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  • 1
    Call number: 3/S 07.0034(2016)
    In: Annual report
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 51 Seiten
    ISSN: 1865-6439 , 1865-6447
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Annual report ... / Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Unknown
    London : Penguin Books
    ISBN: 9780141985206
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 3
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Leiden : Nijhoff ; 1.2009 -
    Call number: IASS 17.92082
    Type of Medium: Monograph non-lending collection
    ISSN: 1876-8814
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 4
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    [Edgecumbe, N.Z.] : A. Muller
    Call number: M 15.89146
    Description / Table of Contents: An account of the results of the 2 March 1987 earthquake in the eastern Bay of Plenty and the aftermath's effects on the people and places on the Rangitaiki Plains
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 223 S., , Ill.
    Language: English
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 5
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Garmisch-Partenkirchen : Institut für atmosphärische Umweltforschung der Fraunhofer- Gesellschaft
    Call number: MOP 44829 / Mitte
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 25 S. , graph. Darst.
    Language: English
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 6
    Call number: Z 06.0500
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1824-7741
    Former Title: Vorgänger Geologisch-paläontologische Mitteilungen, Innsbruck
    Language: German , English
    Note: Ersch. unregelmäßig , Beiträge teilweise in Englisch
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 7
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Stuttgart : Schweizerbart Science Publishers ; Volume 1, number 1 (1978)-
    Call number: M 18.91571
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 134 Seiten
    ISSN: 2363-7196
    Series Statement: Global tectonics and metallogeny : special issue Vol. 10/2-4
    Classification:
    Tectonics
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Global tectonics and metallogeny
    Language: English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 8
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Spherical Slepian functions (or ‘Slepian functions’) are mathematical functions which can be used to decompose potential fields, as represented by spherical harmonics, into smaller regions covering part of a spherical surface. This allows a spatio-spectral trade-off between aliasing of the signal at the boundary edges while constraining it within a region of interest. While Slepian functions have previously been applied to crustal magnetic data, this work further applies Slepian functions to flows on the core-mantle boundary. There are two main reasons for restricting flow models to certain parts of the core surface. Firstly, we have reason to believe that different dynamics operate in different parts of the core while, secondly, the modelled flow is ambiguous over certain parts of the surface. Spherical Slepian functions retain many of the advantages of our usual flow description, concerning for example the boundary conditions it must satisfy, and allowing easy calculation of the power
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2022-04-08
    Description: Effective policies to mitigate climate change need to be accompanied by a socially just transition. Based on experiences of past and ongoing transition policies in coal regions in Europe and with indications to the specificity of framework conditions and challenges and to the potential effectiveness and transferability of approaches, this paper presents lessons learnt which can be inspirational for similar transitions in other coal regions and for transitions in other sectors.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2022-04-08
    Description: This case study examined the structural change in the Ruhr area caused by the low international competitiveness of German hard coal mining over the period from the late 1950s to 2015. It analysed the structural change process and the structural policies implemented as a reaction to this process with the objective to make this knowledge available for future structural change processes in other (coal) regions by deploying various qualitative and quantitative methods of empirical social and economic research. A discourse analysis helped to recognise who supported which structural policy approaches and why - and thus gives indications of the possible relevance of experiences for other regions.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2022-04-08
    Description: This case study examined the structural change in Lusatia caused by the system change from a centrally planned economy to a market economy in the period 1990-2015. It analysed the structural change process and the structural policies implemented as a reaction to this process with the objective to make this knowledge available for future structural change processes in other (coal) regions by deploying various qualitative and quantitative methods of empirical social and economic research. A discourse analysis helped to recognise who supported which structural policy approaches and why - and thus gives indications of the possible relevance of experiences for other regions.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2022-04-04
    Description: Attenuation of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in a river occurs to a large extent in its hyporheic zone. A major part of the attenuation of polar TrOCs is of microbial origin. As microbial activity depends on temperature and redox conditions, seasonal differences in TrOC attenuation are likely. We investigated TrOC attenuation at a river influenced by treated wastewater during two sampling campaigns, one in summer and one in winter. In addition to redox conditions and temperature, we also determined residence times of porewater in sediment using three methods: (a) non‐parametric deconvolution of electrical conductivity time series, (b) the model VFLUX 2.0 based on temperature time series (only summer), and (c) applying Darcy's law to differences in hydraulic heads (only summer). Contrary to our expectations, we found higher attenuation for 12 out of 18 TrOCs in winter, while three TrOCs were better attenuated in summer. Sediment conditions varied between seasons as more of the top sandy layer with a higher hydraulic permeability accumulated on the river bed in summer. As a result, residence times in the sediment were shorter in summer. In winter, longer residence times, lower temperatures, and a steeper oxygen gradient in sediment coincided with higher TrOC attenuation. Further research is needed to understand our unexpected findings and underlying mechanisms.
    Description: Key Points: The attenuation of 12 out of 18 trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in the hyporheic zone was higher in winter while three TrOCs were attenuated better in summer. Residence times in sediment were longer and more diverse in winter. The extent of the oxic sediment was similar between seasons but the gradient from the oxic to anoxic zone was steeper in winter.
    Description: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659
    Description: EC | H2020 | H2020 Priority Excellent Science | H2020 Marie Skłodowska‐Curie Actions (MSCA) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100010665
    Description: University of Western Australia ‐ University Postgraduate Award
    Description: Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship
    Description: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002347
    Description: https://doi.org/10.18728/igb-fred-578.0
    Keywords: ddc:628.162
    Language: English
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2022-04-04
    Description: Fe(III) hydroxides stabilize organic carbon (OC) and P in soils. Observations of rising stream Fe concentrations are controversially posited to result from a flushing of iron‐rich deeper soil layers or a decrease of competing electron acceptors inhibiting Fe reduction (NO3− $\mathrm{N}{{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}^{-}$ and SO42− $\mathrm{S}{{\mathrm{O}}_{4}}^{2-}$). Here, we argue that catchment topography constrains the release of Fe, OC, and P to streams. We therefore incubated organic topsoil and mineral subsoil and modified the availability of NO3− $\mathrm{N}{{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}^{-}$. We found that Fe leaching was highest in topsoil. Fe, OC, and P released at quantities proportional to their ratios in the source soil. Supply of NO3− $\mathrm{N}{{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}^{-}$ reduced Fe leaching to 18% and increased pore water OC:Fe and P:Fe ratios. Subsoil, however, was an insignificant Fe source (〈0.5%). Here, the leached quantities of Fe, OC and P were highly disproportionate to the soil source with an excess of released OC and P. We tested if experimental findings scale up using data from 88 German catchments representing gradients in NO3− $\mathrm{N}{{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}^{-}$ concentration and topography. Average stream Fe concentrations increased with decreasing NO3− $\mathrm{N}{{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}^{-}$ and were high in catchments with shallow topography where high groundwater levels support reductive processes and topsoils are hydrologically connected to streams; but Fe concentrations were low in catchments with steep topography where flow occurs primarily through subsoils. OC:Fe and P:Fe ratios in the streams similarly varied by NO3− $\mathrm{N}{{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}^{-}$ and topography. This corroborates the findings from the laboratory experiment and suggests that catchment topography and competing electron acceptors constrain the formation of Fe‐reducing conditions and control the release of Fe, OC, and P to streams.
