be drawn. Increases in average temperature seem to have a detrimental effect on export values (less on imports), mainly for manufactured and agricultural products. Given climate change, this is an important finding for projecting long-term developments of trade volumes. Imports seem to be less affected by temperature changes in the importing country. Findings on the effects of natural disasters are more ambiguous, but at least it can be said that exports seem to be affected negatively by occurrence and severity of disasters in the exporting country. Imports may decrease, increase, or remain unaffected by natural disasters. Regarding heterogeneous effects, small, poor, and hot countries with low degrees of institutional quality and political freedom seem to face the most detrimental effects on their trade flows. Possible directions of future research include analyzing spillover effects in-depth (in terms of time, space, and trade networks), considering adaptation, and using more granular data.
    Keywords: Q17 ; Q54 ; Q56 ; F14 ; F18 ; ddc:330 ; International Trade ; Climate Change ; Natural Disasters
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 9
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    Freiburg: Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Wilfried-Guth-Stiftungsprofessur für Ordnungs- und Wettbewerbspolitik
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: In recent years, a number of major terrorist attacks in EU member states has put the fight against homegrown and international terrorism at the top of the agenda of European policy-makers. This paper analyzes the costs of terrorism in the European Union from both a theoretical and empirical perspective in order to evaluate counter-terrorism policies by comparing their costs and benefits. Two important policy implications can be derived from our exercise. First, individuals' behavioral predispositions typically result in a biased perception of the risk of terrorism leading to too high a demand for counter-terrorism measures relative to what the objective probability of terrorist events suggests. This results in a tendency to favor repressive over preventive measures against terrorism. Second, uncoordinated European policies against terrorism have the potential to undermine the effectiveness of counter-terrorism measures. If there is a justification for the existence of the European Union (which an increasing number of populist parties in Europe seems to doubt), then it is to provide supranational answers to coordination failure in European counter-terrorism policies.
    Keywords: D74 ; H56 ; N44 ; ddc:330 ; terrorism ; home-grown terrorism ; European Union ; counter-terrorism policies ; coordination failure ; behavioral responses to terrorism
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 10
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    Passau: Universität Passau, Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: This paper is the first to analyze the joint determinants of premiums and spreads in structured financial products, while also focusing on issuers' hedging costs. We evaluate more than 396,000 single stock discount certificates on an intraday basis in the German secondary market. We find that premiums and spreads are endogenous and negatively related to each other, and depend on different key determinants. The economically significant determinants of the premiums are mainly profit-related, i.e. dividends of the underlying, issuers' credit risk, lifecycle effect and competition, whereas hedging costs and risks are economically less important. However, initial hedging costs are also priced into the premium in the case of large inventory changes. The spread is mostly determined by hedging costs and risk components, such as initial hedging costs, rebalancing costs, volatility, scalper risk, and overnight gap risk, but also depends on dividends. Initial hedging costs appear to be more relevant than rebalancing costs.
    Keywords: D40 ; G12 ; G21 ; ddc:650 ; Discount certificates ; Derivatives ; Pricing ; Market microstructure ; Trading costs ; Hedging
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 11
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    Passau: Universität Passau, Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: We examine the impact of dynamic hedging demand of German option and discount certificate markets on the autocorrelation of German stock price changes. We theoretically model the demand of liquidity providers in the discount certificate market, a structured financial product with a concave payoff profile, asking whether dynamic hedging by certificate issuers induces negative return autocorrelation in stock markets. We find empirical evidence that the hedging demand of option issuers has a positive impact on return autocorrelation, while the opposite holds for certificate issuers, whose hedging demand enhances the negative return autocorrelation in the stock market. We thus theoretically and empirically provide evidence that there are persistent spillover effects from option and certificate markets to stock markets due to dynamic hedging activities.
    Keywords: D40 ; G12 ; G21 ; ddc:650 ; Structured products ; Derivatives ; Dynamic hedging ; Stock return autocorrelation ; Market microstructure
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 12
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: The new mechanism under Article 6.4 of the Paris Agreement is to be supervised by a body designated by the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA). However, so far there is no clarity what role exactly the supervisory body (Body) is to play. Against this background, this JIKO Policy Paper analyses different governance options for Art. 6.4. The paper first reflects the objectives of the new mechanism and on what the role of the mechanism as a whole should be. The paper then summarises what has already been agreed on the functioning of the mechanism and elaborates what steps will be needed to generate transferrable emission reductions under the Article 6.4 mechanism. On this basis, the paper develops criteria for how to decide what role the Body should have, and then discusses what role the Body and the other actors that are involved in the mechanism could have in each of the steps of the activity cycle.
    Keywords: ddc:320
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: With the adoption of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, former debates about generating carbon credits on the basis of national policies have resurged. National policies have not been eligible as project activities under the Kyoto Protocol's flexible mechanisms. The Paris Agreement opens the possibility for such policy crediting but also provides an entirely new context: Universal participation, ambitious long-term targets and nationally defined contributions (NDCs) that are to be made more ambitious over time. As this paper shows, these changes in the framework conditions add an additional layer of complexity to policy-based cooperation. The paper explores the potential for policy-based cooperation by first briefly presenting the regulatory basis provided by the Paris Agreement before outlining a prototype for policy-based cooperation and its key challenges.
    Keywords: ddc:320
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: With Germany's nuclear phase-out, 23 reactors need to be dismantled in the near future. Initiated by the dire financial situation of the affected utilities in 2014, a major discourse on ensuring financial liability led to a redistribution of liabilities and finances, with the utilities remaining in charge of dismantling, while liability for interim and final storage now transferred to the public. This paper assesses whether the new regulation will ultimately be to the benefit of the public. It introduces a two-stage stochastic optimization framework which encompasses the different dismantling phases and resulting waste flows and storage levels of low- and intermediate-level waste (LLW and ILW) as well as the associated costs. Results show that storage risk - proclaimed as a major barrier to efficient decommissioning - is not a major driver for the optimal decommissioning schedule. However, a delay of ten years might now increase interim storage costs borne by the public by over 20%. By contrast, lacking knowledge and limited machinery is a major unaccounted cost driver, which might quickly eat-up the buffer currently included in utility funds in order to deal with dismantling uncertainties. Our analysis reveals the storage gate as the new crucial interface between utilities and the public storage provider.
    Keywords: C61 ; H44 ; L51 ; ddc:330 ; nuclear decommissioning ; nuclear dismantling ; financial liability ; nuclear logistics ; stochastic modeling ; regulation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 15
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Despite the headway the world has experienced over the last couple of years in terms of a substantial increase in digital access, there are still significant challenges to overcome in ensuring women are included in the transformation to a digital society, which in turn will enhance productivity and social development. Efforts to increase internet adoption access through broadband plans and legislative reforms have yielded improvements in use and adoption. However, there is still a stark and pervasive gender inequality in terms of access, ownership of digital devices, digital fluency as well as the capacity to make meaningful use of the access to technology. Even though affordability is a key source of exclusion, there are also significant socio-cultural norms that restrict access for women. This paper brings forward the argument that access alone is not enough, women need agency and capacity to leverage access. The authors thus highlight the need to make an assessment of the global gender gap and develop meaningful indicators that contribute to the design and implementation of effective policies that drive adoption. We need effective promotion of women's digital adoption not only from the government but also from the private sector and civil society in order to lead the digital adoption of best practices for women around the world.
    Keywords: J16 ; J24 ; O30 ; ddc:330 ; digital gender gap ; digital inclusion ; digital skills
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 16
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: The introduction of a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB) in the European Union (EU) would substantially change the rules of the game in international taxation. According to the proposal by the European Commission (EC), the profits of a Multinational Enterprise (MNE) would no longer be assessed by using the arm's length principles and (hypothetical) market prices, but split based on a formulary apportionment. This implies that an allocation key consisting of sales volume, number of employees and capital invested would be applied to distribute the taxable profits of an MNE. From an economic perspective, the principle of taxing profits at source would be thereby abolished. However, due to the current difficulty for taxpayers and tax authorities to agree on adequate transfer prices, a radical change as proposed by the EC might be reasonable. Hence, the EC proposal for the CCCTB is a promising goal as it could lower the red tape burden for MNE as well as tax authorities. Furthermore, the adjustment of the debt bias and the encouragement of R&D as additional items of the EC proposal could stimulate economic growth. A main obstacle for the implementation of a CCCTB would be the expected shifts in tax revenue which make a political agreement at the EU level very difficult. The application of a CCCTB would substantially redistribute corporate profits among the EU member states as a simulation by the German Economic Institute (IW) shows. Especially, Ireland, Luxembourg and Malta would receive significantly less tax revenue since sales volume, number of employees and capital invested are relatively small in these countries. France and Italy, in contrast, would be on the winning side. Germany would also benefit even though to a rather low degree. A main reason for this result is that the strongly exporting German corporations today pay a large proportion of their corporate taxes in Germany. With the application of the CCCTB, parts of the taxable profits would be allocated to foreign countries. From a systematic point of view, the CCCTB is only convincing if there is a global commitment. A simulation of the tax revenue effects for the G20 countries when applying a CCCTB shows that the shift would also be drastic. The EU member states - even the big ones - would have to accept lower taxable corporate profits. Instead, the United States could increase the corporate tax base mainly because of the high consumption level. China and India would benefit due to the large number of employees. Thus, whether a country ranks among the winners or losers in terms of tax revenue depends foremost on the peer group.
