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  • 1
    Call number: Z 06.0500
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1824-7741
    Former Title: Vorgänger Geologisch-paläontologische Mitteilungen, Innsbruck
    Language: German , English
    Note: Ersch. unregelmäßig , Beiträge teilweise in Englisch
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Unknown
    London : Penguin Books
    ISBN: 9780141985206
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 3
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    [Edgecumbe, N.Z.] : A. Muller
    Call number: M 15.89146
    Description / Table of Contents: An account of the results of the 2 March 1987 earthquake in the eastern Bay of Plenty and the aftermath's effects on the people and places on the Rangitaiki Plains
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 223 S., , Ill.
    Language: English
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 4
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Garmisch-Partenkirchen : Institut für atmosphärische Umweltforschung der Fraunhofer- Gesellschaft
    Call number: MOP 44829 / Mitte
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 25 S. , graph. Darst.
    Language: English
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 5
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Bonn : Helmholtz Association ; 2006-
    Associated volumes
    Call number: 3/S 07.0034(2017)
    In: Annual report
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 51 Seiten
    ISSN: 1865-6439 , 1865-6447
    URL: Volltext  (kostenfrei)
    Parallel Title: Annual report ... / Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Call number: M 18.91571
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 134 Seiten
    ISSN: 2363-7196
    Series Statement: Global tectonics and metallogeny : special issue Vol. 10/2-4
    detail.hit.classification_display:
    A.3.4.
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Global tectonics and metallogeny
    Language: English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 7
  • 8
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Leiden : Nijhoff ; 1.2009 -
    Call number: IASS 17.92082
    Type of Medium: Monograph non-lending collection
    ISSN: 1876-8814
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 9
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    Chicago: University of Chicago Press | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-22
    Description: 9-ending prices, which comprise between 40%–95% of retail prices, are popular because shoppers perceive them as being low. We study whether this belief is justified using scanner price-data with over 98-million observations from a large US grocery-chain. We find that 9-ending prices are higher than non 9-ending prices, by as much as 18%. Two factors explain why shoppers believe, mistakenly, that 9-ending prices are low. First, we find that among sale-prices, 9-ending prices are indeed lower than non 9-ending prices, giving 9-ending prices an aura of being low. Second, at first, 9-ending prices were indeed lower than other prices. Shoppers, therefore, learned to associate 9-endings with low prices. Over time, however, 9-ending prices rose substantially, which shoppers failed to notice, because the continuous use of 9-ending prices for promoting deep price cuts draws shoppers’ attention to them, and helps to maintain-and-preserve the image of 9-ending prices as bargain prices.
    Description: Special Issue on Behavioral Pricing
    Keywords: M30 ; M31 ; L11 ; L16 ; L81 ; D12 ; D22 ; D40 ; D90 ; D91 ; E31 ; ddc:330 ; Behavioral Pricing ; Psychological Prices ; Price Perception ; Image Effect ; 9-Ending Prices ; Price Points ; Regular Prices ; Sale Prices
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-09-22
    Description: This study reports comprehensive analysis of seasonal and inter-annual variations of aerosol optical and physical properties over the Pokhara Valley in the foothills of central Himalayas in Nepal utilizing the high-quality multi-year columnar aerosol data observed recently from January 2010 to December 2017. The influence of forest fires and agro-residue fires on aerosol properties is also investigated. Seasonal mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) over Pokhara is ≥0.3 during the year, highest in pre-monsoon and lowest in monsoon season. AOD exhibits a consistent seasonal cycle every year with a peak in pre-monsoon. Fine mode fraction contributing to AOD and Ångström exponent (α) corroborate seasonal pattern of AODs. AODs show good correlation with fire counts in the Pokhara Valley and surrounding region. The aerosol volume size distributions are bimodal. The peaks in volume size distribution and volume concentrations obtained in 2016 pre-monsoon are the highest during the 8-year observation period which coincided with peaks in the occurrence of highest number of fires in the Pokhara Valley and surrounding region. Effective radius of coarse mode aerosols is an order of magnitude larger than fine mode aerosols. The analysis of optical and physical properties of aerosols over the Pokhara Valley suggest that the aerosols observed over the Himalayan foothills are of urban/industrial, biomass burning and dust origin with proportional contributions varying in different seasons. The study provides observational constraints on aerosol physical and optical properties that can serve as inputs for model simulation of aerosol physiochemical processes and quantification of impacts on air quality, climate and sensitive ecosystems in this data-sparse region.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2020-12-14
    Description: The GPS satellite transmitter antenna phase center offsets (PCOs) can be estimated in a global adjustment by constraining the ground station coordinates to the current International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Therefore, the derived PCO values rest on the terrestrial scale parameter of the frame. Consequently, the PCO values transfer this scale to any subsequent GNSS solution. A method to derive scale-independent PCOs without introducing the terrestrial scale of the frame is the prerequisite to derive an independent GNSS scale factor that can contribute to the datum definition of the next ITRF realization. By fixing the Galileo satellite transmitter antenna PCOs to the ground calibrated values from the released metadata, the GPS satellite PCOs in the z-direction (z-PCO) and a GNSS-based terrestrial scale parameter can be determined in GPS + Galileo processing. An alternative method is based on the gravitational constraint on low earth orbiters (LEOs) in the integrated processing of GPS and LEOs. We determine the GPS z-PCO and the GNSS-based scale using both methods by including the current constellation of Galileo and the three LEOs of the Swarm mission. For the first time, direct comparison and cross-check of the two methods are performed. They provide mean GPS z-PCO corrections of −186±25 mm and −221±37 mm with respect to the IGS values and +1.55±0.22 ppb (parts per billion) and +1.72±0.31 in the terrestrial scale with respect to the IGS14 reference frame. The results of both methods agree with each other with only small differences. Due to the larger number of Galileo observations, the Galileo-PCO-fixed method leads to more precise and stable results. In the joint processing of GPS + Galileo + Swarm in which both methods are applied, the constraint on Galileo dominates the results. We discuss and analyze how fixing either the Galileo transmitter antenna z-PCO or the Swarm receiver antenna z-PCO in the combined GPS + Galileo + Swarm processing propagates to the respective freely estimated z-PCO of Swarm and Galileo.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2020-12-14
    Description: In this study, we investigate numerically the hydro-mechanical behavior of fractured crystalline rock due to one of the five hydraulic stimulations at the Pohang Enhanced Geothermal site in South Korea. We use the commercial code FracMan (Golder Associates) that enables studying hydro-mechanical coupled processes in fractured media in three dimensions combining the finite element method with a discrete fracture network. The software is used to simulate fluid pressure perturbation at fractures during hydraulic stimulation. Our numerical simulation shows that pressure history matching can be obtained by partitioning the treatment into separate phases. This results in adjusted stress-aperture relationships. The evolution of aperture adjustment implies that the stimulation mechanism could be a combination of hydraulic fracturing and shearing. The simulated extent of the 0.01 MPa overpressure contour at the end of the treatment equals to ∼180 m around the injection point.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2020-12-14
    Description: This study of Lithium (Li) isotopes in surface waters and sediments in the catchment of Lake Bangong and the Upper Indus on the western Tibetan Plateau aims to identify processes that control Li isotope variations during weathering under a cold and hyper-arid climate. Additionally, Li isotope ratios in the Yarlung Tsangpo – Brahmaputra River were investigated. The lake and river sediments of Lake Bangong catchment display remarkable low δ7Li values between −4.7‰ and −0.6‰ relative to L-SVEC. Li isotopes in river bed sediments correlate with weathering intensity tracers such as the chemical index of alteration (CIA), K/(Na + K), or Na/Ti, and δ7Li values decrease continuously within the sediment cascade. These observations cannot be explained by mixing of different lithologies but reflects increasing intensity of weathering. The hyper-arid climate on the western plateau results in considerably long sediment residence times, which allows for overcoming the limitation of water availability on chemical weathering reactions. Samples from the Lake Bangong basins display low δ7Li values between +8.1‰ and +11.1‰. The major inflows have dissolved δ7Li values of +6.1‰ and +8.9‰. High Li/Na ratios in the stream waters indicate some contribution of hydrothermal Li. However, low δ7Li values in surface waters result from impeded silicate weathering processes in the thin soils. The samples from Indus headwaters and Yarlung Tsangpo provide evidence for low δ7Li all over the western and southern Tibetan Plateau. Using data of the Bangong Co, the Indus headwaters, and Yarlung Tsangpo, as well as published data from the northeastern plateau, we explore what controls Li isotope variation across the Tibetan plateau. Mass balance calculations suggest that similar proportions of dissolved Li and particulate Li are exported by river water and sediments on the western plateau. In contrast, high δ7Li values around +17‰ of the dissolved load in rivers on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau reflect a particulate Li export flux that is about five times higher than the export flux of dissolved Li. There is no first-order control by silicate weathering rates. The δ7Li differences largely follow the precipitation gradient across the Tibetan Plateau, which results in high net-incorporation of Li into clays on the northeastern but limits soil formation on the western Tibetan Plateau and, therefore limited, processing of lithium in the weathering zone.