    Description: Plain Language Summary: Iron is the second most abundant metal in the crust; its cycle is tightly connected to those of carbon, oxygen, and sulfur. The oxidized form (FeIII) is almost insoluble, but Fe can be mobilized by complexation or microbial Fe reduction. Both processes depend on availability of organic C. We found that Fe concentrations in streams were constrained by the topography of catchments and NO3− $\mathrm{N}{{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}^{-}$ abundance. Shallower catchments are characterized by higher groundwater tables connecting the organic topsoils efficiently to streams. NO3− $\mathrm{N}{{\mathrm{O}}_{3}}^{-}$ suppresses Fe reduction as a competing electron acceptor to Fe. We conclude that trends in soil wetness or atmospheric N deposition can change the stability of Fe and thus the release of PO43− $\mathrm{P}{{\mathrm{O}}_{4}}^{3-}$ and harmful metals to surface waters.
    Description: Key Points: Organic topsoils leach substantial amounts of Fe when incubated in the absence of NO3, a competing electron acceptor that inhibits Fe reduction. Shallow catchments with fluvially coupled topsoils and low NO3 availability release 200 fold more Fe than steep ones with high NO3 abundance. Catchment topography and NO3 availability explain 62%–64% of the variability of Fe concentration and OC:Fe and P:Fe ratios across 88 streams.
    Description: EFRE‐Europe
    Description: https://doi.org/10.4211/hs.43601618877945c5a46b715aa98db729
    Keywords: ddc:551.9
    Language: English
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2022-04-04
    Description: Sewage disposal onto agricultural land may result in the high accumulation of organic wastes, which questions the applicability of typical elemental analysis used for the soil components. To monitor the contamination status of agricultural soils at a former sedimentation basin, after the long‐term cessation of wastewater irrigation, 110 locations (15–20 cm depth) and 4 boreholes (up to 100 cm depth) were sampled to determine pH, loss on ignition, and concentration of Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cr. Additionally, the applicability of portable X‐ray fluorescence (pXRF) for the soil samples highly influenced by the organic wastes was evaluated. The study revealed the presence of a relatively homogenous sewage waste layer (depth of 20 cm), characterized by slightly acidic to neutral pH (6.3–7.5), high organic matter (OM) accumulation (up to 49%), and elevated concentration (mg kg −1) ranges between: Pb (5–321), Cu (31–2828), Ni (10–193), Cr (14–966), and Zn (76–6639). The pXRF analysis revealed metal concentration increase in mineral samples (up to 50%). The regression models and correction factors demonstrated high correlation and significance of pXRF measurement with response to increasing OM content, with the lowest r 2 = 0.86 obtained for Ni. Correlation of pXRF and AES measurement illustrated element‐dependent response for soils high in organics. Zn, Cu, and Cr pXRF analysis led to a slight underestimation in lower values, but overall good correlations (0.87; 0.89; and 0.88 respectively). Pb and Ni pXRF measurement revealed higher deviation from the reference in both lower and higher concentrations (0.74 and 0.70, respectively).
    Description: German Federation of Industrial Research Associations http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002723
    Description: Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100006360
    Keywords: ddc:577.14
    Language: English
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2022-04-07
    Description: The higher frequency and intensity of sustained heat events have increased the demand for cooling energy across the globe. Current estimates of summer‐time energy demand are primarily based on Cooling Degree Days (CDD), representing the number of degrees a day's average temperature exceeds a predetermined comfort zone temperature. Through a comprehensive analysis of the historical energy demand data across the USA, we show that the commonly used CDD estimates fall significantly short (±25%) of capturing regional thermal comfort levels. Moreover, given the increasingly compelling evidence that air temperature alone is not sufficient for characterizing human thermal comfort, we extend the widely used CDD calculation to heat index, which accounts for both air temperature and humidity. Our results indicate significant mis‐estimation of regional thermal comfort when humidity is ignored. Our findings have significant implications for the security, sustainability, and resilience of the grid under climate change.
    Description: Plain Language Summary: Hotter summer days and more frequent and intense heatwaves are causing a sharp rise in demand for air conditioning across the globe. Accurate estimation of demand for space cooling is an integral component of resilient planning, operation, and management of the grid. One widely used metric for characterizing this demand is the Cooling Degree Days (CDD), which is calculated by measuring the difference between the mean daily temperature and a pre‐defined base temperature that represents a “comfort zone.” In this study, we analyze historical data on climate and energy demand and find that the most frequently used base temperature of 65°F in CDD calculations leads to mis‐characterizing comfort zones across different geographic areas in the United States. This can cause significant under‐ or over‐estimations of cooling energy demand. Moreover, we extend the temperature‐based CDD calculations to also account for the role of humidity and demonstrate the cost of ignoring humidity in CDD calculations under present and future climate conditions.
    Description: Key Points: Analysis of electricity demand shows that the widely used Cooling Degree Days (CDD) estimates fall short of capturing regional thermal comfort zones. Estimates of air conditioning penetration and affordability based on traditional calculation of CDD can lead to significant misestimation. Extending CDD calculations to include humidity improves the characterization of climate‐demand nexus under present and future climate.
    Description: National Science Foundation (NSF) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000001
    Keywords: ddc:333.79
    Language: English
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2022-04-07
    Description: The role of soil moisture for organic matter decomposition rates remains poorly understood and underrepresented in Earth System Models (ESMs). We apply the Dual Arrhenius Michaelis‐Menten (DAMM) model to a selection of ESM soil temperature and moisture outputs to investigate their effects on decomposition rates, at different soil depths, for a historical period and a future climate period. Our key finding is that the inclusion of soil moisture controls has diverging effects on both the speed and direction of projected decomposition rates (up to ±20%), compared to a temperature‐only approach. In the top soil, the majority of these changes is driven by substrate availability. In deeper soil layers, oxygen availability plays a relatively stronger role. Owing to these different moisture controls along the soil depth, our study highlights the need for depth‐resolved inclusion of soil moisture effects on decomposition rates within ESMs. This is particularly important for C‐rich soils in regions which may be subject to strong future warming and vertically opposing moisture changes, such as the peat soils at northern high latitudes.
    Description: Plain Language Summary: Soils contain a lot of carbon (C). Earth System Models (ESMs) predict that the amount of C released from soils into the atmosphere as CO2 will increase in response to increased warming and microbial activity. Soil moisture also controls microbial C decomposition, but most ESMs do not yet describe this process very well. In this study we apply a simple equation to different ESMs, to see how both temperature and soil moisture change microbial decomposition under future climate. First, we show that the speed of C released into the atmosphere changes when we include soil moisture changes, compared to what is expected due to warming alone. Second, we found that the future speed at which carbon that can be decomposed in the topsoil mainly depends on how much carbon microbes have access to, but that in the deeper soil this process becomes much more affected by the absence/presence of oxygen. Including these soil moisture interactions in ESMs for different soil depths is important to predict whether soils will store more or less C in the future. Our findings are particularly relevant for high latitude soils which store large amounts of C, will warm fast, and experience frequent (re)wetting and drying.
    Description: Key Points: Considering soil moisture effects can change modeled decomposition rates by up to ±20% compared to considering only temperature effects. The majority of these changes are driven by substrate availability, in particular in the top soil. In the subsoil, oxygen availability becomes an increasingly important factor.