    Keywords: H25 ; H26 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 17
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: A correlation curve is introduced as a tool to study the degree of intergenerational income mobility, i.e. how income status is related between parents and adult child. The method overcomes the shortcomings of the elasticity of children's income with respect to parents' income (i.e. its sensitiveness to different dispersion among the generations) and the correlation coefficient (i.e. its inability to capture nonlinearities). The method is particularly suitable for comparative studies and in this study labour earnings are compared to disposable income. The correlation between the parental income and the child's adult disposable income becomes stronger for higher percentiles in the income distribution of the parents. Above the median the correlation is found to be stronger than for labour earnings. Interestingly, the elasticity is higher for labour earnings for most part of the distribution and complementing the elasticity with correlation curves provides a much more complete picture of the intergenerational income mobility.
    Keywords: C14 ; D63 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; intergenerational mobility ; nonlinear ; nonparametric ; correlation curve
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 18
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    Durham, NC: Duke University, Center for the History of Political Economy (CHOPE)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Commerce changes the production of wealth in a society as well as its ethics. What is appropriate in a non-commercial society is not necessarily appropriate in a commercial one. Adam Smith criticizes Stoic self-command in commercial societies, rather than embracing it, as is often suggested. He argues that Stoicism, with its promotion of indifference to passions, is an ethic appropriate for savages. Savages live in hard conditions where expressing emotions is detrimental and reprehensible. In contrast, the ease of life brought about by commerce fosters the appropriate expressions and sharing of emotions. Imposing Stoicism on a commercial society is therefore imposing an ethic for savages onto a refined society - something to abhor. Smith's rejection of Stoicism in commercial societies can thus be seen as a defense of commerce.
    Keywords: B12 ; B15 ; D91 ; F69 ; O1 ; Z1 ; ddc:330 ; Adam Smith ; Stoicism ; Commerce ; Commercial Societies ; Savages ; Expression of Emotions ; Insensitivity
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: The relationship between many G20 governments and organized civil society has become more complex, laden with tensions, and such that both have to find more optimal modes of engagement. In some instances, state-civil society relations have worsened, leading some experts and activists to speak of a 'shrinking space' for civil society. How wide-spread is this phenomenon? Are these more isolated occurrences or indeed part of a more general development? How can countries achieve and maintain an enabling environment for civil society? The authors suggest that much of the current impasse results foremost from outdated and increasingly ill-suited regulatory frameworks that fail to accommodate a much more diverse and expanded set of civil society organizations (CSO). In response, they propose a differentiated model for a regulatory framework based on functional roles. Based on quantitative profiling and expert surveys, moreover, the paper also derives initial recommendations on how governments and civil society could find ways to relate to each other in both national and multilateral contexts.
    Keywords: F5 ; L31 ; H7 ; K33 ; ddc:330 ; civil society ; NGOs ; closing civic space ; nonprofit regulation ; G20
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 20
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: The authors examine the impacts of quality of institutions, border and transport efficiency, physical and communication infrastructure on overall and intra-Africa trade covering 44 African countries and their 173 trade partners for the periods 2000-2014. Aggregate indicators are derived for the quality of economic institutions, border and transport efficiency, physical and communication infrastructure using principal component analysis. The findings disclose that intra-Africa and overall Africa's trade robustly determined by the quality of institutions, border and transport efficiency, physical and communication infrastructure. The estimates also indicate that the marginal effect of the quality of institutions, physical and communication infrastructure on trade flow appears to be increasing in GDP per capita. In contrast, the marginal effect of border and transport efficiency on trade decreases in GDP per capita. The authors compute simulation of improving each indicator to the best performer in the sample. Their findings are robust to estimation method conducted to account for potential endogeneity.
    Keywords: F1 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; trade flow ; transport and border efficiency ; quality of institutions ; physical and communication infrastructure ; gravity model ; African countries
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Oldenburg: University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Environmental externalities call for the use of environmental taxes to get prices right and thereby reduce environmental pressures. To date, however, the Spanish government makes only limited use of environmental taxes. One major reason for the policy reluctance are concerns on the regressive impacts of environmental taxes. We argue that policy can hedge against these concerns by means of revenue recycling. More specifically, we assess the impacts of a green tax reform where additional revenues are redistributed lump-sum to Spanish households on an equal-per-capita basis. Based on quantitative evidence from coupled microsimulation and computable equilibrium analyses we find that such a green tax reform leads to a substantial reduction in harmful emissions while having a progressive impact.
    Keywords: H23 ; Q4 ; Q53 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; environmental tax reform ; household incidence ; computable general equilibrium ; microsimulation
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    Berlin: Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Evidence suggests that people evaluate outcomes relative to expectations. I analyze this expectation-based loss aversion (Köszegi and Rabin (2006, 2009)) in the context of dynamic and static auctions, where the reference point is given by the (endogenous) equilibrium outcome. If agents update their reference point during the auction, the arrival of information crucially affects equilibrium behavior. Consequently, I show that - even with independent private values - the Vickrey auction yields strictly higher revenue than the English auction, violating the well known revenue equivalence. Thus, dynamic loss aversion offers a novel explanation for empirically observed differences between these auction formats.
    Keywords: D03 ; D44 ; ddc:330 ; Vickrey auction ; English auction ; expectation-based loss aversion ; revenue equivalence ; dynamic loss aversion ; personal equilibrium
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    Karlsruhe: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Keywords: ddc:330
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    Köln: Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Pessimism determines the experts' predictions for the first and second quarter of 2019 which can be inferred from the downward revisions of the experts' forecasts. Although the experts still expect the yield curve to become steeper, they expect long-term interest rates to increase less compared to the last survey. The lower interest rate forecasts are consistent with the experts' lower inflation and growth expectations. The experts expect 1.7 percent inflation in the Eurozone and a growth rate of real gross domestic product of 1.6 percent for 2019, which indicates a slowdown of economic growth and a failure of the European Central Bank (ECB) in meeting its inflation target. Given that, the experts expect the long-term interest rate to be 0.51 percent at the end of the first quarter of 2019, which is 0.24 percentage points lower than their prediction in the last survey. For the short rate the experts expect no change, since they expect the ECB's main refinancing rate to stay at 0.0 percent in the first half of 2019. But the experts expect the yield of US Treasury bonds to increase from 2.86 percent to 3.31 percent by the end of the first half of 2019 and thereby a growing interest rate differential between the US and Europe. Given the less accommodative monetary policy by the ECB in 2019 the experts forecast of a mild appreciation of the Euro from 1.138 US-Dollar to 1.143 US-Dollar in the first quarter and to 1.162 US-Dollar in the second quarter of 2019. Although the experts revised their stock market forecasts downwards, they expect the DAX and the Stoxx index to recover in the first half of 2019. On average, the experts predict the Stoxx index to increase from 2.807 points at the end of the fourth quarter of 2018 to 2.951 points at the end of the first quarter of 2019 and to 3.072 points at the end of the second quarter of 2019. This would correspond to increases of 5.1 percent and 9.4 percent since December 2018. Moreover, the experts expect the DAX to increase from 10.788 to 11.396 in the first quarter of 2019 and to 11.919 in the second quarter of 2019, which corresponds to increases by 5.6 and 10.5 percent since end of December 2018. Interesting is that the experts expect the Stoxx and the DAX to grow faster than the S&P 500, which we surveyed for the first time. For the S&P 500 the experts only expect increases by 0.7 and 5.3 percent. In the long-term ranking, which covers the last 16 quarters, National-Bank could defend rank one, while Commerzbank and Nord/LB could defend rank two and rank three.
    Keywords: G12 ; G17 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Karlsruhe: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: We consider the problem of testing for an omitted multiplicative long-term component in GARCH-type models. Under the alternative there is a two-component model with a short-term GARCH component that fluctuates around a smoothly time-varying long-term component which is driven by the dynamics of an explanatory variable. We suggest a Lagrange Multiplier statistic for testing the null hypothesis that the variable has no explanatory power. We derive the asymptotic theory for our test statistic and investigate its finite sample properties by Monte-Carlo simulation. Our test also covers the mixed-frequency case in which the returns are observed at a higher frequency than the explanatory variable. The usefulness of our procedure is illustrated by empirical applications to S&P 500 return data.