    Language: English
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2020-12-15
    Description: The Proterozoic Carpentaria Province (McArthur basin and Mount Isa Inlier) in northern Australia comprises a number of world class clastic dominated (CD-type) Zn-Pb massive sulphide deposits, formally known as SEDEX deposits. In order to identify the geochemical footprint of any mineralizing system it is necessary to characterize compositional variability of the host-rock to mineralization. In the southern Carpentaria, establishing the baseline composition of the host rock is complicated by varying degrees of tectonic overprint, a lack of metamorphic indicator minerals, and the overall size of the ore forming systems. In this study, samples from drill-holes intersecting the main ore bodies at the world class George Fisher CD-type massive sulphide deposit have been compared to samples from a drill-hole intersecting barren, correlative lithologies of the Urquhart Shale Formation (ca. 1654 Ma). Bulk rock lithogeochemical (X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and LECO) and mineralogical (X-ray diffraction) analyses have been combined with petrographic observations to (1) establish the baseline composition of the Urquhart Shale Formation and (2) determine the geochemical and mineralogical footprint of the CD-type system at George Fisher. The absence of metamorphic indicator minerals, combined with the preservation of illite in un-mineralized Urquhart Shale, suggests that in this part of the Mount Isa area, the host rocks did not reach greenschist facies conditions (〉300 °C). Chlorite in the un-mineralized Urquhart Shale is very fine grained (≤ 10 μm) within interstitial pore spaces with other phyllosilicates (e.g., illite), and is interpreted to be diagenetic in origin. Relative to the un-mineralized Urquhart Shale, the first stage of sulphide mineralization (Zn-dominated, stratabound) at George Fisher is associated with decreased abundances of albite, chlorite, and calcite, and higher abundances of dolomite and phyllosilicates (muscovite and phlogopite). These mineralogical transformations are associated with strong minor and trace element depletion (Sr and Na) and enrichment (Tl and Mn). An element index based on this suite of elements (GF index = 10(400Tl+Mn 10Sr+Na)) is highly effective in differentiating between the background Urquhart Shale Formation and the alteration footprint at George Fisher and may provide an additional tool for geochemical exploration programmes in the Mount Isa area. This study affirms the benefit of combining lithogeochemical, mineralogical, and petrographic data in order to understand the host rock baseline composition and the alteration footprint of Carpentaria CD-type massive sulphide systems.
    Language: English
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2020-12-23
    Description: During the August 25, 2018 geomagnetic storm, the new borne CSES-01 satellite and the Swarm A satellite detected a really large equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) in the post-midnight sector over western Africa. We investigated the features of this deep ionospheric plasma depletion using data from the Langmuir probes on-board CSES-01 and Swarm A satellites, and data from the high-precision magnetometer and the electric field detector instruments on-board CSES-01. Using also plasma and magnetic field data from THEMIS-E satellite we found that, during the passage of the magnetic cloud that drove the geomagnetic storm, an impulsive variation lasting about ten minutes characterized the solar wind (SW) pressure. The analysis of the delay time, between the occurrence of such impulsive variation and the detection of the plasma bubble, suggests a possible link between the SW pressure impulsive variation as identified by THEMIS-E and the generation of the EPB as detected by CSES-01 and Swarm A. We put forward the hypothesis that the SW pressure impulsive variation might have triggered an eastward prompt penetrating electric field that propagated from high to equatorial latitudes, overlapping in the nightside region to the zonal westward electric field, causing either a reduction or an inversion, at the base of the EPB triggering.
    Language: English
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  • 16
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Community-Led Local Development (CLLD) – in rural areas implemented as LEADER – is a well-established “territorial delivery mechanism”. The research topic of this contribution is to discuss the influence of different variables of the LEADER implementation on the performance of this place-based and participatory approach. The results are related to single variables of the LEADER implementation and their impact on LEADER performance.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; R19 ; LEADER ; rural development
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Fostering innovation-driven regional development has become a major priority for public policy. Thus innovation is a crucial issue in Rural Development Programmes (RDP) to overcome challenges like economic development and demographic change. One part of RDP funded by the European Union, which explicitly addresses innovation, is LEADER: a bottom-up-oriented, participatory approach which relies on cooperation between local actors in the sense of a Community-led local development (CLLD). Stakeholders of different institutions and origins come together in a Local Action Group (LAG) to decide on the projects to be financed. Previous research provides evidence that rural communities are innovative when they have the necessary space and power to act. There is, however, little knowledge about the factors, which are crucial for the power to act, and about the policy framework that provides the necessary space in CLLD-context. The aim of the paper is hence to identify factors, which influence the implementation of innovative projects. Our analysis builds on surveys among LAG-managers, LAG-members and beneficiaries in 115 LEADER areas in four federal states in Germany (Hesse, Lower-Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein). Since the explanatory is a dummy variable we used logit models for the analysis. Overall, 56% of the beneficiaries classified their own project as innovative. There are, however, large differences between the different federal states. Our econometric results suggest that origin of the project idea and the type of beneficiary significantly influence the likelihood of innovation. The expectation that heterogeneity fosters innovative ideas is not supported by our analyses.Fostering innovation-driven regional development has become a major priority for public policy. Thus innovation is a crucial issue in Rural Development Programmes (RDP) to overcome challenges like economic development and demographic change. One part of RDP funded by the European Union, which explicitly addresses innovation, is LEADER: a bottom-up-oriented, participatory approach which relies on cooperation between local actors in the sense of a Community-led local development (CLLD). Stakeholders of different institutions and origins come together in a Local Action Group (LAG) to decide on the projects to be financed. Previous research provides evidence that rural communities are innovative when they have the necessary space and power to act. There is, however, little knowledge about the factors, which are crucial for the power to act, and about the policy framework that provides the necessary space in CLLD-context. The aim of the paper is hence to identify factors, which influence the implementation of innovative projects. Our analysis builds on surveys among LAG-managers, LAG-members and beneficiaries in 115 LEADER areas in four federal states in Germany (Hesse, Lower-Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein). Since the explanatory is a dummy variable we used logit models for the analysis. Overall, 56% of the beneficiaries classified their own project as innovative. There are, however, large differences between the different federal states. Our econometric results suggest that origin of the project idea and the type of beneficiary significantly influence the likelihood of innovation. The expectation that heterogeneity fosters innovative ideas is not supported by our analyses.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; R1 ; Innovation ; Rural development ; LEADER ; evaluation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Foundation | Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2020-10-29
    Description: The Gnassingbé clan has ruled the country since 1967. The demand for political alternance, initiated by institutional and electoral reforms, constituted the major contentious issue between the government and the challengers of the Gnassingbé regime throughout the survey period. The legislative elections of 20 December 2018, boycotted by the major opposition parties, resulted in an easy victory of the ruling party. The first local elections since more than 30 years took finally place on 30 June 2019 and resulted in the victory of the ruling party. Shortly afterwards, in February 2020, the President won also the disputed presidential elections and even consolidated his power, assisted by the loyal army and security services. The outbreak of the Corona epidemic in Togo in April and the subsequent economic recession may have contributed to limit popular protest against the Gnassingbé regime. The human rights record of the government has improved but remains poor. Despite undeniable improvements to the framework and appearance of the regime's key institutions during the review period, democracy remains far from complete. However, the international community, notably Togo’s African peers, the AU and ECOWAS, followed a ‘laissez-faire’ approach in the interests of regional stability and their national interests in dealing with Togo. Economic growth remained stable at about 5% per annum (before Corona). Public investment in infrastructure and increases in agricultural productivity, notably of export crops, had been the key drivers of economic growth. However, growth remains vulnerable to external shocks and the climate and has not been inclusive. Positive growth was overshadowed by increasing inter-personal and regional inequality as well as an increase in extreme poverty. Moreover, money-laundering, illegal money transfers and trafficking grew alarmingly. The business climate improved considerably nevertheless.