    Description: Norwegian Research Council
    Description: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5654554
    Keywords: ddc:631.4
    Language: English
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2022-04-14
    Description: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected human mobility via lockdowns, social distancing rules, home quarantines, and the full or partial suspension of transportation. Evidence-based policy recommendations are urgently needed to ensure that transport systems have resilience to future pandemic outbreaks, particularly within Global South megacities where demand for public transport is high and reduced access can exacerbate socio-economic inequalities. This study focuses on Metro Manila - a characteristic megacity that experienced one of the most stringent lockdowns worldwide. It analyzes aggregated cell phone and GPS data from Google and Apple that provide a comprehensive representation of mobility behavior before and during the lockdown. While significant decreases are observed for all transport modes, public transport experienced the largest drop (-74.5 %, on average). The study demonstrates that: (i) those most reliant on public transport were disproportionately affected by lockdowns; (ii) public transport was unable to fulfil its role as public service; and, (iii) this drove a paradigm shift towards active mobility. Moving forwards, in the short-term policymakers must promote active mobility and prioritize public transport to reduce unequal access to transport. Longer-term, policymakers must leverage the increased active transport to encourage modal shift via infrastructure investment, and better utilize big data to support decision-making.
    Keywords: ddc:380
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2022-04-14
    Description: Dominant agricultural and food systems lead to continuous resource depletion and unacceptable environmental and social impacts. While current calls for changing agrifood systems are increasingly framed in the context of sustainability transitions, they rarely make an explicit link to transition studies to address these systemic challenges, nor do transition scholars sufficiently address agri-food systems, despite their global pertinence. From this viewpoint, we illustrate several gaps in the agri-food systems debate that sustainability transition studies could engage in. We propose four avenues for research in the next decade of transition research on agri-food systems: 1) Crossscale dynamics between coupled systems; 2) Social justice, equity and inclusion; 3) Sustainability transitions in low- and middle-income countries; 4) Cross-sectoral governance and system integration. We call for a decade of new transition research that moves beyond single-scale and sector perspectives toward more inclusive and integrated analyses of food system dynamics.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2022-04-14
    Description: Technological breakthroughs and policy measures targeting energy efficiency and clean energy alone will not suffice to deliver Paris Agreement-compliant greenhouse gas emissions trajectories in the next decades. Strong cases have recently been made for acknowledging the decarbonisation potential lying in transforming linear economic models into closed-loop industrial ecosystems and in shifting lifestyle patterns towards this direction. This perspective highlights the research capacity needed to inform on the role and potential of the circular economy for climate change mitigation and to enhance the scientific capabilities to quantitatively explore their synergies and trade-offs. This begins with establishing conceptual and methodological bridges amongst the relevant and currently fragmented research communities, thereby allowing an interdisciplinary integration and assessment of circularity, decarbonisation, and sustainable development. Following similar calls for science in support of climate action, a transdisciplinary scientific agenda is needed to co-create the goals and scientific processes underpinning the transition pathways towards a circular, net-zero economy with representatives from policy, industry, and civil society. Here, it is argued that such integration of disciplines, methods, and communities can then lead to new and/or structurally enhanced quantitative systems models that better represent critical industrial value chains, consumption patterns, and mitigation technologies. This will be a crucial advancement towards assessing the material implications of, and the contribution of enhanced circularity performance to, mitigation pathways that are compatible with the temperature goals of the Paris Agreement and the transition to a circular economy.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2022-04-01
    Description: Despite the implication of aerosols for the radiation budget, there are persistent differences in data for the aerosol optical depth (τ) for 1998–2019. This study presents a comprehensive evaluation of the large‐scale spatio‐temporal patterns of mid‐visible τ from modern data sets. In total, we assessed 94 different global data sets from eight satellite retrievals, four aerosol‐climate model ensembles, one operational ensemble product, two reanalyses, one climatology and one merged satellite product. We include the new satellite data SLSTR and aerosol‐climate simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) and the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models Phase 3 (AeroCom‐III). Our intercomparison highlights model differences and observational uncertainty. Spatial mean τ for 60°N – 60°S ranges from 0.124 to 0.164 for individual satellites, with a mean of 0.14. Averaged τ from aerosol‐climate model ensembles fall within this satellite range, but individual models do not. Our assessment suggests no systematic improvement compared to CMIP5 and AeroCom‐I. Although some regional biases have been reduced, τ from both CMIP6 and AeroCom‐III are for instance substantially larger along extra‐tropical storm tracks compared to the satellite products. The considerable uncertainty in observed τ implies that a model evaluation based on a single satellite product might draw biased conclusions. This underlines the need for continued efforts to improve both model and satellite estimates of τ, for example, through measurement campaigns in areas of particularly uncertain satellite estimates identified in this study, to facilitate a better understanding of aerosol effects in the Earth system.
    Description: Plain Language Summary: Aerosols are known to affect atmospheric processes. For instance, particles emitted during dust storms, biomass burning and anthropogenic activities affect air quality and influence the climate through effects on solar radiation and clouds. Although many studies address such aerosol effects, there is a persistent difference in current estimates of the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere across observations and complex climate models. This study documents the data differences for aerosol amounts, including new estimates from climate‐model simulations and satellite products. We quantify considerable differences across aerosol amount estimates as well as regional and seasonal variations of extended and new data. Further, this study addresses the question to what extent complex climate models have improved over the past decades in light of observational uncertainty.
    Description: Key Points: Present‐day patterns in aerosol optical depth differ substantially between 94 modern global data sets. The range in spatial means from individual satellites is −11% to +17% of the multi‐satellite mean. Spatial means from climate model intercomparison projects fall within the satellite range but strong regional differences are identified.
    Description: Hans‐Ertel‐Center for Weather Research
    Description: Collaborative Research Centre 1211
    Description: Max‐Planck‐Institute for Meteorology
    Keywords: ddc:551.5
    Language: English
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2022-03-31
    Description: The transport sector accounts for 20 per cent of the greenhouse gas emissions in Germany and it is therefore key to success for German climate policy. At present, however, there is no other sector with a wider gap in missing the trajectory to climate neutrality. The present study, conducted on behalf of Huawei within the project "Shaping the Digital Transformation - Digital Solution Systems for the Sustainability Transition", points out new pathways towards a sustainable and climate friendly transition of the transport sector. The report specifies concrete options to follow up on the ambitious goals of the new coalition agreement to foster clean and digital mobility solutions. The authors refined eight theses on how digitalisation can foster sustainable mobility solutions and how to shape a supporting policy framework, which is aligning the financial and regulatory guardrails for ramping up a sustainable mobility system while gradually phasing down the usage of private cars.
    Keywords: ddc:380
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2022-03-25
    Description: The Miocene period saw substantially warmer Earth surface temperatures than today, particularly during a period of global warming called the Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO; ∼17–15 Ma). However, the long‐term drivers of Miocene climate remain poorly understood. By using a new continuous climate‐biogeochemical model (SCION), we can investigate the interaction between volcanism, climate and biogeochemical cycles through the Miocene. We identify high tectonic CO2 degassing rates and further emissions associated with the emplacement of the Columbia River Basalt Group as the primary driver of the background warmth and the MMCO respectively. We also find that enhanced weathering of the basaltic terrane and input of explosive volcanic ash to the oceans are not sufficient to drive the immediate cooling following the MMCO and suggest that another mechanism, perhaps the change in ocean chemistry due to massive evaporite deposition, was responsible.
    Description: Plain Language Summary: The Miocene period was much warmer than today, with the Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO, roughly 17–15 million years ago) especially warm. Due to the high surface temperatures, comparisons to projected climatic conditions as a result of anthropogenic climate change have been drawn. However, the drivers of climate during the Miocene are not well understood. By using a new type of climate model, we investigate the impact volcanic eruptions had on the period, and link the extreme warmth of the MMCO with greenhouse gas release from the eruption of the Columbia River Basalts Group (CRBG). We find weathering of the CRBG does not explain the cooling at the end of the MMCO, and so discuss other potential explanations such as evaporite deposition.
    Description: Key Points: A new climate‐biogeochemical model allows investigation of drivers of climate change in the Miocene. Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) degassing is sufficient to have caused the Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO). Weathering of CRBG insufficient to drive cooling after the MMCO. This may be linked to evaporite deposition and changes to marine chemistry.