    Keywords: C53 ; C58 ; E32 ; G12 ; ddc:330 ; GARCH-MIDAS ; LM test ; Long-Term Volatility ; Mixed-Frequency Data ; Volatility Component Models
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Karlsruhe: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: We provide a shrinkage type methodology which allows for simultaneous model selection and estimation of vector error correction models (VECM) when the dimension is large and can increase with sample size. Model determination is treated as a joint selection problem of cointegrating rank and autoregressive lags under respective practically valid sparsity assumptions. We show consistency of the selection mechanism by the resulting Lasso-VECM estimator under very general assumptions on dimension, rank and error terms. Moreover, with computational complexity of a linear programming problem only, the procedure remains computationally tractable in high dimensions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach by a simulation study and an empirical application to recent CDS data after the financial crisis.
    Keywords: C32 ; C52 ; ddc:330 ; High-dimensional time series ; VECM ; Cointegration rank and lag selection ; Lasso ; Credit Default Swap
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Karlsruhe: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: We introduce a method for measuring default risk connectedness of euro zone sovereign states using credit default swap (CDS) and bond data. The connectedness measure is based on an out-of-sample variance decomposition of model forecast errors. Due to its predictive nature, it can respond more quickly to crisis occurrences than common in-sample techniques. We determine sovereign default risk connectedness with both CDS and bond data for a more comprehensive picture of the system. We find evidence that several observable factors drive the difference of CDS and bonds, but both data sources still contain specific information for connectedness spill-overs. Generally, we can identify countries that impose risk on the system and the respective spill-over channels. In our empirical analysis we cover the years 2009-2014, such that recovery paths of countries exiting EU and IMF financial assistance schemes and responses to the ECB's unconventional policy measures can be analyzed.
    Keywords: C58 ; G01 ; G15 ; C32 ; ddc:330 ; Variance decomposition ; Sovereign risk ; Connectedness ; Credit default swaps ; Bonds ; Eurozone crisis
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Karlsruhe: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: We study the impact of changes in regulations and policy interventions on systemic risk among European sovereigns measured as volatility spillovers in respective credit risk markets. Our unique intraday CDS dataset allows for precise measurement of the effectiveness of these events in a network setting. In particular, it allows discerning interventions which entail significant changes in network cross-effects with appropriate bootstrap confidence intervals. We show that it was mainly regulatory changes with the ban of trading naked sovereign CDS in 2012 as well as the new ISDA regulations in 2014 which were most effective in reducing systemic risk. In comparison, we find that the effect of policy interventions was minor and generally not sustainable. In particular, they only had a significant impact when implemented for the first time and when targeting more than one country. For the volatility spillover channels, we generally find balanced networks with no fragmentation over time.
    Keywords: G20 ; G01 ; G17 ; C32 ; C55 ; G28 ; ddc:330 ; Financial Crises ; Policy and Regulation ; Financial Stability and Systemic Risk in the Eurozone ; High-Frequency CDS ; Bootstrap Spillover-Measures
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Karlsruhe: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: An accurate assessment of tail inequalities and tail asymmetries of financial returns is key for risk management and portfolio allocation. We propose a new test procedure for detecting the full extent of such structural differences in the dependence of bivariate extreme returns. We decompose the testing problem into piecewise multiple comparisons of Cramér-von Mises distances of tail copulas. In this way, tail regions that cause differences in extreme dependence can be located and consequently be targeted by financial strategies. We derive the asymptotic properties of the test and provide a bootstrap approximation for finite samples. Moreover, we account for the multiplicity of the piecewise tail copula comparisons by adjusting individual p-values according to multiple testing techniques. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the test's superior finite-sample properties for common financial tail risk models, both in the i.i.d. and the sequentially dependent case. During the last 90 years in US stock markets, our test detects up to 20% more tail asymmetries than competing tests. This can be attributed to the presence of non-standard tail dependence structures. We also find evidence for diminishing tail asymmetries during every major financial crisis - except for the 2007-09 crisis - reflecting a risk-return trade-off for extreme returns.
    Keywords: C12 ; C53 ; C58 ; ddc:330 ; tail dependence ; tail copulas ; tail asymmetry ; tail inequality ; extreme values ; multiple testing
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Karlsruhe: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: We use administrative and survey-based micro data to study the relationship between cognitive abilities (IQ), the formation of economic expectations, and the choices of a representative male population. Men above the median IQ (high-IQ men) display 50% lower forecast errors for inflation than other men. The inflation expectations and perceptions of high-IQ men, but not others, are positively correlated over time. High-IQ men are also less likely to round and to forecast implausible values. In terms of choice, only high-IQ men increase their propensity to consume when expecting higher inflation as the consumer Euler equation prescribes. High-IQ men are also forward-looking - they are more likely to save for retirement conditional on saving. Education levels, income, socio-economic status, and employment status, although important, do not explain the variation in expectations and choice by IQ. Our results have implications for heterogeneous-beliefs models of household consumption, saving, and investment.
    Keywords: D12 ; D84 ; D91 ; E21 ; E31 ; E32 ; E52 ; E65 ; ddc:330 ; Behavioral Macroeconomics ; Heterogeneous Beliefs ; Limited Cognition ; Expectations Formation ; Household Finance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Karlsruhe: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Intertemporal substitution is at the heart of modern macroeconomics and finance as well as economic policymaking, but a large fraction of a representative population of men - those below the top of the distribution by cognitive abilities (IQ) - do not change their consumption propensities with their inflation expectations. Low-IQ men are also less than half as sensitive to interest-rate changes when making borrowing decisions. Our microdata include unique administrative information on cognitive abilities, as well as economic expectations, consumption and borrowing plans, and total household debt from Finland. Heterogeneity in observables such as education, income, other expectations, and financial constraints do not drive these patterns. Costly information acquisition and the ability to form accurate forecasts are channels that cannot fully explain these results. Limited cognitive abilities could be human frictions in the transmission and effectiveness of fiscal and monetary policies that operate through household consumption and borrowing decisions.
    Keywords: D12 ; D84 ; D91 ; E21 ; E31 ; E32 ; E52 ; E65 ; ddc:330 ; Macroeconomic Beliefs ; Limited Cognition ; Heterogeneous Agents ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Survey Data ; Household Finance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Physika-Verlag, Würzburg
    In:  Herausgeberexemplar (Archiv der DGG in Leipzig) | 8 Z NAT 2148
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Inhaltsverzeichnis : Übersichtsartikel: EIDEN, R. und G. ESCHELBACH: Das atmosphärische Aerosol und seine Bedeutung für den Energiehaushalt der Atmosphäre . . . 189 ; MÜLLER, G.: Theoretical Body Wave Seismograms for Media with Spherical Symmetry — Discussion and Comparison of Approximate Methods . . . 229 ; SCHICK, R., and M. RIUSCETTI: An Analysis of Volcanic Tremors at South Italian Volcanoes . . . 247 ; FRÖHLICH, R. K.: Combined Magnetic and Geoelectrical Investigations over Lava Flows in the Volcanic Zone of the Laacher See, West Germany . . . 263 ; MAKRIS, J., J. ZIMMERMANN, H. C. BACHEM, and B. RITTER: Gravity Survey of South AFAR, Ethiopia . . . 279 ; BRÜCKL, E., und W. FÜRLINGER: Ein Vergleich von geologischen Gefügeaufnahmen mit seismischen Messungen . . . 291 ; As, J. A.: The Compensation Method for Measuring the Components of the Earth’s Magnetic Field . . . 303 ; Briefe an den Herausgeber: FUCHS, K.: The Fine Structure of the Lower Lithosphere — a Possible Marker for its Vertical Deformation . . . 313 ; LAUDATIO zur Verleihung der Emil-Wiechert-Medaille an Prof. Dr. LUDWIG BIERMANN . . . 317 ; In memoriom GÜNTER DIETRICH . . . 319 ;