    Description: Author's enhanced version
    Description: RÉSUMÉ: Le clan Gnassingbé dirige le pays depuis 1967. La revendication d'alternance politique, initiée par des réformes institutionnelles et électorales, a constitué le principal litige entre le gouvernement et les challengers du régime Gnassingbé tout au long de la période d'enquête. Les élections législatives du 20 décembre 2018, boycottées par les principaux partis d'opposition, se sont soldées par une victoire facile du parti au pouvoir. Les premières élections locales depuis plus de 30 ans ont finalement eu lieu le 30 juin 2019 et ont abouti à la victoire du parti au pouvoir. Peu de temps après, en février 2020, le président a remporté également les élections présidentielles contestées. Par cela il a même consolidé son pouvoir, aidé par l'armée fidèle et les services de sécurité. Le déclenchement de l'épidémie de Corona au Togo en avril 2020 et la récession économique qui a suivi, ont peut-être contribué à limiter les protestations populaires contre le régime de Gnassingbé. Le bilan du gouvernement en matière de droits humains s'est amélioré, mais reste médiocre. Malgré des améliorations indéniables du cadre et de l'apparence des principales institutions du régime pendant la période à l'examen, la démocratie reste loin d'être achevée. Cependant, la communauté internationale, notamment les pairs africains du Togo, l’UA et la CEDEAO, ont suivi une approche de «laissez-faire» dans l’intérêt de la stabilité régionale et de leurs intérêts nationaux face au Togo. La croissance économique est restée stable à environ 5 % par an (avant Corona). Les investissements publics dans les infrastructures et les augmentations de la productivité agricole, notamment des cultures d'exportation, ont été les principaux moteurs de la croissance économique. Cependant, la croissance reste vulnérable aux chocs externes et au climat, et le développement n'a pas été inclusive. La croissance positive a été éclipsée par l'augmentation des inégalités interpersonnelles et régionales ainsi que par une augmentation de l'extrême pauvreté. En outre, le blanchiment d’argent, les transferts d’argent illégaux et le trafic ont augmenté de façon alarmante. Le climat des affaires s'est néanmoins considérablement amélioré. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Der Gnassingbé-Clan regiert das Land seit 1967. Die Forderung nach politischer Abwechslung, die durch institutionelle Reformen und Wahlreformen ausgelöst wurde, war das Hauptstreitpunkt zwischen der Regierung und den Herausforderern des Gnassingbé-Regimes während des gesamten Untersuchungszeitraums. Die von den großen Oppositionsparteien boykottierten Parlamentswahlen vom 20. Dezember 2018 führten zu einem leichten Sieg der Regierungspartei. Die ersten Kommunalwahlen seit mehr als 30 Jahren fanden schließlich am 30. Juni 2019 statt und führten zum Sieg der Regierungspartei. Kurz darauf, im Februar 2020, gewann der Präsident auch die umstrittenen Präsidentschaftswahlen. Somit festigte er sogar seine Macht, unterstützt von der loyalen Armee und den Sicherheitsdiensten. Der Ausbruch der Corona-Epidemie in Togo im April und die anschließende wirtschaftliche Rezession haben möglicherweise dazu beigetragen, den Protest der Bevölkerung gegen das Gnassingbé-Regime zu begrenzen. Die Menschenrechtsbilanz der Regierung hat sich verbessert, ist aber weiterhin schlecht. Trotz unbestreitbarer Verbesserungen des Rahmens und des Erscheinungsbilds der wichtigsten Institutionen des Regimes im Berichtszeitraum bleibt die Demokratie bei weitem nicht umfassend. Die internationale Gemeinschaft, insbesondere die afrikanischen Kollegen Faure Gnassingbés in der AU und ECOWAS, verfolgten jedoch im Interesse der regionalen Stabilität und in ihren nationalen Interessen im Umgang mit Togo einen „Laissez-Faire“-Ansatz. Das Wirtschaftswachstum blieb stabil bei etwa 5% pro Jahr (vor Corona). Öffentliche Investitionen in die Infrastruktur und die Steigerung der landwirtschaftlichen Produktivität, insbesondere in Exportkulturen, waren die Haupttreiber des Wirtschaftswachstums. Das Wachstum bleibt jedoch anfällig für externe Schocks und das Klima und war nicht inklusiv. Das positive Wachstum wurde durch die zunehmende zwischenmenschliche und regionale Ungleichheit sowie die Zunahme der extremen Armut überschattet. Darüber hinaus nahmen Geldwäsche, illegale Geldtransfers und Menschenhandel alarmierend zu. Das Geschäftsklima hat sich dennoch erheblich verbessert.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; A14 ; F35 ; N97 ; O17 ; O55 ; Z13 ; Togo ; WAEMU ; ECOWAS ; West Africa ; African Studies ; Democratization ; Governance ; Fragile States ; Development ; ODA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2020-11-24
    Description: This study analyses the effect of Kazakhstan’s 2003–2005 agricultural land reform on land rental and credit market participation. Although the reform declared an intention to facilitate efficient land allocation, we observe a major land concentration. We analyze whether new land relations stimulated land sales and rental markets and made credit more accessible. Utilizing data from two independent surveys before and after private land ownership was introduced, we demonstrate that the reform did not affect the land sales market but reorganized the land-rental market in a top-down fashion with the state remaining the principal landlord. The reform did not achieve the goal of providing access to land for the more skilled producers and did little to facilitate the use of owned land as collateral. The reform achievements are modest and bolder steps will be necessary to improve the functioning of Kazakhstan’s agricultural land markets.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; land rental market ; credit market ; land reforms ; allocative efficiency ; Kazakhstan
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2021-01-05
    Description: What is the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the 2020 U.S. presidential election? Guided by a pre-analysis plan, we estimate the effect of COVID- 19 cases and deaths on the change in county-level voting for Donald Trump between 2016 and 2020. To account for potential confounders, we include a large number of COVID-19-related controls as well as demographic and so- cioeconomic variables. Moreover, we instrument the numbers of cases and deaths with the share of workers employed in meat-processing factories to sharpen our identification strategy. We find that COVID-19 cases negatively affected Trump's vote share. The estimated effect appears strongest in ur- ban counties, in states without stay-at-home orders, in swing states, and in states that Trump won in 2016. A simple counterfactual analysis suggests that Trump would likely have won re-election if COVID-19 cases had been 5 percent lower. We also find some evidence that the COVID-19 incidence had a positive effect on voters' mobilization, helping Biden win the presidency.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; D72 ; I18 ; COVID-19 ; pandemic ; elections ; political behavior ; pre-analysis plan
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2021-01-05
    Description: This paper studies whether research universities can boost regional economic development through an exogenous shock of a forced relocation of a research university in China. We analyze the development in the treated regions compared with a set of control regions that are created using the synthetic control method and find that research universities can have negative effects on local economic development. We then perform a series of robustness checks. Our main results carry through. By employing a more exogenous shock and more reliable identification strategies, our study provides evidence that research universities do not necessarily promote regional economic development.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; O15 ; O18 ; R11 ; Research Universities ; Regional Economic Development ; Synthetic Control Method
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2021-01-05
    Description: Employing nonparametric bounds, we examine the effect of military service on incarceration outcomes using the Vietnam draft lotteries as a possibly invalid instrumental variable for military service. The draft is allowed to have a direct effect on the outcomes independently of military service, disposing of the exclusion restriction. We find: (i) suggestive but not strong statistical evidence that the direct effect of the draft increases the incarceration rate for violent offenses for a particular cohort of draft avoiders, and (ii) military service increases the incarceration rate for violent and nonviolent crimes of white volunteers and veterans in certain birth cohorts.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; K4 ; C31 ; C36 ; Conscription ; Military Service ; Incarceration ; Crime ; Nonparametric Bounds
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2021-01-05
    Description: The availability of child-care services has often been advocated as one of the instruments to counter the fertility decline observed in many high-income countries. In the recent past large inflows of lowskilled migrants have substantially increased the supply of child-care services. In this paper we examine if the flow of immigrants as actually affected fertility exploiting the natural experiment occurred in Italy in 2007, when a large inflow of migrants - many of them specialized in the supply of child care - arrived unexpectedly. With a difference-in-differences method, we show that newly arrived immigrant female workers have increased the number of native births by roughly 2 per cent. We validate our result by the implementation of an instrumental variable approach and several robustness tests, all concluding that the increase in the supply of child-care services by immigrants has positively affected native fertility choice.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; D12 ; F22 ; J13 ; J61 ; Household Economics ; Fertility ; Immigrant Labour ; International Migration
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2021-01-05
    Description: The ‘mobility transition’ hypothesis – with emigration first increasing and then decreasing as a country develops – (Zelinsky, 1971) is often interpreted as a stylised fact, which bears the implication that immigration into rich countries will grow as low-income countries develop. This paper tests the relationships between development and emigration from 130 developing countries during 25 years. Results, robust to different semiparametric and parametric specifications, show that emigration from low to middle-income countries declines as income increases, education improves or population growth slows down. The stage of development at home also affects the main destinations of emigration. Immigration into rich economies increases from countries at intermediate levels of development. Hence, policies supporting development in low-income countries are associated with less emigration to all destinations, including that to rich economies.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; F22 ; J11 ; O11 ; emigration ; income ; development ; demographic transitions