    Description: UK Natural Environment Research Council
    Description: French Research Agency (ANR)
    Keywords: ddc:551
    Language: English
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2022-03-25
    Description: Due to the still enormous burden of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the subsurface worldwide, the safe recovery of a wide variety of buried weapons and ammunition requires efficient and reliable detection methods. Using a deep learning approach applied to magnetic field data distributed areal along the surface, we aim to achieve a more accurate localization of UXO and small magnetically effective objects in general by detecting the specific signature of their magnetic anomaly. To investigate the applicability of this approach, we developed a deep convolutional neural network that performs image segmentation in different potential measurement scenarios. In this process, the sought small-scale target signals should be distinguished from different background fields containing, e.g., several types of noise. For this purpose, extensive synthetic data sets were generated first using numerical simulations of the magnetic dipole fields of multiple objects. The resulting multi-dipole scenarios and corresponding masks are then passed to the network, which is trained on a test and validation set to produce a representative model for the trained simulation examples. At the end of the training process, this model is supposed to be able to predict yet unknown examples from an evaluation set. Subsequently, the prediction quality of the resulting model needs to be analyzed to fine-tune the parameters of the assumed network architecture or even the architecture itself. The poster we present deals with the generation and preprocessing of appropriate training data, the applied network architecture, and preliminary results of the first evaluation stages.
    Description: poster
    Language: English
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2022-03-24
    Description: Plate divergence along mid‐ocean ridges is accommodated through faulting and magmatic accretion, and, at overlapping spreading centers (OSC), is distributed across two curvilinear overlapping ridge axes. One‐meter resolution bathymetry acquired by autonomous underwater vehicles, combined with distribution and ages of lava flows, is used to: (a) analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of flows, faults, and fissures in the OSC between the distal south rift zone of Axial Seamount and the Vance Segment, (b) locate spreading axes, (c) calculate extension, and (d) determine the proportion of extension accommodated at the surface by faults and fissures versus volcanic extrusion over a period of ∼1300–1450 years. Our study reveals that in the recent history of the ridges, extension over a distance of 14 km across the Axial/Vance OSC was asymmetric in proportion and style: faults and fissures across 1–2 km of the Vance axial valley accommodated ∼3/4 of the spreading, whereas dike‐fed eruptions contributed ∼1/4 of the extension and occurred across 4 km of the south rift of Axial Seamount.
    Description: Plain Language Summary: Along mid‐ocean ridges, oceanic plates separate through the formation and growth of faults and the emplacement of dikes supplying lava flows. Where segments overlap in a zone of separation, these processes are distributed along two spreading axes separated by 2–30 km kilometers. We combine 1‐m resolution bathymetry collected by autonomous underwater vehicles and the age of large lava flows to (a) analyze the distribution of faults and lava flows where Axial Seamount overlaps with the Vance Segment, (b) define the current plate boundary, (c) calculate the speed of plate separation, and (d) determine the proportion and locations of fault extension versus flow emplacement. Our study shows that during the last ∼1300–1450 years, fault formation and growth along the Vance Segment are the main contributor to plate separation. In contrast, the emplacement of dikes and lava flows along Axial Seamount account only for ∼1/4 of the plate separation.
    Description: Key Points: Autonomous underwater vehicle mapping of an overlapping spreading center reveals the proportion of faulting and eruptions that occurred during the last ∼1300–1450 years. Faulting at the Vance Segment accommodates ∼3/4 of the spreading and magmatic accretion along Axial Seamount south rift accounts for ∼1/4. The spreading axis is 〈250 m wide along the Vance Segment but ∼4 km wide along the south rift of Axial Seamount.
    Description: David and Lucile Packard Foundation (PF) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000008
    Keywords: ddc:551.8 ; ddc:551.13
    Language: English
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2022-03-24
    Description: Rock glaciers are receiving increased attention as a potential source of water and indicator of climate change in periglacial landscapes. They consist of an ice‐debris mixture, which creeps downslope. Although rock glaciers are a wide‐spread feature on the Tibetan Plateau, characteristics such as its ice fraction are unknown as a superficial debris layer inhibits remote assessments. We investigate one rock glacier in the semiarid western Nyainqêntanglha range (WNR) with a multi‐method approach, which combines geophysical, geological and geomorphological field investigations with remote sensing techniques. Long‐term kinematics of the rock glacier are detected by 4‐year InSAR time series analysis. The ice content and the active layer are examined by electrical resistivity tomography, ground penetrating radar, and environmental seismology. Short‐term activity (11‐days) is captured by a seismic network. Clast analysis shows a sorting of the rock glacier's debris. The rock glacier has three zones, which are defined by the following characteristics: (a) Two predominant lithology types are preserved separately in the superficial debris patterns, (b) heterogeneous kinematics and seismic activity, and (c) distinct ice fractions. Conceptually, the studied rock glacier is discussed as an endmember of the glacier—debris‐covered glacier—rock glacier continuum. This, in turn, can be linked to its location on the semiarid lee‐side of the mountain range against the Indian summer monsoon. Geologically preconditioned and glacially overprinted, the studied rock glacier is suggested to be a recurring example for similar rock glaciers in the WNR. This study highlights how geology, topography and climate influence rock glacier characteristics and development.
    Description: Plain Language Summary: Climate change has begun to impact all regions of our planet. In cold regions, such as high‐mountain areas, rising temperatures lead to massive melting of glaciers. Besides this evident loss of ice, permafrost, a long‐term ice resource hidden in the subsurface, has started to thaw. Rock glaciers as visible permafrost‐related landforms consist of an ice‐debris mixture, which makes them creep downslope. Due to this movement and their recognizable shape, rock glaciers are permafrost indicators in high‐mountain areas. We investigate one rock glacier in the western Nyaingêntanglha Range (Tibetan Plateau) using field and remote sensing methods to understand its development and to know the current state of its ice core. Our main outcome is, that the heterogeneous creeping behavior, the properties of the debris cover as well as the internal distribution of ice are the results of a continuous development from a glacier into today's rock glacier. In particular, the high ice content in particular sections points to such a glacial precondition. The debris layer covering the internal ice attenuates the effect of climate warming. This makes the rock glacier and similar rock glaciers found in the northern part of the mountain range important future water resources for the semiarid region.
    Description: Key Points: Geophysical and remote sensing methods in concert reveal the morphostructure, ice fraction, and kinematics of the studied rock glacier. Rock glacier characteristics are controlled by geology, topography and climate on the Tibetan Plateau. The studied rock glacier is conceptually interpreted as the endmember of a glacier—debris‐covered glacier—rock glacier continuum.
    Description: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659
    Keywords: ddc:551.31 ; ddc:555
    Language: English
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2022-03-28
    Description: Cenozoic climate changes have been linked to tectonic activity and variations in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here, we present Miocene and Pliocene sensitivity experiments performed with the climate model COSMOS. The experiments contain changes with respect to paleogeography, ocean gateway configuration, and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, as well as a range of vertical mixing coefficients in the ocean. For the mid‐Miocene, we show that the impact of ocean mixing on surface temperature is comparable to the effect of the possible range in reconstructed CO2 concentrations. In combination with stronger vertical mixing, relatively moderate CO2 concentrations of 450 ppmv enable global‐mean surface, deep‐water, and meridional temperature characteristics representative of mid‐Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) reconstructions. The Miocene climate shows a reduced meridional temperature gradient and reduced seasonality. In the case of enhanced mixing, surface and deep ocean temperatures show significant warming of up to 5–10°C and an Arctic temperature anomaly of 〉12°C. In the Pliocene simulations, the impact of vertical mixing and CO2 is less important for the deep ocean, which we interpret as a different sensitivity dependence on the background state and mixed layer dynamics. We find a significant reduction in surface albedo and effective emissivity for either a high level of atmospheric CO2 or increased vertical mixing. Our mixing sensitivity experiments provide a warm deep ocean via ocean heat uptake. We propose that the mixing hypothesis can be tested by reconstructions of the thermocline and seasonal paleoclimate data indicating a lower seasonality relative to today.