    Description: DGG, DFG, SUB Göttingen
    Description: research
    Keywords: Geophysik ; Physische Geografie ; Atmosphäre ; Deformation ; Ethiopia ; Geoelectrics ; Geomagnetism ; Geomagnetismus ; Germany ; Gravitation ; Gravity ; Italy ; Laacher See ; Lithosphere ; Seismik ; Seismics ; Volcanism ; Vulkanismus ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: German , English
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    Physika-Verlag, Würzburg
    In:  Herausgeberexemplar (Archiv der DGG in Leipzig) | 8 Z NAT 2148
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Inhaltsverzeichnis : STUKENBRÖKER, B.: Ergebnisse von Erdgezeiten-Parallelregistrierungen mit drei ASKANIA-Gravimetern . . . 1 ; DRIMMEL, J., G. GANGL, R. GUTDEUTSCH, M. KOENIG und E. TRAPP: Modellseismische Experimente zur Interpretation makroseismischer Daten aus dem Bereich der Ostalpen . . . 21 ; BORM, G.: Solutions of Boundary Value Problems of Multilayer Analogs of Geoelectrics and Hydrology . . . 41 ; JACOBY, W. R.: Isostasie und Dichteverteilung in Kruste und oberem Mantel . . . . . . 79 ; BUNTEBARTH, G.: Modellberechnungen zur Temperatur-Tiefen-Verteilung im Bereich der Alpen und des Alpenvorlandes . . . 97 ; BUNTEBARTH, G.: Über die Größe der thermisch bedingten Bouguer-Anomalie in den Alpen . . . 109 ; EHRISMANN‚ W.‚ W. LEPPICH, O. LETTAU, O. ROSENBACH und P. STEINHAUSER: Gravimetrische Detail-Untersuchungen in den westlichen Hohen Tauern . . . 115 ; EHRISMANN, W.: Ein allgemeines Verfahren zur digitalen Berechnung der Schwerewirkung von Modellkörpern . . . 131 ; KAHLE, H.-G., and M. TALWANI: Gravimetric Indian Ocean Geoid . . . 167 ;
    Description: DGG, DFG, SUB Göttingen
    Description: research
    Keywords: Geophysik ; Physische Geografie ; Alpen ; Alpenvorland ; Erdmantel ; Geoelectrics ; Geoelektrik ; Gravimetrie ; Gravitation ; Hohen Tauern ; Hydrologie ; Hydrology ; Indian Ocean ; Seismik ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: German , English
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    Springer, Berlin
    In:  SUB Göttingen | 8 Z NAT 2148
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Inhaltsverzeichnis : Bonjer, K.-P., Gelbke, C., Gilg, B., Rouland, D., Mayer-Rosa, D., Massinon, B.: Seismicity and dynamics of the Upper Rhinegraben . . . 1 ; Zucca, J. J.: The crustal structure of the southern Rhinegraben from re-interpretation of seismic refraction data . . .13 ; Cavaliere, T., Jones, A. G.: On the identification of a transition zone in electrical conductivity between the lithosphere and asthenosphere: a plea for more precise phase data . . . 23 ; Brasse, H., Junge, A.: The influence of geomagnetic variations on pipelines and an application for largescale magnetotelluric depth sounding . . . 31 ; Nevanlinna, H.: Some Characteristics of the horizontal field variations around the geomagnetic jerk of 1970 . . . 37 ; Lühr, H., Klöcker, N., Thürey, S.: Ground-based observations of a very intense substorm-related pulsation event . . . 41 ; Dürschner, H.: Dreidimensionale Seismik in der Exploration auf Kohlenwasserstoff-Lagerstätten . . . 54 ; Varga, P.: Long-term variations recorded by extensometers . . . 68 ; Book reviews . . . 71 ; Preface . . . 75 ; Orr, D.: Magnetospheric hydromagnetic waves: their eigenperiods, amplitudes and phase variations; a tutorial introduction . . . 76 ; Ward, I.A.: ELF intensity levels at geostationary orbit and pulsating aurora . . . 85 ; Gough, H., Orr, D., Wedeken, U.: Ground observations of geomagnetic pulsations during a quiet magnetospheric interval correlated with satellite plasma measurements . . . 92 ; Gardner, M.: Period, phase and resonant structure of a pulsation event seen by the ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft on 2-3 April 1978 . . . 102 ; Glaßmeier, K.H., Lester, M., Mier-Jedrzejowicz, W. A. C., Green, C. A., Rostoker, G., Orr, D., Wedeken, U., Junginger, H., Amata, E.: Pc5 pulsations and their possible source mechanisms: a case study . . . 108 ; Wedeken, U., Inhester, B., Korth‚ A., Glaßmeier, K.-H., Gendrin, R., Lanzerotti‚ L. J., Gough, H., Green, C. A., Amatas, E., Pedersen, A.‚ Rostoker, G.: Ground-satellite coordinated study of the April 5, 1979 events: flux variations of energetic particles and associated magnetic pulsations . . . 120 ; Inhester‚ B., Wedeken, U., Korth‚ A., Perraut, S., Stokholm, M.: Ground-satellite coordinated study of the April 5, 1979 events: observation of O+ cyclotron waves . . . 134 ; Preface . . . 143 ; Hjelt, S.E.: Deep electromagnetic studies of the Baltic Shield . . . 144 ; Pajunpää, K.: Magnetometer array studies in Finland - determination of single station transfer functions . . . 153 ; Červ, V., Pek, J., Praus, O.: Models of geoelectrical anomalies in Czechoslovakia . . . 161 ; Schwarz, G., Haak, V., Martínez, E., Bannister, J.: The electrical conductivity of the Andean crust in northern Chile and southern Bolivia as inferred from magnetotelluric measurements . . . 169 ; Vanyan, L. L.: Electrical conductivity of the asthenosphere . . . 179 ; Ritz, M.: A high conductivity anomaly on the West African craton (Mali) . . . 182 ; Meloni, A., Gregori, G. P., Lanzerotti‚ L. J., Medford, L. V.: Search for a possible electromagnetic coupling between a transatlantic communication cable and the magma Chamber in the mid-Atlantic ridge . . . 185 ; Schnegg, P.-A., Fischer, G.: A new pulsed audiomagnetotelluric technique . . . 191 ; Heikka, J., Zhamaletdinov, A. A., Hjelt, S. E., Demidova, T. A., Velikhov, Ye. P.: Preliminary results of MHD test registrtions in northern Finland . . . 199 ; Mareschal, M., Vasseur, G.: Bimodal induction in non-uniform thin sheets: do the present algorithms work for regional studies . . . 203 ; Hvoždara, M.: Solution of the stationary approximation for MT fields in the layered Earth with 3D and 2D inhomogeneities . . . 214 ; Hu, W. B., Dosso, H. W., Nienaber, W.: Analogue-model magnetic field responses of an ocean channel, an island and a seamount in the Hainan Island region . . . 222 ; Winch, D. E.: Conductivity modelling of the Earth using solar and lunar daily magnetic variations . . . 228 ;
    Description: DGG, DFG, SUB Göttingen
    Description: research
    Keywords: Geophysik ; Africa ; Asthenosphere ; Aurora ; Baltic Shield ; China ; Czechoslovakia ; Earth’s Crust ; ELAS project ; Electrojets ; Electromagnetic Induction ; ELF waves ; Exploration Seismics ; Geomagnetic Induction Studies ; Geomagnetic Pulsations ; Geomagnetic Secular Variation ; Geomagnetic Variations ; Hydromagnetic Waves ; Ion Cyclotron Waves ; Magnetometer Arrays ; Magnetospheric Plasma ; Magnetotellurics ; MHD generator ; Pipelines ; Refraction Seismology ; Rhinegraben ; Satellite Observations ; Seismicity ; South America ; Transatlantic Cable ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: German , English
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    Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig
    In:  SUB Göttingen | 8 Z NAT 2148
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Inhaltsverzeichnis : Fanselau, G.: Geophysikalische Arbeiten Prof. Filchners in Inner-Asien. . . . S. 1. ; Bartels, J.: Aussprachebemerkung zum Vortrag Fanselau (über Filchner). . . . S. 6. ; Sieberg, A.: Arbeitsgebiete der Reichsanstalt für Erdbebenforschung in ihren Beziehungen zur Geologie und Bergbau. . . . S. 7. ; Krumbach, G.: Über ein Stationsseismometer für optische Registrierung. . . . S. 17. ; Martin, H.: Ein neuer Erschütterungsmesser und die Aufzeichnung nicht-sinusförmiger Bewegungen. . . . S.24. ; Herrmann, A.: Grundsätzliche Betrachtungen über piezoelektrische Beschleunigungsmesser. . . . S. 31. ; Trappe, Fr. und Ruprecht, L.: Die Anwendung der seismischen Reflexionsmethode zur Untersuchung von Salzstöcken im Harzvorland. . . . S. 37. ; Meisser, O.: Zur absoluten Schweremessung. . . . S. 41. ; Jung, K.: Zur Isostasiefrage. . . . S. 47. ; Graf, A.: Über die Bestimmung der Gravimeterkonstante bei einem frei hängenden Federsystem. . . . S. 49. ; Jung. H.: Dichtebestimmung im anstehenden Gestein durch Messung der Schwerebeschleunigung in verschiedenen Tiefen unter Tage. . . . S. 56. ; Rössiger, M.: Diskussionsbemerkung zum Vortrag von H. Jung. . . . S. 65. ; Bock, R.: Über die Magnetische Reichsvermessung II. Ordnung und ihre ersten vorläufigen Ergebnisse. . . . S. 66. ; Reich, H.: Stand der