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2021-01-05
    Description: This paper explores the relationship between social identity and labor market outcomes of immigrants. Using survey data from Italy, we provide robust evidence that immigrants with stronger feelings of belonging to the societies of both the host and home country have higher employment rates, while those who exclusively identify with the host country culture do not have a net occupational advantage. Analysis of the potential mechanisms suggests that, although simultaneous identification with host and home country groups can be costly, the positive effect of multiple social identities is especially triggered by the enlarged information transmission and in-group favoritism that identification with, and membership of, extended communities ensure.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; F22 ; J15 ; J61 ; Z1 ; Migration ; Integration ; Ethnic identity ; Acculturation ; Culture ; Labor market
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    Hoboken: Wiley | Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2020-11-27
    Description: We study the cost of breaching an implicit contract in a goods market. Young and Levy (2014) document an implicit contract between the Coca-Cola Company and its consumers. This implicit contract included a promise of constant quality. We offer two types of evidence of the costs of breach. First, we document a case in 1930 when the Coca-Cola Company chose to avoid quality adjustment by incurring a permanently higher marginal cost of production, instead of a one-time increase in the fixed cost. Second, we explore the consequences of the company’s 1985 introduction of “New Coke” to replace the original beverage. Using the Hirschman’s (1970) model of Exit, Voice, and Loyalty, we argue that the public outcry that followed New Coke’s introduction was a response to the implicit contract breach.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; E31 ; K10 ; L11 ; L16 ; L66 ; M20 ; M30 ; N80 ; N82 ; Invisible Handshake ; Implicit Contract ; Customer Market ; Long-Term Relationship ; Cost of Breaching a Contract ; Cost of Breaking a Contract ; Coca-Cola ; New Coke ; Exit, Voice, and Loyalty ; Nickel Coke ; Sticky Prices ; Price Stickiness ; Rigid Prices ; Price Rigidity ; Cost of Price Adjustment ; Menu Cost ; Cost of Quality Adjustment
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2020-12-19
    Description: Globally, grasslands are shaped by grazing and fire, and grassland plants are adapted to these disturbances. However, temperate grasslands have been hotspots of land-use change, and how such changes affect interrelations between herbivory, fire and vegetation are poorly understood. Such land-use changes are widespread on the Eurasian steppe, where the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 triggered the abandonment of cropland and pasture on globally relevant scales. Thus, to determine how relationships between plant functional composition, grazing and fire patterns changed after the Soviet Union dissolved, we studied a 358,000 km² region in the dry steppe of Kazakhstan, combining a large field dataset on plant functional traits with multi-scale satellite data. We found that increases in burned area corresponded to decreases in livestock grazing across large areas. Furthermore, fires occurred more often with high cover of grasses with high leaf dry matter content and thus higher flammability, whereas higher grazing pressure favoured grazing-tolerant woody forbs and ruderal plants with high specific leaf area. The current situation of low grazing pressure represents a historically exceptional, potentially non-analogue state. We suggest that the dissolution of the Soviet Union caused the disturbance regime to shift from grazer to fire control. As grazing and fire each result in different plant functional compositions, we propose that this led to widespread increases in grasses and associated changes in steppe plant community structure. These changes have potentially occurred across an area of more than 2 million km², representing much of the world's largest temperate grassland area, with globally relevant, yet poorly understood implications for biodiversity and ecosystem functions such as carbon cycling. Additionally, future steppe management must also consider positive implications of abandonment (‘rewilding’) because reverting the regime shift in disturbance and associated changes in vegetation would require grazing animals to be reintroduced across vast areas.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; disturbance ; grassland ; Kazakhstan ; land use ; Landsat ; livestock decline ; MODIS ; regime shift
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2020-12-17
    Description: Livestock cultivation is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, accounting for 14.5% of the total anthropogenic emissions. China is responsible for a considerable share of the global livestock emissions, particularly caused by pork production. We used the Kaya identity and the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) to decompose the national annual GHG emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management in pig farming in China from 1976 to 2016. We decomposed the sources of the emissions into five driving factors: (1) technological progress (e.g., feed improvement); (2) structural adjustment in the livestock sector; (3) structural adjustment in agriculture; (4) affluence; and (5) population growth. The results showed that the net GHG emissions from the pig sector in China increased 16 million tons (Mt) of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2eq) during the study period. The decomposition analysis revealed that structural adjustment in agriculture, growing affluence, and population growth contributed to an increase of the GHG emissions of pork production by 23, 41, and 13 Mt CO2eq, respectively. The technological progress and structural changes in animal husbandry mitigated emissions by –51 and –11 Mt CO2eq, respectively. Further technological progress in pig production and optimizing the economic structures are critical for further reducing GHG emissions in China’s pig industry. Our results highlight the dominant role of technological changes for emission reductions in the pig farming.
    Keywords: ddc:630 ; livestock production ; carbon emissions ; manure management ; pig farming ; LMDI decomposition
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Pro-environmental behaviour (PEB) is often promoted by reinforcing or highlighting own benefits. However, considering that actors also care about the outcomes for others (i.e. they hold other-regarding preferences), PEB may also be encouraged by addressing these other-regarding preferences. In this paper, we review the results from social science experiments where interventions addressing other-regarding preferences were used to promote PEB. Based on our synthesis, we conclude that addressing other-regarding preferences can be effective in promoting (various types of) PEB in some, but not in all instances. Whether an intervention was effective depended inter alia on the pre-established preferences, cost structures and the perceived cooperation of others. Effective interventions included the provision of information on behavioural consequences, perspective-taking, direct appeals, framing and re-categorization. The interventions worked by activating other-regarding preferences, raising awareness about adverse consequences, evoking empathic concern and expanding the moral circle. We propose to take these findings as an impulse to examine policy instruments and institutions in terms of whether they activate and strengthen other-regarding preferences, thereby enabling collective engagement in PEB.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Q56 ; Y80 ; D90 ; pro-environmental behaviour ; experiments ; other-regarding preferences ; empathic concern ; preference activation ; review
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  • 30
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2021-01-05
    Description: Self-employment contributes to employment growth and innovativeness and many individuals want to become self-employed due to the autonomy and exibility it brings. Using "subjective well-being" as a broad summary measure that evaluates an individual's experience of being self-employed, the chapter discusses evidence and explanations why self-employment is positively associated with job satisfaction, even though the self-employed often earn less than their employed peers, work longer hours and experience more stress and higher job demands. Despite being more satisfied with their jobs, the self-employed do not necessarily enjoy higher overall life satisfaction, which is due to heterogeneity of types of self-employment, as well as motivational factors, work characteristics and institutional setups across countries.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; L26 ; J24 ; J28 ; self-employment ; entrepreneurship ; subjective well-being ; job satisfaction ; life satisfaction
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2021-01-05
    Description: The UK Welfare Reform Act 2012 imposed a series of welfare cuts, which disproportionately impacted ex-ante poorer areas. In this paper, we consider the impact of these austerity measures on two different but complementary elements of crime - the crime rate and the less-studied concentration of crime - over the period 2011-2015 in England and Wales, and document four new facts. First, areas more exposed to the welfare reforms experience increased levels of crime, an effect driven by a rise in violent crime. Second, both violent and property crime become more concentrated within an area due to the welfare reforms. Third, it is ex-ante more deprived neighborhoods that bear the brunt of the crime increases over this period. Fourth, we find no evidence that the welfare reforms increased recidivism, suggesting that the changes in crime we find are likely driven by new criminals. Combining these results, we document unambiguous evidence of a negative spillover of the welfare reforms at the heart of the UK government's austerity program on social welfare, which reinforced the direct inequality-worsening effect of this program. More deprived districts are more exposed to the welfare reforms, and it is these districts that then experience the further negative consequences of the reforms via increased crime. Our findings underscore the importance of considering both multiple dimensions of crime as well as considering different levels of spatial aggregation of crime data. Given that it is violent crime that responds to the (economicallybased) welfare cuts, our work also highlights the need to develop better economic models of non-rational crime.