    Description: Plain Language Summary: Cenozoic climate changes have been associated with tectonic changes and altered atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here, we present Miocene and Pliocene computer simulations where we changed paleogeography, ocean gateways, and atmospheric CO2 concentrations as well as vertical mixing in the ocean. We show that the effect of ocean mixing on temperature is comparable to the respective effect of a possible range of CO2 concentrations. In combination with stronger vertical mixing, relatively moderate CO2 concentrations of 450 ppmv allow surface and deep‐water temperatures representative for reconstructions of the climate optimum of the mid‐Miocene. In the Pliocene simulations, the influence of vertical mixing and CO2 is less important than in the Miocene. We provide a possible mechanism of ocean heat absorption, albedo, and emissivity changes including a deeper oceanic mixing layer and a lower seasonality in the Miocene compared to today.
    Description: Key Points: Miocene experiment with standard mixing and atmospheric CO2 of 600 ppm captures large‐scale temperature characteristics of the mid‐Miocene. With enhanced ocean mixing the temperature characteristics and meridional temperature gradient can be reproduced with a CO2 level of 450 ppm. Miocene shows a strong warming at polar latitudes and reduced seasonality, vertical mixing, and CO2 are less important for the Pliocene.
    Description: Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003207
    Description: Helmholtz Association (亥姆霍兹联合会致力) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100009318
    Description: Helmholtz Climate Initiative RE‐KLIM
    Keywords: ddc:550.78
    Language: English
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2022-04-21
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2022-04-22
    Description: The Glasgow climate conference marked a symbolic juncture, lying half-way between the adoption of the UNFCCC in 1992 and the year 2050 in which according to the IPCC special report on the 1.5°C limit net zero CO2 emissions need to be reached, globally, in order to maintain a good chance of achieving the 1.5°C limit. This article undertakes an assessment of what the UNFCCC and in particular the Paris Agreement and its implementation process have actually achieved so far up to and including the results of the Glasgow conference. The article discusses efforts at ambition raising both within and outside the formal diplomatic process, the finalization of the implementation rules of the Paris Agreement, as well as progress on gender responsiveness, climate finance, adaptation and loss and damage. In summary, the Paris Agreement and its implementation can be considered a success as it is having a discernible impact on the behavior of parties as well as on non-party actors. However, significant further efforts will be required to actually achieve the objectives of the Agreement.
    Keywords: ddc:320
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2022-04-01
    Description: This paper analyses the potential of digital information technology to enable the reliable provision of product information along the plastics supply chain. The authors investigate the possible contribution of a product passport equipped with decentralised identifiers and verifiable credentials to overcome information deficits and information asymmetry in the circular plastics economy. Through this, high-quality plastics recycling could be enabled on a larger scale than currently possible.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: workingpaper , doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2022-03-01
    Description: Geological maps are complex to produce through intensive and expensive field studies. Comparisons of geophysical data with geological conditions are difficult and often only qualitatively possible. The following work therefore examines an automated procedure to better reconcile this information. For this purpose, the terracing method, and a cluster analysis of potential field (gravity and magnetic field) and petrophysical data from the Karasjok and Ligurian Sea regions are used to interpret this geophysical measurements in a geological way. Two different tectonic regions were selected: (1) The Karasjok region is located in Northern Norway, where the Karasjok Greenstone Belt (KGB) dominates geological settings, consisting of abundant ultramafic intrusions, komatiites, gabbroic intrusions, amphibolites and migmatites. (2) The Ligurian-Provençal basin, part of the Western Mediterranean Sea, which is located between the French-Italian coastline and the island of Corsica. Geologically the area is characterised by the spreading zone in the Western Mediterranean. The high-resolution Airborne Gravity Gradient Survey and aeromagnetic datasets of the Karasjok region cover an area of 20 km x 30 km with a data resolution of 50 m. The dataset of the Ligurian basin cover a much larger area with the resolution of 5 km. Data constraints come from former LOBSTER and LISA campaigns and a study in the research group at CAU Kiel, new compilation of the AlpArray Gravity Research Group (AAGRG), besides data of the ICGEM Potsdam (disturbance) and the GOCE mission. By aid of the terracing algorithm, the boundaries of the anomalies are to be sharpened and regions with constant field amplitude were generated. For this purpose, a shape index-based algorithm was applied, which uses the shape index calculated at each field point to grade the function. Through an iterative process and the variation of parameters, the terracing result is refined. The resulting data sets are then further processed using a cluster analysis method. Here, the k-mean algorithm for domain classification is used to divide the geophysical measurement data into groups (cluster) of similar properties. The number of clusters k is specified and the data points are assigned to the respective clusters through an iterative process. Using the data of the datasets mentioned above the results of this applications are successfully compared with the corresponding geological maps of the two areas.
    Description: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), SPP "MB-4D"
    Description: https://doi.org/10.5880/fidgeo.2020.045 (Zahorec et al., 2021) via GFZ Data Services
    Description: poster
    Keywords: Clustering ; terracing ; gravity field ; Liguro-Provencial Basin ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: English
    Type: map
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2022-03-08
    Description: How do recent changes in consumption in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic affect the avoidance of packaging waste? How can an increase in packaging waste be countered and the previous trend towards unpackaged and reusable solutions be revived and promoted? To tackle these questions, we use a systemic approach that regards packaging as a network of interrelated interests of industry (manufacturing and logistics), trade (retail and catering), consumers and the waste management sector. To analyse this network, we applied three methods. First, we analysed secondary sources such as surveys. Second, we conducted semi-structured interviews with seven actors from industry, consumer education and waste management in May and June 2020. Third, we used the questions from the interview guideline to do an online survey among representatives of the public waste management industry.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2022-03-08
    Description: This study presents in detail: the use of plastic products and the opportunities for recyclate use in the construction sector, quantities of plastic used, take-back systems, recycling techniques, current recyclate use and plastic construction product packaging.Potentials for increasing high-quality recyclate use were identified. Existing hurdles and options for action for industry and politics are presented. Current recyclate use as well as its potential use are strongly dependent on the application area of plastics. The biggest hurdles for the use of recycled materials are product life time, dismantling and technical requirements.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2022-03-07
    Description: On the basis of a literature research, this subtask develops a conceptional framework for a common understanding of CE within the project team and for the following work packages and tasks. After a brief introduction into the objectives and the context of a circular economy, a more elaborated look into the necessity of an explicit understanding of CE, the objectives, the spatial perspective of CE and the specific challenges within the CICERONE context will be done, in order to develop a basis for a common understanding within the project context. Circular economy can and has to be understood as an (eco-)innovation agenda. Therefore, the paper investigates the role policy has to play to support innovation for a CE transition, for creating the framework conditions and why CE has also to be build from the ground up. Finally, the paper looks from two perspectives at emerging trends and business models in a CE to sketch next steps towards the transition in a selection of central sectors. Conclusions are drawn on the basis of the insights gained by the preceding chapters.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2022-03-07
    Description: The key objective of this deliverable is to gain insights on and assess how CE is being implemented and R&I is being funded at regional level, e.g., via the RIS3 strategy and Structural Funds. As such it sets the scope for the project and provides the background against which programmes and measures can be understood, assessed, developed and recommended in succinct tasks and work packages. The objective of this report is to provide a concise overview of the current R&I priorities, as expressed in running and newly introduced funding and legislative measures with respect to Circular Economy in European countries and regions.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2022-03-07
    Description: CICERONE aims to bring national, regional and local governments together to jointly tackle the circular economy transition needed to reach net-zero carbon emissions and meet the targets set in the Paris Agreement and EU Green Deal. This document represents one of the key outcomes of the project: a Strategic Research & Innovation Agenda (SRIA) for Europe, to support owners and funders of circular economy programmes in aligning priorities and approaching the circular economy transition in a systemic way.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2022-03-16