geophysikalischen Reichsaufnahme. . . . S. 73. ; Rössiger, M.: Die experimentellen Grundlagen des Dipol-Induktionsverfahrens. . . . S. 83. ; Paul, M.: Erfahrungen mit einem neuen geothermischen Aufschlußverfahren. . . . S. 88. ; Rössiger, M.: Diskussionsbemerkungen zum Vortrage von M. Paul. . . . S. 93. ; Meinardus, W.: Die Temperaturverhaltnisse der südlichen Halbkugel. . . . S. 94. ; Model, Fr.: Der neue Schreibpegel in Arkona. . . . S. 107. ; Mitteilung für die Mitglieder der Deutschen Geophysikalischen Gesellschaft. Arbeitsgemeinschaft der vier an der Bodenforschung beteiligten Gesellschaften. . . . S. 113. ; Schulz, B.: Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Atlantischen Expedition auf dem Forschungs- und Vermessungsschiff „Meteor“ 1925-1927, Bd. VI, 2. Teil, 3. Lieferung. . . . S.114. ; Schulze, G. A.: Veröffentlichungen des Instituts der Deutschen Forschungsgesellschaft für Bodenmechanik (Degebo) an der Technischen Hochschule Berlin, Heft 5. Über Zusammenhänge zwischen Wasserhaushalt der Tonminerale und bodenphysikalischen Eigenschaften bindiger Böden. . . . S. 114. ; Schulze, G. A.: M. Dengler: Erkundung von Verkehrswegen in Neuländern. . . . S. 115. ; Schriel: P. Kukuk: Geologie des Niederrheinisch-Westfälischen Steinkohlengebietes. . . . S. 115. ; Druckfehlerberichtigung. . . . S. 116. ; Graf, A.: Großentfernungsmessungen mit dem Askania-Gravimeter in Texas. . . . S. 117. ; Thyssen, St. v.: Über die Wirkungsweise von einigen feldfähigen Federgravimetern. . . . S. 121. ; Thyssen, St. v. und Rülke, O.: Beschreibung des neuen Gerätes zur Bestimmung der Fortpflanzungsgeschwindigkeit elastischer Wellen in Gesteinsproben und einige Meßergebnisse. . . . S. 130. ; Schmidt, O. v.: Über Kopfwellen in der Seismik. . . . S.141. ; Ramspeck, A.: Der Einfluß eines mit der Tiefe veränderlichen Elastizitätsmoduls auf den Weg elastischer Wellen im Boden. . . . S. 148. ; Bungers, H.: Seismische Untersuchungen des Geophysikalischen Instituts in Göttingen, XXXV. Zur Methodik der Nahbebenbearbeitung. . . . S. 160. ; Jeffreys, H.: Remarks an the Paper of G. Schmerwitz on Central European Earthquakes. . . . S. 168. ; Müller, M.: Die Meßverfahren zur Bestimmung des Dispersionseffektes des Widerstandes von Gesteinsmedien. . . . S. 176. ; Herold, F.: Bemerkung zu Zählrohrmessungen im Gelände. . . . S. 182. ; Hoffrogge, Chr.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen der bodennahen Luftströmungen am Hang und im ebenen Gelände. . . . S. 184. ; Bartels, J.: Potsdamer erdmagnetische Kennziffern. 4. Mitteilung. . . . S. 214. ; Brunner, W.: Tägliche Sonnenflecken-Relativzahlen für das 4. Vierteljahr 1938. . . . S. 222. ; Brunner, W.: Tägliche Sonnenflecken-Relativzahlen für das 1.Vierteljahr 1939. . . . S.223. ; Nachruf auf Oskar Venske. . . . S. 224. ; Schulz, B.: Theodor Stocks: Grundkarte der ozeanischen Lotungen 1: 5 Millionen, Blatt S I 2 mit durchsichtigem Deckblatt. . . . S. 226. ; Müller, M.: Volker Fritsch: Grundzüge der Funkgeologie. . . . S. 226. ; Bungers, K.: K. Jung: Kleine Erdbebenkunde. . . . S. 227. ; Kirsch, G.: Geomechanik. . . . S. 228. ; Druckfehlerberichtigung. . . . S. 228. ; Breyer, Fr.: Die topographische Reduktion der Lotabweichungen am Nanga Parbat mit Hilfe eines Diagramms. . . . S. 229. ; K. Wegener: Bemerkungen zu dem vertikalen Gradienten der Schwere. . . . S. 247. ; Tams, E.: Zur Frage der regionalen Verkoppelung von Erdbeben. II. . . . S. 249. ; Martin, H.: Zur Frage Schwingweg-‚ Geschwindigkeits- oder Beschleunigungsmesser. . . . S. 260. ; Schmerwitz, G.: Berechnung der Dicke der Erdkruste und einiger physikalischer Eigenschaften aus mitteleuropäischen Nahbebenaufzeichnungen. . . . S. 268. ; Trommsdorff, Fro: Seismische Untersuchungen des Geophysikalischen Instituts in Göttingen. XXXVI. Untersuchungen über die natürliche Bodenunruhe (Mikroseismik) mit transportablen Dreikomponentenstationen. . . . S. 304. ; Bungers, R.: Seismische Untersuchungen des Geophysikalischen Instituts in Göttingen. XXXVII. Die Überlagerung zweier Wellen verschiedener Herkunftsrichtung. . . . S. 321 . ; Bartels, J.: Potsdamer erdmagnetische Kennziffern. 5. Mitteilung. . . . S. 333. ; Brunner, W.: Tägliche Sonnenflecken-Relativzahlen für das 2. Vierteljahr 1939. . . . S. 336. ; Balensiefer, E., Büttner, K., Pfleiderer, H. und Wetzel, W.: Untersuchungen über die Bodenunruhe auf Sylt. . . . S. 337. ; Schmerwitz, G.: Die Bedeutung des Ausgleichungsverfahrens für die Auswertung von Nahbeben-Seismogrammen. . . . S. 365. ; Lorenz, H.: Ermittlung des Zustandes des Erdinnern aus dem Energieinhalt. . . . S. 371. ; Becker, L.: Die Bewegung der Kontinente und die Köppen-Wegenersche Polkurve. . . . S. 379. ; Referate : Wegener, K.: Die Laufgeschwindigkeit c der Longitudinalwellen als Funktion der Temperatur. . . . S. 390. ; Suckstorff, G. A.: F. Linke: Meteorologisches Taschenbuch, 3. Ausgabe. . . . S. 394. ; Suckstorff, G. A.: W. G. Kendrew: Climate. . . . S. 394. ; Schneider, W.: A. Ramspeck und G. A. Schulze: Die Dispersion elastischer Wellen im Boden. . . . S. 395. ; Druckfehlerberichtigung. . . . S. 395. ; Geophysikalische Berichte ; Register der Geophysikalischen Berichte ; Namenregister der Geophysikalischen Berichte ;
    Description: DGG, DFG, SUB Göttingen
    Description: research
    Keywords: Geophysik ; Physische Geografie ; Angewandte Geophysik ; Atmosphäre ; Aurora ; Deformationen ; Erdmagnetismus ; Geoelektrik ; Geomagnetismus ; Gezeiten ; Gravimetrie ; Gravitation ; Luftelektrizität ; Physik des Meeres und der Gewässer ; Polarlicht ; Schwere ; Seismik ; Statik ; Strahlung ; Tektonik ; Tiden ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: German , English
    Type: anthology_digi
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: This open access book looks at how a democracy can devolve into a post-factual state. The media is being flooded by populist narratives, fake news, conspiracy theories and make-believe. Misinformation is turning into a challenge for all of us, whether politicians, journalists, or citizens. In the age of information, attention is a prime asset and may be converted into money, power, and influence - sometimes at the cost of facts. The point is to obtain exposure on the air and in print media, and to generate traffic on social media platforms. With information in abundance and attention scarce, the competition is ever fiercer with truth all too often becoming the first victim. Reality Lost: Markets of Attention, Misinformation and Manipulation is an analysis by philosophers Vincent F. Hendricks and Mads Vestergaard of the nuts and bolts of the information market, the attention economy and media eco-system which may pave way to postfactual democracy. Here misleading narratives become the basis for political opinion formation, debate, and legislation. To curb this development and the threat it poses to democratic deliberation, political self-determination and freedom, it is necessary that we first grasp the mechanisms and structural conditions that cause it.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: This open access book discusses how Norwegian shipping companies played a crucial role in global shipping markets in the 20th century, at times transporting more than ten per cent of world seaborne trade. Chapters explore how Norway managed to remain competitive, despite being a high labour-cost country in an industry with global competition. Among the features that are emphasised are market developments, business strategies and political decisions The Norwegian experience was shaped by the main breaking points in 20th century world history, such as the two world wars, and by long-term trends, such as globalization and liberalization. The shipping companies introduced technological and organizational innovations to build or maintain a competitive advantage in a rapidly changing world. The growing importance of offshore petroleum exploration in the North Sea from the 1970s was both a threat and an opportunity to the shipping companies. By adapting both business strategies and the political regime to the new circumstances, the Norwegian shipping sector managed to maintain a leading position internationally.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: This open access book brings together works by specialists from different disciplines and continents to reflect on the nexus between leadership, spirituality and discernment, particularly with regard to a world that is increasingly volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA). The book spells out, first of all, what our VUCA world entails, and how it affects businesses, organizations, and societies as a whole. Secondly, the book develops new perspectives on the processes of leadership, spirituality, and discernment, particularly in this VUCA context. These perspectives are interdisciplinary in nature, and are informed by e.g. management studies, leadership theory, philosophy, and theology.