    Keywords: ddc:330
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2021-01-05
    Description: This study explores the effects of imbalances in the sex ratio, and their impact on intra-household bargaining, on both the quantity and the quality of children. We first present the theoretical model of intra-household bargaining in the presence of con icting family goals within a couple, and show that male scarcity (a decrease in the male to female sex ratio) induces an increase in the number of children, but a decrease in the quality of children. Second, using the impact of World War II on the sex ratio, as a quasi-natural experiment, we establish empirically that the decrease in the male to female sex ratio in World War II contributed to a lower decline in fertility and child mortality rates in postwar Japan. In particular, the fertility rate would have fallen by an additional 12% and the child mortality rate by an additional 13% between 1948 and 1970, in the absence of the decrease in the sex ratio.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; J11 ; J12 ; J13 ; J16 ; N15 ; N35 ; quantity-quality trade-off of children ; bargaining power ; marriage mar- ket ; sex ratio
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: The unexpected occurrence of the COVID-19 outbreak has undeniably disrupted the normalcy of life. Stress has become an important concern in education since the COVID-19 outbreak. This descriptive-correlational online survey administered in August 2020 utilized the COVID-19 Perceived Stress Scale (COVID-19 PSS-10) to assess the COVID-19 perceived stress among employed Filipino teachers. Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tested for differences while Spearman’s rho was used to analyze the correlation between variables. Results demonstrated that more than half of teachers experienced moderate COVID-19 stress. Females experienced significantly higher COVID-19 stress compared to males. A negative correlation was noted between self-rated health and COVID-19 stress while a positive correlation was found between the perceive risk of getting COVID-19 infection and COVID-19 stress. This study highlights that steps must be undertaken to help teachers deal with the stress of the COVID-19 crisis as well as they must be provided or taught with stress management interventions during this pandemic. This study could be used as a baseline for future research to assess the impact of COVID-19 stress among professional teachers.
    Description: La aparición inesperada del brote de COVID-19 ha interrumpido sin lugar a dudas la normalidad de la vida. El estrés se ha convertido en una preocupación importante en la educación desde el brote de COVID-19. Esta encuesta en línea descriptiva-correlacional administrada en agosto de 2020 utilizó la Escala de estrés percibido COVID-19 (COVID-19 PSS-10) para evaluar el estrés percibido por COVID-19 entre los profesores filipinos empleados. Whitney U y Kruskal-Wallis probaron las diferencias mientras que la rho de Spearman se utilizó para analizar la correlación entre las variables. Los resultados demostraron que más de la mitad de los maestros experimentaron un estrés moderado por COVID-19. Las mujeres experimentaron un estrés por COVID-19 significativamente mayor en comparación con los hombres. Se observó una correlación negativa entre la salud autoevaluada y el estrés por COVID-19, mientras que se encontró una correlación positiva entre el riesgo percibido de contraer la infección por COVID-19 y el estrés por COVID-19. Este estudio destaca que se deben tomar medidas para ayudar a los maestros a lidiar con el estrés de la crisis de COVID-19, así como se les debe proporcionar o enseñar intervenciones de manejo del estrés durante esta pandemia. Este estudio podría usarse como base para futuras investigaciones para evaluar el impacto del estrés por COVID-19 entre los profesores profesionales.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; COVID-19 ; corona virus ; pandemic ; mental health ; stress ; psychological well-being ; teachers ; educators
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Blockchain technology is a digital technology that allows distributed, ubiquitous financial transactions between untrusted parties without the need for intermediaries such as banks. This study examines the impact of blockchain technology on the agriculture and food supply chain; It presents current projects and initiatives and discusses the challenges and potential of this technology with a critical perspective on the maturity of these projects. Findings show that blockchain technology is a promising technology in the food supply chain, but there are many obstacles among farmers and systems that prevent this system from working. These challenges include technical aspects, training, policies, and regulatory frameworks.
    Keywords: ddc:630 ; Blockchain Technology ; Digital Agriculture ; Food Supply Chain ; Barriers ; Benefits ; Challenge
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2021-01-06
    Description: Study Region Vietnamese Mekong Delta. Study focus This study investigates the trends of groundwater levels (GWLs), the memory effect of alluvial aquifers, and the response times between surface water and groundwater across the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD). Trend analysis, auto- and cross-correlation, and time-series decomposition were applied within a moving window approach to examine non-stationary behavior. New hydrological insights Our study revealed an effective connection between the shallowest aquifer unit (Holocene) and surface water, and a high potential for shallow groundwater recharge. However, low-permeable aquicludes separating the aquifers behave as low-pass filters that reduce the high‐frequency signals in the GWL variations, and limit the recharge to the deep groundwater. Declining GWLs (0.01−0.55 m/year) were detected for all aquifers throughout the 22 years of observation, indicating that the groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge. Stronger declining trends were detected for deeper groundwater. The dynamic trend analysis indicates that the decrease of GWLs accelerated continuously. The groundwater memory effect varied according to the geographical location, being shorter in shallow aquifers and flood-prone areas and longer in deep aquifers and coastal areas. Variation of the response time between the river and alluvial aquifers was controlled by groundwater depth and season. The response time was shorter during the flood season, indicating that the bulk of groundwater recharge occurred in the late flood season, particularly in the deep aquifers.