    Description: Cities around the globe are implementing innovative transport solutions as part of measures to address pertinent socio-economic and environmental challenges in urban areas and help drive the transition to low carbon development. Planning and implementing such solutions require an effective and collective approach that includes the needs and aspirations of all relevant stakeholders. In the planning and implementation of urban transport projects, capacity building components have assumed great significance but seem to be the most eluded activity for project implementers. The Living Lab concept, which allows for co-creation in innovation development, presents the opportunity to adopt innovative participatory approach in capacity building activities in transport projects; and is largely seen as a potential catalyst for rapid transformation to low carbon and sustainability transitions in cities. To this end, this paper highlights the usefulness of the Living Lab approach and provides some perspectives on how key elements of the approach are adapted in the process of assessing the capacity needs of nine (9) cities in planning and implementing e-mobility innovations. The cities are participating in an innovation research project. In the case studied, the project’s capacity needs assessment process was analyzed using an assessment framework built on four (4) key elements of the Living Lab approach, namely: extent of real-life contextualization, level of participation, diversity of stakeholders, and the time span of engagement. Insights from the assessment suggest that relevant project partners and city representatives with diverse expertise were actively involved from the onset and throughout the first 5 months of the project in defining and refining the capacity needs of partner cities based on local e-mobility conditions. This co-creative process helped determine priority areas where the need for capacity building mostly lied. Designing and operationalizing capacity building interventions tailored to the identified needs, as realized in the project, could therefore help build the necessary capacity and complement other measures aimed at developing e-mobility in the project’s partner cities.
    Keywords: ddc:380
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2022-03-17
    Description: The idea for the Green Recovery Tracker was born in spring 2020 when governments started making announcements on economic Corona recovery measures. From a climate and resilience perspective it is key that those recovery packages, investments and subsidies are in line with long-term climate and sustainability targets. Thus, recovery packages should not only boost the economy in the short-term, but also strike the path to a just transition towards climate neutrality. Against this background, Wuppertal Institute and E3G have launched the Green Recovery Tracker project in late summer 2020 to shed light on the following questions: What can be considered an effective green recovery? What are good examples, which can be used as an inspiration for recovery programs aiming to support sustainable development? Where do the individual Member States stand with respect to aligning their recovery activities with the climate policy agenda? In this report, you will find our Methodology as well our Policy Briefing highlighting our key takeaways of our country and sectoral analyses. It further includes a section on "What can we learn from our experience with the Green Recovery Tracker?". The briefing concludes with a "Guidance for future funding programs and achieving climate targets overall".
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2022-03-11
    Description: In the last few years, several Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based magnetometer systems have been tested for archaeological prospection. Due to their higher sensitivity, scalar magnetometers have been preferred as test sensors. However, total field magnetometer are vulnerable to disturbances, especially those generated by the UAV itself. Therefore, most UAV scalar magnetometer systems use the method of increasing the distance between magnetic sensors and the UAV to reduce interference. But freely suspended sensors tend to swing on ropes under the UAV and can produce data that are strongly influenced by heading errors. For our test, we therefore chose the UAV-fixed, compact setup of the SENSYS MagDrone R4, which is equipped with five three-axis FGM3D/75 fluxgate sensors at 50 cm spacing and is covering a swath width of 2.5 m. The 200Hz sampling rate of the R4 allows easy filtering of interference generated by the UAV and external disturbances like power lines or infrastructure. Magnetograms with a spatial resolution of up to 0.20 m per pixel were produced from the data. At Ganacker, we chose the former infrastructure core of the World War II German Air Force airfield as a test site. A wide range of archaeological structures and features with high magnetic contrast were expected on this area. The test site is currently an open agricultural area with a quite flat terrain. Hence, the R4 could be operated at a fixed flight height of just one metre above the surface of the terrain that is controlled actively by a radar sensor. An area of around 110 hectares were prospected within only four days. The MagDrone R4 system thus offers an outstanding survey area progress that cannot even reached by common vehicle-moved multi-sensor arrays. Here, we present the first results of this test survey by comparing the magnetograms, historical and current geodata. Most of the expected archaeological features and several unknown ones were detected by the R4 system. Our results show that the R4 system is well suited for mapping large archaeological structures with high magnetisations. In the future, we want to compare the R4 data with data from a ground-based fluxgate magnetometer. We also want to test whether the system is suitable for detecting archaeological features that have lower magnetic susceptibility and remanence contrasts with the surrounding soil.
    Description: poster
    Language: English
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2022-03-11
    Description: During the last few years, the use of Ground-Penetrating-Radar (GPR) multi-channel antenna arrays in the Archaeological Prospection increased dramatically. The main advantage of this type of survey is a much faster data acquisition combined with a dense profile spacing. However, most of the common multi-channel arrays consist of antennae with a spacing of not smaller than 8 cm. The aim of our test survey was to evaluate how an even denser spacing of 4 cm that is provided by the IDS Stream-C GPR device at a centre frequency of 600 MHz can improve the detection of small archaeological features. As a test site, we chose the Great Bath in Kempten-Cambodunum. This first capital of the Roman province Rhaetia never has been overbuilt in the following centuries and even today it is used as a grassland declared as an Archaeological Park. Already in 1911, the Great Bath was excavated and beside the walls of different building phases, also small features like a multitude of hypocaust pillars were unearthed. Hence, this building structure depicts an ideal test site and a 40x40m grid covering the main part of the construction was chosen for the application of the antenna array. As a comparison, the same grid was contemporaneously surveyed with a single antenna IDS Duo device (600 and 200 MHz) and a 50 cm profile spacing. Regarding the walls of the Roman bath, the two surveys show comparable results: both datasets represent the stone constructions of 50 – 90 cm width quite well. Furthermore, the depth slices of both devices provide a differentiation of the single building phases. Nevertheless, the resolution for the multi-channel antenna array is of course much higher due to the denser profile spacing. Huger differences occur for the hypocaust pillars of 25 cm lateral length. These features can be mapped in detail with the 4 cm profile spacing of the IDS Stream-C system. Whereas the IDS Duo can only resolve some of the hypocausts, a multitude of them gets visible between 70 and 110 cm depth in the Stream-C data. As a conclusion, it can be stated that standard archaeological remains like stone walls, for sure, can be surveyed with single antenna GPR devices in a common profile spacing of 50 cm. However, in case of the existence of faint archaeological features the application of ultra-dense antenna arrays like the IDS Stream-C is advisable to get a comprehensive overview of a site without the necessity to excavate them.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2022-03-11
    Description: poster
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2022-05-03
    Description: The Floodrisk project takes a muti- and interdisciplinary look on the effects of the rise in mine water level in abandoned coal mine regions in Germany. Such effects are heterogeneous ground uplift, stress changes due to the pore pressure changes and the reactivation potential of faults. One of the most directly measurable effects is the induced seismicity. It is known from previous studies that the flooding of old mines can lead to a renewed increase in induced microseismicity in these regions. We focused on the observation of the eastern Ruhr area and investigate in detail the relationship between mine water rise and induced seismicity in the Haus Aden dewatering area. For this purpose, we operate a network of up to 30 short period seismic stations in the region of the former "Bergwerk Ost" colliery, which had the highest seismicity rate in the Ruhr area during active mining. Continuous monitoring of seismicity and mine water levels is available for this region from the active mining phase, through the post-mining phase to flooding. Since the beginning of the flooding, more than 20000 onsets were picked and over 1700 induced events were localised in a magnitude range from -0.7 up to 2.6 MLv. For some larger events, focal mechanisms could be determined. The spatial distribution of hypocentres is divided into two areas, with few events in the central study area and over 95% of earthquakes in its eastern part. Many of these events are spatially clustered and some show quite high waveform similarity. This allows relative localisation to increase the accuracy of the location. Comparing the old galleries,which today serve as the main underground waterways, with the localisations from the relative localisation, strong correlations can be seen. The measured temporal trend of the mine water level, after pumps were shut down in mid-2019, shows a strong correlation with the temporal evolution of the observed micro seismicity. In the first months after the pumps are switched off, the water levels at the observation points rise only slowly and isolated microseismic events occur again. In November 2019, the rise in water levels doubled and at the same time, the strongest induced event in the measurement period was recorded with a magnitude of 2.6 MLv. In the years 2020, 2021 66 and 58 events 〉= MLv 1 were observed, respectively. In contrast to this number only 2- 9 events 〉= MLv 1 per year were observed in the post-minig phase before flooding.