    Keywords: ddc:650 ; Spirituality and leadership ; Spirituality in the workplace ; Discernment in organizations ; VUCA and leadership strategies ; Interdisciplinary approaches to leadership ; Corporate social responsibility and spirituality
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: This open access Pivot demonstrates how a variety of technologies act as innovation catalysts within the banking and financial services sector. Traditional banks and financial services are under increasing competition from global IT companies such as Google, Apple, Amazon and PayPal whilst facing pressure from investors to reduce costs, increase agility and improve customer retention. Technologies such as blockchain, cloud computing, mobile technologies, big data analytics and social media therefore have perhaps more potential in this industry and area of business than any other. This book defines a fintech ecosystem for the 21st century, providing a state-of-the art review of current literature, suggesting avenues for new research and offering perspectives from business, technology and industry.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; fintech ecosystem ; crowdfunding ; entrepreneurship ; regulation ; technology innovation ; digital currencies ; blockchain ; artificial intelligence ; big data ; social media ; insurtech ; machine learning
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 40
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    Cham: Palgrave Macmillan
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: This open access book analyses the development problems of sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) from the eyes of a Korean diplomat with knowledge of the economic growth Korea has experienced in recent decades. The author argues that Africa's development challenges are not due to a lack of resources but a lack of management, presenting an alternative to the traditional view that Africa's problems are caused by a lack of leadership. In exploring an approach based on mind-set and nation-building, rather than unity - which tends to promote individual or party interests rather than the broader country or national interests - the author suggests new solutions for SSA's economic growth, inspired by Korea's successful economic growth model much of which is focused on industrialisation. This book will be of interest to researchers, policymakers, NGOs and governmental bodies in economics, development and politics studying Africa's economic development, and Korea's economic growth model
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Economic Discrimination ; Korean economic growth ; Saemaul Undong ; Nation-building ; Economics and Industrialisation ; Korean development model ; Sub-Saharan African development economics ; Human and social capital
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: This open access book analyzes and seeks to consolidate the use of robust quantitative tools and qualitative methods for the design and assessment of energy and climate policies. In particular, it examines energy and climate policy performance and associated risks, as well as public acceptance and portfolio analysis in climate policy, and presents methods for evaluating the costs and benefits of flexible policy implementation as well as new framings for business and market actors. In turn, it discusses the development of alternative policy pathways and the identification of optimal switching points, drawing on concrete examples to do so. Lastly, it discusses climate change mitigation policies' implications for the agricultural, food, building, transportation, service and manufacturing sectors.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; robust policy making ; adaptive policy making ; multiple criteria decision making ; energy and climate policy ; decision making under uncertainty ; collaborative uncertainty modeling
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 42
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-30
    Description: This article examines how trade shocks shape labour market imperfections that create market power in labour markets and prevent an efficient allocation of labour. I develop a framework for measuring such labor market distortions in monetary terms and document large degrees of those distortions in Germany's manufacturing sector. Import competition can only exert labor market disciplining effects when firms rather than workers have labour market power. Otherwise, export demand and import competition shocks tend to fortify existing distortions by amplifying labour market power structures. This diminishes the gains from trade compared to a model with perfectly competitive labour markets.
    Keywords: D24 ; F14 ; F16 ; J50 ; L13 ; L60 ; ddc:330 ; international trade ; market power ; labor markets ; allocative efficiency
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 43
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    Mannheim: ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-01-30
    Description: Innovation is considered as a main driver of economic growth. Promoting the development of innovation through STI (science, technology and innovation) policies requires accurate indicators of innovation. Traditional indicators often lack coverage, granularity as well as timeliness and involve high data collection costs, especially when conducted at a large scale. In this paper, we propose a novel approach on how to create firm-level innovation indicators at the scale of millions of firms. We use traditional firm-level innovation indicators from the questionnaire-based Community Innovation Survey (CIS) survey to train an artificial neural network classification model on labelled (innovative/non-innovative) web texts of surveyed firms. Subsequently, we apply this classification model to the web texts of hundreds of thousands of firms in Germany to predict their innovation status. Our results show that this approach produces credible predictions and has the potential to be a valuable and highly cost-efficient addition to the existing set of innovation indicators, especially due to its coverage and regional granularity. The predicted firm-level probabilities can also directly be interpreted as a continuous measure of innovativeness, opening up additional advantages over traditional binary innovation indicators.
    Keywords: O30 ; C81 ; C83 ; ddc:330 ; Web Mining ; Web Scraping ; R&D ; R&I ; STI ; Innovation ; Indicators ; Text Mining ; Natural Language Processing ; NLP ; Deep Learning
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 44
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    Springer International Publishing
    In:  Fission-Track Thermochronology and its Application to Geology | Springer Textbooks in Earth Sciences, Geography and Environment
    Publication Date: 2018-09-04
    Description: The geomorphologic evolution of orogens has been a subject of revived interest and accelerated development over the past few decades, thanks to both the increasing availability of high-resolution data and computing power and the realisation that orogenic topography plays a central role in coupling deep-earth and surface processes. Low-temperature thermochronology takes a central place in this revived interest, as it allows us to link quantitative geomorphology to the spatial and temporal patterns of exhumation. In particular, rock cooling rates over million-year timescales derived from thermochronological data have been used to reconstruct rock exhumation histories, to detect km-scale relief changes, and to document lateral shifts in relief. In this chapter, we review how classic approaches of determining exhumation histories have contributed to our understanding of landscape evolution, and we highlight novel approaches to quantifying relief changes that have been developed over the last decade. We discuss how patterns of exhumation in laterally accreting orogens are recorded by low-temperature thermochronology, and how such data can be applied to infer temporal variations in exhumation rates, providing indirect constraints on topographic development. We subsequently review recent studies aimed at quantifying relief development and modification associated with river incision, glacial modifications of landscapes, and shifts in the position of range divides. We also point out how interpretations of some datasets are non-unique, emphasizing the importance of understanding the full range of processes that may influence landscape morphology and how each may affect spatial patterns of thermochronologic ages.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • 45
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    Springer
    In:  Karst Water Environment : Advances in Research, Management and Policy | The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry
    Publication Date: 2018-09-11
    Description: Examination of microbial communities within karst aquifers is an important aspect of determining the quality of the drinking water obtained from groundwater. While past work has been based on culture-based assays, a more complete view of the microbial community within karst aquifers can be achieved using molecular approaches based on DNA sequencing. Due to a reduced cell number when compared to surface environments, collecting sufficient microbial cells for analysis in karst aquifers can be problematic. In addition to issues of cell density, particulates due to the geologic location, technological limitations of equipment that can be hand-carried and work for extended periods underground, and even the physical access to some of these subsurface sites, all contribute to making examination of the microbiology in karst aquifers a challenge. This chapter highlights some of the approaches we have used to successfully isolate microbial cells for DNA extraction from an aquifer accessed in a remote cave location. The methods we developed can aid other researchers to evaluate the microbiology of similar isolated karst aquifers.
    Language: English
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  • 46
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    Taylor & Francis Group
    In:  The Anthropocene Debate and Political Science | Routledge Research in Global Environmental Governance
    Publication Date: 2018-10-23
    Language: English
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2018-10-26
    Description: After Rock-Eval & TOC screening and heterogeneity evaluation on 91 Palaeogene source rock samples from a well drilled in the Austrian Molasse Basin, ten shale samples were selected for detailed investigations by means of pyrolysis-gas chromatography, bulk kinetics and biomarker identification and quantification. Afterwards, 2-D biplots based on principal component analysis were applied to unravel the palaeo-environmental control on the development of petroleum source rocks. All samples are immature source rocks with good petroleum generation potentials. The redox environment during deposition was generally reducing, and palaeosalinity is suggested to be the main factor causing the differences in organic carbon contents among the samples. The hydrogen index values, the gas generation preferences and the aromaticity of the products are controlled by both depositional environment and precursors, and the product of a salinity indicator (MTTC) and the oleanane index is introduced as predictive proxy to evaluate these features. The maturity indicator (Tmax) is revealed as dominated by the stability of the kerogen structure which is controlled by the proportion of organic sulphur compounds in the kerogen. The global Eocene-Oligocene climate change from a greenhouse to an icehouse world is suggested to play an important role in changing the palaeoenvironment and further in influencing the development of petroleum source rocks by triggering upwelling, increasing the palaeo-sea water salinity and decreasing the deposition of carbonate-minerals. The chemometric method suggested here acts as a powerful tool in identifying the controlling factors for the petroleum generation potential among many variables, and can be applied more widely in petroleum geology when multi-parameters are involved to get quick and meaningful correlations.