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2021-01-08
    Description: The large economic costs of full-blown lockdowns in response to COVID-19 outbreaks, coupled with heterogeneous mortality rates across age groups, led to question non-discriminatory containment mea- sures. In this paper we provide an assessment of the targeted approach to containment. We propose a SIR-macro model that allows for heterogeneous agents in terms of mortality rates and contact rates, and in which the government optimally bans people from working. We find that under a targeted pol- icy, the optimal containment reaches a larger portion of the population than under a blanket policy and is held in place for longer. Compared to a blanket policy, a targeted approach results in a smaller death count. Yet, it is not a panacea: the recession is larger under such approach as the containment policy applies to a larger fraction of people, remains in place for longer, and herd immunity is achieved later. Moreover, we find that increased interactions between low- and high-risk individuals effectively reduce the benefits of a targeted approach to containment.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; E10 ; H00 ; I10 ; Optimal containment policies ; COVID-19 ; heterogeneous agents ; mortality rate ; voluntary social distancing
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2021-01-08
    Description: Overall mobility declined during the COVID-19 pandemic because of government lockdowns and voluntary social distancing. Yet, aggregate data mask important heterogeneous effects across segments of the population. Using unique mobility indicators based on anonymized and aggregate data provided by Vodafone for Italy, Portugal, and Spain, we find that lockdowns had a larger impact on the mobility of women and younger cohorts. Younger people also experienced a sharper drop in mobility in response to rising COVID-19 infections. Our findings, which are consistent across estimation methods and robust to a variety of tests, warn about a possible widening of gender and inter-generational inequality.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; E1 ; I1 ; H0 ; COVID-19 ; lockdown ; mobility ; gender ; age
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    Hamburg: University of Hamburg, Institute of Law and Economics (ILE)
    Publication Date: 2021-01-08
    Description: International environmental agreements (IEAs) address cross-border public goods, therefore they are faced with free-riding problems. Generally, the incentives of states to comply with such treaties are low as the benefits of compliance do not always outweigh the cost. Previous literature has pointed towards the importance of the treaty design characteristics in motivating compliance and deterring free-riding. The aim of this paper is to investigate the association of using of those mechanisms -treaty linkages- and the compliance with IEAs. By using data on 92 IEAs from the international regime database (IRD), the paper finds that the number of reinforcing links per treaty has a positive and significant association with better compliance. Counter to existing literature, trade links, however, do not exhibit a significant association with better compliance.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; H41 ; K33 ; O19 ; Q50 ; Q56 ; International Environmental agreements ; Treaty linkages ; Compliance ; Public goods
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Frankfurt a. M.: Goethe University Frankfurt, Institute for Monetary and Financial Stability (IMFS)
    Publication Date: 2021-01-15
    Description: Structural macroeconometric analysis and new HANK-type models with extremely high dimensionality require fast and robust methods to efficiently deal with occasionally binding constraints (OBCs), especially since major developed economies have again hit the zero lower bound on nominal interest rates. This paper shows that a linear dynamic rational expectations system with OBCs, depending on the expected duration of the constraint, can be represented in closed form. Combined with a set of simple equilibrium conditions, this can be exploited to avoid matrix inversions and simulations at runtime for significant gains in computational speed. An efficient implementation is provided in Python programming language. Benchmarking results show that for medium-scale models with an OBC, more than 150,000 state vectors can be evaluated per second. This is an improvement of more than three orders of magnitude over existing alternatives. Even state evaluations of large HANK-type models with almost 1000 endogenous variables require only 0.1 ms.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Occasionally Binding Constraints ; Effective Lower Bound ; Computational Methods
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH)
    Publication Date: 2021-01-15
    Description: Using a newly collected dataset of robot use at the plant level from 2014 to 2018, we provide the first microscopic portrait of robotisation in Germany and study the potential determinants of robot adoption. Our descriptive analysis uncovers five stylised facts concerning both extensive and, perhaps more importantly, intensive margin of plant-level robot use: (1) Robot use is relatively rare with only 1.55% German plants using robots in 2018. (2) The distribution of robots is highly skewed. (3) New robot adopters contribute substantially to the recent robotisation. (4) Robot users are exceptional along several dimensions of plant-level characteristics. (5) Heterogeneity in robot types matters. Our regression results further suggest plant size, low-skilled labour share, and exporter status to have strong and positive effect on future probability of robot adoption. Manufacturing plants impacted by the introduction of minimum wage in 2015 are also more likely to adopt robots. However, controlling for plant size, we find that plant-level productivity has no, if not negative, impact on robot adoption.
    Description: This Draft: January 2021
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; J24 ; O14 ; O33 ; robots ; robot adoption ; automation ; labour ; productivity ; plant-level
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    Frankfurt a. M.: Goethe University Frankfurt, Institute for Monetary and Financial Stability (IMFS)
    Publication Date: 2021-01-15
    Description: With the COVID-19 pandemic, the intense debate about secular stagnation will become even more important. Empirical estimates of equilibrium real interest rates are so far mostly limited to advanced economies, since no statistical procedure suitable for a large set of countries is available. This is surprising, as equilibrium rates have strong policy implications in emerging markets and developing economies as well; current estimates of the global equilibrium rate rely on only a few countries; and estimates for a more diverse set of countries can improve understanding of the drivers. This paper proposes a model and estimation strategy that decompose ex ante real interest rates into a permanent and transitory component even with short samples and high volatility. This is done with an unobserved component local level stochastic volatility model, which is used to estimate equilibrium rates for 50 countries with Bayesian methods. Equilibrium rates were lower in emerging markets and developing economies than in advanced economies in the 1980s, similar in the 1990s, and have been higher since 2000. In line with economic integration and rising global capital markets, synchronization has been rising over time and is higher among advanced economies. Equilibrium rates of countries with stronger trade linkages and similar demographic and economic trends are more synchronized.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; E52 ; E43 ; C32 ; equilibrium interest rate ; stochastic volatility ; Bayesian inference ; synchronization
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2021-01-15
    Description: We document a long-lasting association between a common societal phenomenon, early-life family disruption, and investment behavior. Controlling for socioeconomic status and family background, we find fund managers who experienced the death or divorce of their parents during childhood exhibit a stronger disposition effect, take lower risk, and are more likely to sell their holdings following risk-increasing firm events. The results are consistent with persistent symptoms of post-traumatic stress and strengthen as treatment intensifies. The evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social factors and "nurture" in finance as well as the origin of investment biases.
    Description: January 2021
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; G11 ; G23 ; G41 ; Disposition effect ; Family disruption ; Feelings ; Formative experience ; Investor behavior ; Risk-taking ; Social finance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2021-01-15
    Description: Roadmaps for India's energy future foresee that coal power will continue to play a considerable role until the middle of the 21st century. Among other options, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is being considered as a potential technology for decarbonising the power sector. Consequently, it is important to quantify the relative benefits and trade-offs of coal-CCS in comparison to its competing renewable power sources from multiple sustainability perspectives. In this paper, we assess coal-CCS pathways in India up to 2050 and compare coal-CCS with conventional coal, solar PV and wind power sources through an integrated assessment approach coupled with a nexus perspective (energy-cost-climate-water nexus). Our levelized costs assessment reveals that coal-CCS is expensive and significant cost reductions would be needed for CCS to compete in the Indian power market. In addition, although carbon pricing could make coal-CCS competitive in relation to conventional coal power plants, it cannot influence the lack of competitiveness of coal-CCS with respect to renewables. From a climate perspective, CCS can significantly reduce the life cycle GHG emissions of conventional coal power plants, but renewables are better positioned than coal-CCS if the goal is ambitious climate change mitigation. Our water footprint assessment reveals that coal-CCS consumes an enormous volume of water resources in comparison to conventional coal and, in particular, to renewables. To conclude, our findings highlight that coal-CCS not only suffers from typical new technology development related challenges - such as a lack of technical potential assessments and necessary support infrastructure, and high costs - but also from severe resource constraints (especially water) in an era of global warming and the competition from outperforming renewable power sources. Our study, therefore, adds a considerable level of techno-economic and environmental nexus specificity to the current debate about coal-based large-scale CCS and the low carbon energy transition in emerging and developing economies in the Global South.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
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    London: Taylor & Francis | Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2021-01-13
    Description: The COVID-19 pandemic has amplified longstanding concerns about mounting levels of corporate debt in the United States. This article places the current conjuncture in its historical context, analysing corporate indebtedness against the backdrop of increasing corporate concentration. Theorising leverage as a form of power, we find that the leverage of large non-financial firms increased in recent decades, while their debt servicing burdens decreased. At the same time, smaller firms experienced sharp deleveraging alongside increasing debt servicing costs. Crucially, smaller corporations also registered severe losses over this period, while large corporations remained profitable, and in fact doubled their net profit margins from the early-1990s to the present. Taken together, the results from our mapping exercise uncover a series of dramatic changes in the financial fortunes of large versus smaller firms in recent decades, a phenomenon we refer to as the great debt divergence. We explain this divergence with reference to the dynamics of power in the era of ‘shareholder capitalism’, and we argue that the US political economy in the post-COVID 19 world is likely to resemble the pre-COVID 19 one, only with more market turmoil, more concentration, more inequality, and even less investment.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; P16 ; H63 ; G3 ; capital as power ; corporate concentration ; Covid-19 crisis ; debt ; leverage