    Description: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung
    Description: poster
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2022-04-29
    Description: The construction sector is the second largest area for the application for plastics. Due to the long life times of construction products, the implementation of the circular economy faces its own challenges. To investigate this challenge, the study covers a market study for Germany, voluntary take-back and recycling schemes of construction products, as well as the use of plastic recyclates in construction products. In addition, plastic packaging of construction products is covered. Opportunities and barriers to the use of recycled plastics in construction products are derived from the intersection of available technologies, recyclate supply, and technical requirements for construction products. The report concludes with recommendations to various stakeholders on how to promote the use of recyclates in construction products and their packaging. Important points here are the introduction of a recyclate quota for films as construction product packaging and the description of recycling possibilities and recyclate content in the technical documentation of construction products.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2022-05-12
    Description: By applying a phase model for the renewables-based energy transition in the MENA countries to Israel, the study provides a guiding vision to support the strategy development and steering of the energy transition process. The transition towards a renewable-based energy system can reduce import dependencies and increase the energy security in Israel. Key issues that need to be tackled in order to advance the energy transition in Israel are the expansion of flexibility options, discussion on the long-term role of natural gas, increasing participation and awareness, and exploring the future role of power-to-X in the energy system.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2022-03-29
    Description: In the last 7 years, three meteorites (Blaubeuren, Cloppenburg, and Machtenstein) found in Germany were identified as chondrites. Two of these rocks had been recovered from the impact sites decades ago but were not considered to be meteorites. The aim of this study is to fully characterize these three meteorites. Based on the compositional data on the silicates, namely olivine and low‐Ca pyroxene, these meteorites fit nicely within the H‐group ordinary chondrites. The brecciated texture of Blaubeuren and Cloppenburg (both H4‐5) is perfectly visible, whereas that of Machtenstein, officially classified as an H5 chondrite, is less obvious but was detected and described in this study. Considering chondrites in general, brecciated rocks are very common rather than an exception. The bulk rock degree of shock is S2 for Blaubeuren and Machtenstein and S3 for Cloppenburg. All samples show significant features of weathering. They have lost their original fusion crust and more than half (W3) or about half (W2‐3) of their original metal abundances. The oxygen isotope compositions of the three chondrites are consistent with those of other H chondrites; however, the Cloppenburg values are heavily disturbed and influenced by terrestrial weathering. This is supported by the occurrence of the very rare hydrated iron phosphate mineral vivianite (Fe2+Fe2+2[PO4]2·8H2O), which indicates that the chondrite was weathered in a very wet environment. The terrestrial ages of Blaubeuren (~9.2 ka), Cloppenburg (~5.4 ka), and Machtenstein (~1.8 ka) show that these chondrites are very similar in their degree of alteration and terrestrial age compared to meteorite finds from relatively wet terrestrial environments. They still contain abundant metal, although, as noted, the oxygen isotope data indicate substantial weathering of Cloppenburg. The bulk compositions of the three meteorites are typical for H chondrites, although terrestrial alteration has slightly modified the concentrations, leading in general to a loss of Fe, Co, and Ni due to preferential alteration of metals and sulfides. As exceptions, Co and Ni concentrations in Machtenstein, which has the shortest terrestrial age, are typical for H chondrites. The chemical data show no enrichments in Ba and Sr, as is often observed in different meteorite groups of desert finds.
    Description: European Regional Development Fund http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100008530
    Description: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659
    Keywords: ddc:549.112
    Language: English
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2022-03-29
    Description: Although submarine landslides have been studied for decades, a persistent challenge is the integration of diverse geoscientific datasets to characterize failure processes. We present a core‐log‐seismic integration study of the Tuaheni Landslide Complex to investigate intact sediments beneath the undeformed seafloor as well as post‐failure landslide deposits. Beneath the undeformed seafloor are coherent reflections underlain by a weakly‐reflective and chaotic seismic unit. This chaotic unit is characterized by variable shear strength that correlates with density fluctuations. The basal shear zone of the Tuaheni landslide likely exploited one (or more) of the low shear strength intervals. Within the landslide deposits is a widespread “Intra‐debris Reflector”, previously interpreted as the landslide's basal shear zone. This reflector is a subtle impedance drop around the boundary between upper and lower landslide units. However, there is no pronounced shear strength change across this horizon. Rather, there is a pronounced reduction in shear strength ∼10–15 m above the Intra‐debris Reflector that presumably represents an induced weak layer that developed during failure. Free gas accumulates beneath some regions of the landslide and is widespread deeper in the sedimentary sequence, suggesting that free gas may have played a role in pre‐conditioning the slope to failure. Additional pre‐conditioning or failure triggers could have been seismic shaking and associated transient fluid pressure. Our study underscores the importance of detailed core‐log‐seismic integration approaches for investigating basal shear zone development in submarine landslides.
    Description: Plain Language Summary: Submarine landslides move enormous amounts of sediment across the seafloor and have the potential to generate damaging tsunamis. To understand how submarine landslides develop, we need to be able to image and sample beneath the seafloor in regions where landslides have occurred. To image beneath the seafloor we generate sound waves in the ocean and record reflections from those waves, enabling us to produce “seismic images” of sediment layers and structures beneath the seafloor. We then use scientific drilling to sample the sediment layers and measure physical properties. In this study, we combine seismic images and drilling results to investigate a submarine landslide east of New Zealand's North Island. Drilling next to the landslide revealed a ∼25 m‐thick layer of sediment (from ∼75–95 m below the seafloor) that has strong variations in sediment strength and density. We infer that intervals of relatively low strength within this layer developed into the main sliding surface of the landslide. Additionally, results from within the landslide suggest that the process of landslide emplacement has induced a zone of weak sediments closer to the seafloor. Our study demonstrates how combining seismic images and drilling data helps to understand submarine landslide processes.