    Language: English
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  • 48
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    Springer
    In:  Natural Gas Engines: For Transportation and Power Generation | Energy, Environment, and Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2018-11-29
    Description: Lean-burn natural gas engines can be used to reduce exhaust emissions significantly. However, as the mixture is leaned out, the occurrence of extinction and incomplete combustion increases, resulting in poor performance and stability, as well as elevated levels of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. The partially stratified charge (PSC) method can be used to mitigate these issues, while extending the lean misfire limit (LML) beyond its equivalent, homogeneous level. In this chapter, the PSC ignition and combustion processes are examined following a comprehensive experimental and numerical approach. Experiments are conducted in an idealized PSC configuration, using a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC), to identify the principle enabling mechanisms of the PSC methodology. Engine tests conducted in a single-cylinder research engine (SCRE) demonstrate the feasibility of various PSC implementations in improving performance and emission characteristics in real-world settings. Complementary numerical analyses for the CVCC are obtained through large eddy simulations (LES), while Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations are conducted for SCRE with reduced chemical kinetics. The corresponding simulated results provide additional insights in characterizing the effect of fuel stratification on flame kernel maturation and flame propagation, the interplay between chemistry and turbulence at different overall air–fuel ratios, as well as formation of major pollutant species.
    Language: English
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2018-11-29
    Description: This paper investigates the interplay between the German incentive regulation and renewable capacity integration. A comprehensive review of the current incentive regulation scheme and its 2016 amendment is first presented. Then, results of ten representative interviews with large-scale distribution system operators are analyzed. Firstly, all necessary grid integration measures could so far be implemented. Secondly, creating proper incentives for intelligent operating equipment to partly substitute conventional grid expansion remains a challenge. Thirdly, the new curtailment regulation of 2016 is welcome, but will not become a substitute for grid expansion as long as renewable integration rates are high. Moreover, the discussions on further improvements to the incentive regulation scheme reveal a distribution conflict between grid operators and grid users.
    Language: English
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-11-29
    Description: Germany’s ambition to promote sustainable energy globally, on the basis of its own “Energiewende,” has led to the development of a multi-faceted international energy transition policy with various activities and an agenda to promote renewables and energy efficiency abroad. While domestic energy policy developments in Germany have received substantial attention in research and public debate, this is still less true for the country’s international energy transition policy. With the new German government’s program now having taken shape and implementation starting, it is time to assess the foundations and likely direction of and the most relevant challenges for Germany’s efforts to promote sustainable energy internationally. This perspective article takes a look at the aspects shaping Germany’s outreach to partner countries outside the EU to promote sustainable energy and addresses open questions related to its agenda. Germany’s international energy transition policy builds on a longstanding track record, but in order to maintain credibility and visibility in leadership for sustainable energy, two key challenges remain: setbacks in domestic climate mitigation efforts are putting into question claims for climate leadership and struggles to expand the Energiewende beyond the electricity sector require a new spin to international collaboration efforts, more and more directed toward bidirectional exchange and mutual learning.
    Language: English
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: In Nepal, majority of households still burn solid fuels in inefficient cook stoves inside poorly ventilated kitchens, which results in very high levels of indoor pollutants, including black carbon (BC). Previous studies have not yet reported BC concentrations in typical kitchen configurations in rural Nepal. In this study, fine particulate matter (PM) and BC concentrations were monitored continuously inside two types of kitchens (separated from and attached to the main house) under actual cooking practices. Prior to monitoring of pollutants, a field survey was conducted to gain insight into the types of kitchens, cook stoves and fuels used. Indoor PM and BC concentrations were monitored using biomass fuels in traditional cook stoves (TC) and improved cook stoves (ICS). Clear diurnal variations of the pollutants were observed in both kitchens, with the highest concentrations during cooking times. BC and PM concentrations during cooking and non-cooking periods demonstrated clear reductions in the concentrations during non-cooking periods. It was observed that the concentrations rose steeply during the first half hour of cooking, then decreased slightly and finally leveled off to the non-cooking period concentrations. 24-hour average indoor PM concentrations in both kitchens frequently exceeded Nepal's indoor air quality standards and the WHO PM2.5 guidelines, by a factor of ~8 to ~28. We found that the specific type of ICS used in this study, a commonly used ICS in Nepal and other developing countries might help in PM emission reductions but not necessarily BC emission reduction.
    Language: English
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-12-18
    Description: River flooding is among the most destructive of natural hazards globally, causing widespread loss of life, damage to infrastructure and economic deprivation. Societies are currently under increasing threat from such floods, predominantly from increasing exposure of people and assets in flood-prone areas, but also as a result of changes in flood magnitude, frequency, and timing. Accurate flood hazard and risk assessment are therefore crucial for the sustainable development of societies worldwide. With a paucity of hydrological measurements, evidence from the field offers the only insight into truly extreme events and their variability in space and time. Historical, botanical, and geological archives have increasingly been recognized as valuable sources of extreme flood event information. These different archives are here reviewed with a particular focus on the recording mechanisms of flood information, the historical development of the methodological approaches and the type of information that those archives can provide. These studies provide a wealthy dataset of hundreds of historical and palaeoflood series, whose analysis reveals a noticeable dominance of records in Europe. After describing the diversity of flood information provided by this dataset, we identify how these records have improved and could further improve flood hazard assessments and, thereby, flood management and mitigation plans.
    Language: English
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019-01-02
    Description: The important role that climate leaders and leadership play at different levels of the European Union (EU) multilevel governance system is exemplified. Initially, climate leader states set the pace with ambitious policy measures that were adopted largely on an ad hoc basis. Since the mid-1980s, the EU has developed a multilevel climate governance system that has facilitated leadership and lesson-drawing at all governance levels including the local level. The EU has become a global climate policy leader by example although it had been set up as a ‘leaderless Europe’. The resulting ‘leadership without leader’ paradox cannot be sufficiently explained merely by reference to top-level EU climate policies. Local-level climate innovations and lesson-drawing have increasingly been encouraged by the EU’s multilevel climate governance system which has become more polycentric. The recognition of economic co-benefits of climate policy measures has helped to further the EU’s climate leadership role.
    Language: English
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  • 54
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2019-01-05
    Description: Paper models lender’s decision based on project riskiness, trust from borrower’s socioeconomic network, and social cost of default for the borrower. The paper suggests a methodology to estimate aggregate level of trustworthiness of borrower in socio-economic network. Our model links the social cost of default to credit default. A relatively safer project executed by a borrower with lower social cost of default is likely to be a willful defaulter. Similarly, relatively safer project executed by a borrower with high social cost of default is likely to pay-back the loan.