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 45
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    In:  Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk
    Publication Date: 2021-01-14
    Language: English
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  • 46
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    Frankfurt a. M.: Goethe University Frankfurt, Institute for Monetary and Financial Stability (IMFS)
    Publication Date: 2021-01-15
    Description: Central banks sometimes evaluate their own policies. To assess the inherent conflict of interest, we compare the research findings of central bank researchers and academic economists regarding the macroeconomic effects of quantitative easing (QE). We find that central bank papers report larger effects of QE on output and inflation. Central bankers are also more likely to report significant effects of QE on output and to use more positive language in the abstract. Central bankers who report larger QE effects on output experience more favorable career outcomes. A survey of central banks reveals substantial involvement of bank management in research production.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; A11 ; E52 ; E58 ; G28
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 47
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2021-01-14
    Description: While demand side response is recognized as a useful tool in reducing the costs of integration of variable renewables, literature on demand side measures in the developing countries has been limited due to lack of publicly available data on system level end use load profiles. This article fills the gap by evaluating agricultural pumping demand as demand side resource in India. Enabled by the system of segregated power supply for irrigation, pumping load has long been used to flatten the load curve but its value to the system resource has largely been ignored. We collected data on hourly supply to 123 agriculture groups in two distribution utilities in the Indian state of Gujarat for one year and used the derived agriculture supply curves in a production cost optimization power model. We estimate that agriculture demand responds reduces the cost of grid operations by up to 6% in the current system. By suitably modifying the agriculture pumping load the cost of integrating up to 50% of renewable energy is reduced and curtailment is reduced by 3-6%. Decentralized agricultural pumps can reduce the cost of integrating and curtailment by enabling absorption of peak solar energy. We conclude that in power systems with moderate to high shares of agricultural demand, agricultural demand response can provide a cost-effective way of integrating high shares of renewable electricity. Further, even though decentralized systems may require higher feed-in-tariffs, replacing agricultural pumps dependent on centralised supply with decentralized agricultural pumps is more effective in integrating solar electricity as compared to centralized solar power plants besides having benefits for ground water conservation.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; energy ; demand response
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 48
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    Toronto: The Bichler and Nitzan Archives
    Publication Date: 2021-01-14
    Description: The theory of capital as power (CasP) is radically different from conventional political economy. In the conventional view, mainstream as well as heterodox, capital is seen a 'real' economic entity engaged in the production of goods and services, and capitalism is thought of as a mode of production and consumption. Finance in this approach is either a mere reflection/lubricant of the real economy (the mainstream view), or a parasitic fiction (the heterodox perspective). CasP rejects this framework. Capital, it argues, is not a productive economic entity, but a symbolic representation of organized societal power writ large, and capitalism should be analysed not as a mode of production and consumption, but as a mode of power. In this approach, finance is neither a reflection nor a fiction, but the symbolic language that organizes and creorders - or creates the order of - capitalized power. These are foundational claims. They go to the very heart of political economy, and they have far-reaching implications. So far-reaching, in fact, that if we accept them, we must rewrite, often from scratch, much of the theory, history and possible futures of the capitalist order. Many have complained about CasP being aloof. Our approach, they have argued, insists on being 'right' - to the exclusion of all others. It shows no interest in 'building bridges'. It dismisses neoclassical liberalism altogether, and although sometimes sympathetic to Marx, it aims not to revise Marxism, but to discard it altogether. In this research note - excerpted and revised from our 2020 invited-then-rejected interview with Revue de la regulation - we explain the basis for these complaints and why CasP and conventional political economy cannot be easily bridged. Stated briefly, the problem is not unwillingness but built-in barriers. As it stands, political economy cannot accept capital as power. Its very foundations prevent it from doing so.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; P16 ; D46 ; C18 ; capital as power ; Marxism ; neoclassical economics ; political economy ; power ; value
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2021-01-14
    Description: This paper calls for an increased discourse between Fridays for Future and representatives of business. Fridays for Future play a key role in educating the public and raising awareness of scientific reports, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment, which demonstrate the urgency with which we must tackle climate change. This is important to gain world attention on pressing questions of our time. At the same time, it is crucial to examine the main drivers in our socio-economic system to understand that the spread of information alone is insufficient to bring fundamental change. Human behaviour remains propelled by both the quest for prosperity and the call for a fair and sustainable economic system. We need to understand how to expand our economy in a sustainable way, how business can foster sustainable innovations and how to motivate consumers to support companies by buying green products. Companies are the necessary key for green innovations. These innovations are only as strong as their demand. Concern about the environment has widely spread in our society. At the same time this concern is not always translated into our actions. Behavioural Economics integrates psychological insights of human behaviour into economic theory and shows us solutions how to overcome the attitude-behavior-gap. Our aim is to work out how behavioural economics can be used to support environmentally friendly practices with incentives. All of our purchase decisions are influenced by cognitive biases. It is estimated that 40 percent of our day-to-day decisions are based on habits. The status quo bias or the discounting of future value often hinder pro-environmental behaviour. Therefore, purely apportioning blame will not result in changes. Instead, an adjustment of the framework through restructuring incentives to overcome biases can as a piece of the puzzle help to achieve the change required. Through the recognition of human "defaults" these can then be harnessed to nudge green actions. Similarly, the individual structural pursuit of profit can be channelled towards green growth. Through the spread of information and effective incentives, we can spark innovations which defuse tensions between economic growth and environmental protection, facilitating sustainable development.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; F64 ; Q56 ; Q58 ; Umweltmanagement ; Nachhaltige Entwicklung ; Nudge
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2021-01-14
    Description: This paper examines the impact of terrorism on voting behavior in the United States. We rely on an exhaustive list of terror attacks over the period 1970-2016 and exploit the inherent randomness of the success or failure of terror attacks to identify the political impacts of terrorism. We first confirm that the success of terror attacks is plausibly random by showing that it is orthogonal to potential confounders. We then show that on average successful attacks have no effect on presidential and non-presidential elections. As a benchmark, we also rely on a more naïve identification strategy using all the counties not targeted by terrorists as a comparison group. We show that using this naïve identification strategy leads to strikingly different results overestimating the effect of terror attacks on voting behavior. Overall, our results indicate that terrorism has less of an in uence on voters than is usually thought.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; D72 ; D74 ; terrorism ; voting behavior
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2021-01-14
    Description: We investigate the impact of removals under the Secure Communities (SC) program on the marriage patterns of immigrant women living in the U.S. where endogamous marriage is the dominant form of partnership. We focus on enforcement by MSA and country of origin and find evidence that deportations increase overall marriage rates, increase the likelihood of endogamous marriage, decrease rates of exogamous marriage to immigrants from other countries and have indeterminate effects on marriage to natives. When examining channels for behavioral responses, we find evidence pointing towards the desire to mitigate the risk of deportation through the increased importance of networks.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; J13 ; J15 ; K37 ; Immigration Enforcement ; Marriage ; Endogamy ; Secure Communities
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2021-01-14
    Description: This chapter provides the historical context for the past half-century in Europe focusing specifically on the link between migration and economic development and inequality. The literature review suggests that there are several channels through which migration affects economic inequality between countries in one or the other direction. The net effects are an open empirical question and are likely to depend on the economic, demographic and institutional and policy contexts; sources, types and selectivity of migration, as well as responses of the receiving societies as well as migrants themselves. We undertake an empirical analysis and find that immigration has contributed to reducing inequality within the 25 EU countries over the 2003-2017 period. As the EU attracted relatively highly qualified immigrants throughout this period, our results are consistent with the ameliorating effect of skilled migration on within-country inequality, as predicted by theory.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; D31 ; D60 ; O15 ; immigration ; inequality ; labour mobility ; income distribution ; EU enlargement
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 53
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    Berlin: Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht Berlin, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE)
    Publication Date: 2021-01-14