    Keywords: D85 ; G21 ; L14 ; ddc:330 ; Social Economic Network ; Trust ; Credit Risk
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:preprint
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  • 55
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    Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig
    In:  SUB Göttingen | 8 Z NAT 2148
    Publication Date: 2019-01-11
    Description: Sachverzeichnis : I. Physik des festen Erdkörpers. 1. Bewegung und Aufbau der Erde. Schwere : K. Ledersteger: Zur Frage der Variabilität der Chandlerschen Periode. S. 11. ; K. Jung: Direkte Methoden zur Bestimmung von Störungsmassen aus Anomalien der Schwereintensitat. S. 45. ; K. Wegener : Die absolute Schweremessung. S. 68. ; S. W. Tromp: Das Gesetz von Helmholtz und seine Anwendung auf Geotektonik. S. 78. ; H. Jung: Bemerkungen zu den vorstehenden Ausführungen von S. W. Tromp. S. 83. ; S. W. Tromp: Antwort auf die kritischen Bemerkungen von H. Jung. S. 85. ; A. Berroth: Gravitationsfeld und Oberflächengestalt der Erde und ihre geometrische Festlegung. S. 133. ; A. E. Benfield: Note on the Variation of Gravity with Depth. S. 157. ; H. Jung: Die Lotabweichungen in der Umgebung des Naga Parbat und ein Versuch zu ihrer geophysikalischen Deutung. S. 205. ; W. Köller: Untersuchungen über Vorgänge an der Schneide beim Schwingen eines Schwerependels. S. 269. ; 2. Gezeiten, Deformationen, Seismik : H. P. T. Rohleder: Zur Seismizitat Afrikas während der Jahre 1913 bis 1930. S. 9. ; H. Lettau: Das Horizontaldoppelpendel. S. 25. ; A. Berroth: Geometrische Lösung der Grundaufgaben der in der Geologie angewandten Seismik. S. 87. ; W. Sponheuer: Gebäudeschwingungen beim Erdbebenstoß. S. 106. ; St. v. Thyssen. J. N. Hummel und O. Rülke: Die Ursachen des seismisch-elektrischen Effektes. S. 112. ; R. H. Gees: Seismische Untersuchungen des Geophysikalischen Institutes in Göttingen. XXX. Die Wellenausbreitung der Erdbeben vom 20. November 1932 (Nordbrabant) und 7. Juni 1931 (Doggerbank). S. 159. ; O. Meisser: Beitrage zur Konstruktion eines Vertikalseismometers. S. 251. ; H. Martin: Ein neuer mechanischer Beschleunigungsmesser. S. 241. ; W. Sponheuer: Über die makroseismischen Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Herdtiefe und ihre Anwendung bei Lockerböden. S. 301. ; J. Bartels u. G. Fanselau: Geophysikalischer Mond-Almanach. S. 311. ; II. Magnetisches und elektrisches Feld der Erde. Erdmagnetismus, Polarlicht, Luftelektrizität, Durchdringende Strahlung : T. Schlomka: Zur neuen Haalckschen Theorie des Erdmagnetismus. S. 126. ; G. Fanselau: Einige Bemerkungen zu der magnetischen Störung vom 24. bis 28. April 1937. S. 191. ; H. Haalck: Zur Frage nach der Ursache des Erdmagnetismus, S. 192. ; T. Schlomka: Erwiderung an Herrn Haalck. S. 195. ; H. Haalck: Entgegnung auf die Ausführungen von T. Schlomka. S. 197. ; G. Fanselau: Über eine photographische Ableseeinrichtung am Doppelkompaß. S. 235. ; III. Physik der Atmosphäre. Statik, Dynamik der Atmosphäre, Strahlungsvorgänge : W. Paeschke: Experimentelle Untersuchungen zum Rauhigkeitsproblem in der bodennahen Luftschicht. S. 14. ; F. Rossmann: Über die Funkschwierigkeiten bei den Gronau-Flügen über Grönland. S. 71. ; H. Dieterichs: Ein mechanisch registrierendes Vertikalanemometer und seine Verwendung im Gelände. S. 179. ; IV. Hydrographie. V. Angewandte Geophysik. (Gravimetrische und seismische Methoden siehe auch I, 1 und 2) : A. Ramspeck: Wendepunkte in der Laufzeitkurve sinusförmiger Wellen. S. 1. ; K. Jung: Direkte Methoden zur Bestimmung von Störungsmassen aus Anomalien der Schwereintensität. S. 45. ; A. Berroth: Geometrische Lösung der Grundaufgaben der in der Geologie angewandten Seismik. S. 87. G. A. Schulze: Seismische Untersuchungen des Geophysikalischen Institutes in Göttingen. XXIX. Ortung einer Maschine durch ihre Bodenschwingungen. S. 119. ; H. Dobberstein: Ein photoelektrischer Schwingungsmesser. S. 123. ; H. Gockel: Die Fehler bei der Aufnahme der drahtlosen Zeitsignale und Vorschläge zur Verbesserung. S. 223. ; H. D. Krug: Seismische Untersuchungen des Geophysikalischen Institutes in Göttingen. XXXII. Ausbreitung der natürlichen Bodenunruhe nach Aufzeichnungen mit transportablen Horizontalseismographen. S. 328. ; O. Meisser: Beitrage zur Konstruktion eines Vertikalseismometers. S. 251. ; H. Martin: Ein neuer mechanischer Beschleunigungsmesser. S. 241. ; W. Köller: Untersuchungen über Vorgänge an der Schneide beim Schwingen eines Schwerependels. S. 269. ; R. Lauterbach : Geomagnetische Messungen an Lamprophyrgängen in der Lausitz. S. 291. ; Verschiedenes und Mitteilungen : E. Kohlschütter: Bericht über die Tagung der Internationalen Geodätischen Gesellschaft in Edinburgh vom 17. bis 26. September 1936. S. 22. ; Bericht über die XII. Tagung der Deutschen Geophysikalischen Gesellschaft vom 8. bis 10. Oktober 1936 in Berlin. S. 34. ; Adressenänderungen zum Mitgliederverzeichnis. S.44. ; Druckfehlerberichtigung. S. 44. ; K. Beurlen: Mitteilung über die Fachgliederung Bodenkunde (Geologie, Mineralogie, Geophysik) im Reichsforschungsrat. S. 131. ; Vier deutsche Nordlandreisen 1937, eine Veranstaltung der Nordischen Gesellschaft. S. 132. ; E. Kohlschütter: Beitritt Deutschlands zur IGGV. S. 202. ; L. Haasemann zum 80. Geburtstag. S. 204. ; Bericht über die Kundgebung der Fachgliederung Bodenforschung in Aachen am 21.August 1937. S. 238. ; Zehn Jahre Fachnormenausschuß für Bibliotheks-, Buch- und Zeitschriftenwesen. S. 240. ; Wissenschaftlicher Wettbewerb aus dem Gebiet der Zeitmeßkunde und Uhrentechnik. S. 352. ; Mitteilung der Askania-Werke Berlin-Friedenau. S. 353. ; Referate : B. Schulz: A. Defant: Ausbreitungs- und Vermischungsvorgänge im antarktischen Bodenstrom und im subantarktischen Zwischenwasser. S. 43. ; G. A. Schulze: H. W. Koch u. E. Boedeker: Schwingungen im Bauwesen, bei Fahrzeugen und Maschinen, Schwingungsmessung. S. 198. ; G. A. Suckstorff: F. Reinholdz: Regenbeobachtungen, Wasserstands- und Wassermengenmessungen. S. 199. ; G. A. Suckstorff: Hann-Süring: Lehrbuch der Meteorologie. S.199. ; G. A. Suckstorff: F. Baur: Einführung in die Großwetterforschung. S. 200. ; G. A. Suckstorff: H. Israöl-Köhler: Das Klima von Bad Nauheim. S. 200. ; G. A. Suckstorff: J. Schnippenkötter u. T. Weyres: Physik für höhere Lehranstalten. S. 201. ; G. A. Suckstorff: A. Schmauss: Das Problem der Wettervorhersage. S. 201. ; G. Fanselau: A. Nippoldt: Erdmagnetismus, Erdstrom und Polarlicht. S. 202. G. A. Schulze: Carl Chr. Beringer: Geologisches Wörterbuch. S. 238. ; Ernst: A. Rittmann: Vulkane und ihre Tätigkeit. S. 348. ; B. Schulz: A. Defant: Schichtung und Zirkulation des Atlantischen Ozeans. S. 350. ; Geophysikalische Berichte : S. 1-46. Heft 1. ; S. 47-104. Heft 2/3. ; S. 105-116. Heft 4/5. ; S. 107-176. Heft 6. ;
    Description: DGG, DFG, SUB Göttingen
    Description: research
    Keywords: Geophysik ; Atmosphäre ; Aurora ; Deformation ; Geomagnetismus ; Gezeiten ; Gravimetrie ; Gravitation ; Gravity ; Hydrographie ; Ionosphäre ; Luftelektrizität ; Physische Geografie ; Seismik ; Statik ; Strahlung ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: German , English
    Type: anthology_digi
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  • 56
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    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-08
    Description: In this paper, I study the effect of a change in the mandatory manufacturer rebate on wholesale prices for pharmaceuticals on competition by parallel imports. First, I analyze the effect of a manufacturer rebate on competition by parallel imports in a two-country model. An increase in the manufacturer rebate increases the market share of parallel imports. Second, I exploit a policy reform in Germany in 2010 that increased the manufacturer rebate by 10 percentage points. Using a data set with prescription drugs with competition from parallel imports, I estimate the effect of the change in the manufacturer rebate on competition by parallel imports. Estimation results suggest that an increase in the manufacturer rebate has increased the market share of parallel imports.
    Keywords: F12 ; I11 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; parallel imports ; manufacturer rebate ; pharmaceuticals ; regulation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 57
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    facet.materialart.
    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-08
    Description: I study the effect of reference pricing on competition by parallel imports, in particular the market share of parallel imports and the number of parallel traders. First, I analyze the effect of reference pricing on competition by parallel imports in a vertical differentiation model with a locally sourced version and a parallel import offered by n identical parallel traders. Second, I explore the effect of reference pricing on competition by parallel imports using a dataset with prescription drugs with competition from parallel imports. Both model and estimation results suggest that the introduction of reference pricing inreases the market share of the parallel import and the number of parallel traders, while a decrease in the reference price decreases the market share of the parallel import and the number of parallel traders.
    Keywords: F12 ; I11 ; I18 ; ddc:330 ; reference pricing ; parallel imports ; pharmaceutical regulation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 58
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    Basel: Springer Nature | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-01-08
    Description: This article discusses the aggregation problem and its implications for ecological economics. The aggregation problem consists of a simple dilemma: when adding heterogeneous phenomena together, the observer must choose the unit of analysis. The dilemma is that this choice affects the resulting measurement. This means that aggregate measurements are dependent on one’s goals, and on the underlying theory. Using simple examples, this article shows how the aggregation problem complicates tasks such as calculating indexes of aggregate quantity, and how it undermines attempts to find a singular metric for complex issues such as sustainability. [Data and analysis for this paper are available at the Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/3smra/]
    Keywords: P16 ; P48 ; E01 ; C43 ; Q56 ; Q01 ;