    Description: This paper offers an analysis and critique of the Green Industrial Revolution proposed by the Labour Party in 2019. It identifies this policy as a variant of the Keynesian Green New Deal, which has been interpreted favourably by many socialists as a programme for climate stabilisation and an ecologically restorative, egalitarian organisation of the economy. The Green Industrial Revolution pointed towards a hybrid mixed economy whose main features would have been state policy orientation towards and large investments in renewables, efficiencies and retrofitting; as well as a renewed public sector and reforms to corporate ownership. This was predicated on a contradictory policy of green growth. On the contrary, this paper develops a concept of the critical energy constraints to growth, which highlights how, in terms of its focus on "the national economy" and aversion to major infrastructural changes to reduce energy use, Labour's programme was insufficient. Nonetheless, its openings and advantages are considered alongside and in light of these contradictions. They suggest the need for economic and ecological policies that recognise both the critical energy constraints to growth and the antagonistic relation between capital and labour internationally.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Q58 ; Q43 ; F52 ; B51 ; Alternative Ökonomie ; Energiewende ; Sozialdemokratische Partei ; Keynesianismus ; Großbritannien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2021-01-14
    Description: Knowledge about the trace element distribution in sulfides is the key for understanding the trace metal inventory of ancient volcanic massive sulfide during the formation of these deposits on the seafloor. The distribution of trace metals in sulfides reflects changes in the physicochemical conditions and precipitation processes during precipitation. Hydrothermal black smoker samples or this study originate from the southern Mid-Atlantic (TVG02, TVG06) and can be classified into two types: (1) (Fe-Zn) sulfides consisting predominantly of pyrite and sphalerite, with minor chalcopyrite, isocubanite, and galena and (2) (Fe-Cu) sulfides, which contain mainly pyrite and chalcopyrite, with rare isocubanite and sphalerite. The sulfide samples were analyzed by electron microprobe for major elements, and by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and focused ion beam technique and transmission electron microscopy for in situ trace elements. The data reveal complex hydrothermal processes in high- and low- temperature fluids. Colloform and dendritic pyrite from (Fe-Zn) sulfides are enriched in Mn, Tl, As, V, Pb, and Zn and indicate precipitation from low temperature fluids (250-100°C) reflecting a rapid mixture of hydrothermal fluids with seawater. A continuous enrichment of incompatible elements at the interface of growing pyrite with fluid finally leads to the nucleation and precipitation of sphalerite and galena, and results in the enrichment of As, Hg, Pb, Au, Ag, and Cd in sphalerite micro-inclusions which are hosted in colloform pyrite at low temperature. Galena inclusions occur in the pores and the interstices of sphalerite grains and formed by the enrichment of Pb in the hydrothermal fluid at low-temperature (〈250°C). High Cu, As, Ag, Au, and Sb concentrations in colloform sphalerite indicate a medium to low formation temperature (350-200°C). Copper, Sb, Se, and Sn enrichments in coarse-grained sphalerite indicate medium temperature hydrothermal fluids. Idiomorphic pyrite and chalcopyrite have high Se and Co contents and indicate high-temperature (〉300°C) fluids.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 55
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2021-01-09
    Description: While most civil wars seem to have an economic basis, they are generally pushed by political, ethnic, and religious differences. This paper attempts to identify the drivers of the Syrian civil war of 2011 by investigating the role of ethnic divisions in starting a conflict. We integrate a variety of variables such as excluded population, power-sharing, anocracy, ethnic groups in addition to a number of economic factors. The main results indicate that ethnicity does not seem to be a very important factor in starting both the civil and ethnic conflict in Syria, but it shows that the lack of power-sharing to be the most significant factor. Therefore, where power in Syria was not inclusive and shared among different demographic segments, such as religious or urban groups, it created upheavals between different groups, as some groups disidentify with the state, paving the way to causing the conflict. Economic factors also provide an explanation of the onset of conflicts in Syria. The paper offers detailed policy suggestions that could serve as a recovery mechanism for the Syrian crisis and a preventive measurement for its reoccurrence.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; D74 ; F51 ; H56 ; Armed Conflicts ; Ethnic Conflicts ; Ethnic Groups ; Power-Sharing ; Syria
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 56
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2021-01-09
    Description: The global crisis and the reactions of countries to the crisis did not spread the 1930's weather conditions. This situation caused relief. However, it does not provide for policies that will slow down globalization and growth. The worldwide creeping has led to increased protectionism and more crises. New protectionism models are not similar to the developments in the 1970s and 1980s rather than the 1930s. Domestic crisis interventions in the capital and product markets and the return of America eventually led to the emergence of more defensive trade policies.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Economic Crisis ; Trade Policies ; Protectionism ; Keynesian Economy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2021-01-09
    Description: Consumption rivalry generates variation in the choice sets decision-makers face. Not taking into account such variation may generate biased demand estimates. It remains unclear how this impacts estimation accuracy because researchers often lack information on temporal variation in product availability. This paper uses information on the exact set of available alternatives at the time of choosing to formulate time-variant deterministic constraints. In an application to the market for public charging infrastructure for electric vehicles, I show that incorporating this information significantly improves the out-of-sample forecasting accuracy of individual choice and hence the aggregate demand estimates for local charging facilities.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; H23 ; H42 ; H54 ; Q41 ; Q48 ; Discrete choice ; Preference estimation ; Consumption rivalry ; Electric Vehicles
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 58
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2021-01-09
    Description: This paper examines the welfare impact of hosting refugees in Ethiopia, one of the largest refugee-hosting countries worldwide. The findings reveal different implications depending on the type of household welfare metric. While reducing consumption expenditure per capita and increasing the probability of falling into consumption poverty, it has no effect on wealth and the status of wealth poverty. Decomposing consumption expenditure per capita into food, education, and other non-food components, the results further reveal that it alters the composition of consumption, as it solely affects food consumption expenditure. The consumption effects prevail in rural areas with no effects in urban centers while no heterogeneity is found concerning wealth and wealth poverty results. Key mechanisms explaining the adverse consumption effects include displacement of hosts from salaried employment and a spike in prices of agricultural inputs but not changes in the extent of societal cooperation.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; O12 ; O15 ; E24 ; Z13 ; Refugees ; Consumption ; Wealth ; Poverty ; Employment ; Price ; Cooperation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2021-01-09
    Description: This data set is the part 8 of a series reporting chemical data for accessory minerals from felsic igneous rocks. Compositional data were acquired by electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) between about 1995 and 2005 on surface rocks and borehole samples. This data set assembles the results of EPMA of fluorapatite from felsic rocks representing three groups of granites in the Erzgebirge−Vogtland metallogenic province of Germany emplaced in the late Carboniferous: F-poor biotite granites, F-poor two-mica granites, and P-F-rich Li-mica granite. In these rocks, fluorapatite is typically omnipresent. It has to be noted that apatite has not yet been in the focus of mineralogical studies of the granites in this province and a comprehensive survey of its compositional signature and variability in space and time is still pending. However, the data listed in this data set provide a valuable glimpse into the similarities and differences in apatite chemistry between geochemically distinct felsic rocks, and into the evolution in composition from early to late crystallizing apatite populations. The data underpin that apatite is a sensitive monitor of the compositional properties of the media (melts and fluids) from which it was deposited or with which it interacted. Apatite from the studied rocks is basically fluorapatite with little or no Cl and OH detected respectively inferred. Elemental variations are observed at various scales, i.e., between granite groups, subsequently crystallized sub-intrusion within composite massifs, grains present in a single thin section, or between the center and the rim of a particular grain. These variations in particular refer to the following elements: Mn, Fe, Na, and the rare-earth elements (REE). For example, measured Mn concentrations range from 0.15 to 8.8 wt% MnO. The data set contains the complete pile of electron-microprobe analyses for fluorapatite (APAT-ERZ-2020). The data are presented as Excel (xlsx) and tab-delimited text (txt) formats. The content of the tables and further information on the granites and regional geology are provided in the data description file.
    Language: English
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  • 60
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2021-01-12
    Description: Basically the current study sought to assess the perception of students regarding the role of teacher communication skills in their academics success. Comprehensive questionnaire carrying information including communication skills aspects of the study were designed to achieve the set objectives. Communication skill is the ability to convey and share information with others in an efficacious way. It is a very vital skill and used widely in all work sectors. Communication is an important skill for every modern student to master. Advances in digital media, changing career landscapes, and greater competition in colleges and workplaces makes improving student communication skills a must. In any education system, teacher’s quality is the most important factor influencing student’s scholastic achievement. Teacher’s quality plays a pivotal and decisive role in students’ academic progress. These qualities are quantified by their skills, knowledge, and qualifications.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Professional Development ; Teacher Education ; Communication Skills
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 61
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    Düsseldorf: Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE)
    Publication Date: 2021-01-12
    Description: We study whether and how parents interfere paternalistically in their children's intertemporal decision-making. Based on experiments with over 2,000 members of 610 families, we find that parents anticipate their children's present bias and aim to mitigate it. Using a novel method to measure parental interference, we show that more than half of all parents are willing to pay money to override their children's choices. Parental interference predicts more intensive parenting styles and a lower intergenerational transmission of patience. The latter is driven by interfering parents not transmitting their own present bias, but molding their children's preferences towards more time-consiste