    Description: Key Points: We integrate scientific drilling data with seismic reflection data to investigate the submarine Tuaheni Landslide Complex. Basal shear zone of the landslide likely exploited a relatively low shear strength interval within an older (buried) mass transport deposit. Landslide emplacement seems to have induced an additional weak zone that is shallower than the interpreted base of the landslide deposit.
    Description: Marsden Fund (Royal Society of New Zealand Marsden Fund) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100009193
    Description: European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling
    Description: International Ocean Drilling Program, Science Support Program
    Description: New Zealand Ministry for Business Innovation and Employment
    Description: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659
    Description: https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.928073
    Keywords: ddc:622.15 ; ddc:551
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2022-03-02
    Description: Aeromagnetic surveys help us to learn about geology. To achieve good coverage, surveys need to be merged. However, conventional methods introduce long-wavelength bias and cannot handle the individual survey quality. We develop a new approach to process large aeromagnetic surveys with an equivalent layer approach and combine them with satellite data. To facilitate the usage of large data sets, we divide the study area into blocks and treat each block individually. We adjust the block size according to the resolution of the equivalent source model. Within each block we solve for equivalent sources using an iterative linear inversion with Tikhonov regularization. We apply a multi-resolution strategy by iteratively decreasing the dipole spacing, dipole depth and block size. In each step, the resolution is applied to the residual of the previous steps. This ensures both a good representation of the large and small-scale structures as well as reasonable computational costs. Advantages of the blockwise inversion are the handling with large data sets due to splitting up the study area and neglecting influences of sources above a certain distance. This reduces computational costs and still fits the data well in comparison with an unblocked inversion. Some structures cannot be resolved well with just one dipole layer, so the multi-resolution strategy enables to have a better fit by separating regional and local sources. For the final compilation, we replace the long wavelengths part of the aeromagnetic data with satellite data to spherical harmonic degree 110. We demonstrate our new approach with a newly compiled large data base for Greenland.
    Description: poster
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2022-03-21
    Description: Recent years have shown an increased interest in Polar research and in particular in understanding tectonics and seismic hazard in the Arctic. To understand the seismic activity in the European Arctic, the seismic bulletins should be as complete as possible. We present a new seismic event bulletin for the European Arctic (70° – 90° N, -15° – 75° E), for the 24-year long period 1990 – 2013. The poster will show in detail the merging of the different sources taken in account for the compilation, the homogenization of the data and the relocation of the seismic events. With respect to the ISC bulletin for this region, the new bulletin contains 5,932 new seismic events and 54,630 new seismic onset readings from stations mostly located at regional distances. The gains are distributed over the entire study region, with the most significant contributions across the Svalbard Archipelago, along the Knipovich and northern Mohns Ridges, as well as northern Fennoscandia.
    Description: Norwegian Research Council Grant 233973/H30
    Description: Russian Foundation for Basic Research Grant 14-05-93080
    Description: Russian Foundation for Basic Research Grant 18-05-70018
    Description: https://doi.org/10.31905/TYLLQY8T
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2022-02-17
    Description: Dieser Beitrag gibt Hinweise zum Publizieren im Green Open Access und zur Anwendung des Zweitveröffentlichungsrechts.
    Description: DFG, SUB Göttingen
    Description: report
    Keywords: Zweitveröffentlichung ; Zweitveröffentlichungsrecht ; FID GEO ; FID-GEO-DE-7
    Language: English
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2022-02-18
    Description: A clear understanding of socio-technical interdependencies and a structured vision are prerequisites for fostering and steering a transition to a fully renewables-based energy system. To facilitate such understanding, a phase model for the renewable energy transition in MENA countries has been developed and applied to the country case of Iraq. It is designed to support the strategy development and governance of the energy transition and to serve as a guide for decision makers. The transition towards renewable energies is still at a very early stage in Iraq. Despite the drop in renewable technology costs over the last decade and the increasing deployment of renewables in the MENA region, the pathway towards renewable energies seems to be challenging for Iraq. This is attributable to the country's political instability and the dominant economic role played by the fossil fuel sector. The most pressing concern for Iraq's electricity sector is the need to secure a constant electricity supply. At operational level, Iraq's electricity infrastructure requires significant investment to rebuilt, retro-fit and expand its overall capacity and to improve efficiencies. Yet, the need to rebuild the energy system after the war and the subsequent violent conflicts could offer an opportunity for a transition towards renewables that would benefit Iraq in the short term and also provide a long-term economic development perspective. To take advantage of this opportunity, Iraq needs to improve the framework conditions for renewable energies and raise awareness about the benefits it offers. Renewable energy regulations need to be introduced, market development supported, a realistic timeframe for the transition process established and an appropriate and reliable legal framework developed. The results of the analysis along the transition phase model towards 100% renewables are intended to stimulate and support the discussion about Iraq's future energy system by providing an overarching guiding vision for the energy transition and the development of appropriate policy strategies.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2022-02-18
    Description: A clear understanding of socio-technical interdependencies and a structured vision are prerequisites for fostering and steering a transition to a fully renewables-based energy system. To facilitate such understanding, a phase model for the renewable energy transition in MENA countries has been developed and applied to the country case of Egypt. It is designed to support the strategy development and governance of the energy transition and to serve as a guide for decision makers. Egypt, with its abundant solar and wind energy potential, has excellent preconditions to embark on the pathway towards a 100% renewable energy system. The country has successfully taken its first steps in this direction by attracting international finance and implementing several large-scale solar and wind projects. Yet, while Egypt has made significant progress, increased efforts are still required if the country aims to proceed towards a fully renewables-based system. The stronger system integration of renewable energies requires, for example, an alignment of regulations for the electricity, mobility and heat sectors. In this context, Egypt would be well advised to develop and implement an overall strategy for the energy transition that includes not only electricity generation but all sectors. By placing a stronger focus on renewable energy, also to decarbonise the industrial sector, Egypt, as Africa's second most industrialised country, could seize the opportunity for economic development within a decarbonising global economy. The results of the analysis along the transition phase model towards 100% renewable energy are intended to stimulate and support the discussion on Egypt's future energy system by providing an overarching guiding vision for the energy transition and the development of appropriate policies.
    Keywords: ddc:600
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2022-02-18
    Description: With the move to a hydrogen-based primary steel production envisioned for the near future in Europe, existing regional industrial clusters loose major assets. Such a restructuring of industries may result in a new geographical distribution of the steel industry and also to another quality of vertical integration at sites. Both implications could turn out as drivers or barriers to invest in new technologies and are thus important in respect to vertical integration of sites and to regional policy. This paper describes an approach to model production stock invest for the steel industries in North-Western Europe. Current spatial structures are reproduced with capacity, technical and energy efficiency data on the level of single facilities like blast furnaces. With the model developed both investments in specific technologies and at specific production sites can be modelled. The model is used to simulate different possible future scenarios. The case with a clear move to hydrogen-based production is compared to a reference scenario without technological shift. The scenarios show that existing trends like movement of production to the coast may be accelerated by the new technology but that sites in the hinterland can also adapt to a hydrogen economy. Possible effects of business cycles or a circular economy on regional value chains are explored with a Monte-Carlo analysis.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2022-02-23
    Description: To address climate change, the decarbonisation of Germany's existing building stock urgently needs to be prioritised. However, the rate and depth of refurbishment has lagged behind official targets for years. This is a particular problem in the rental sector, where the costs and benefits of energy efficiency measures tend to be unevenly distributed between landlords and tenants (the so-called "landlord-tenant dilemma"). Within the context of the current policy landscape, investments in energy efficiency consequently make most sense for landlords if the upfront costs can be refinanced via increased rental income or reduced vacant periods. This paper seeks to investigate the validity of this statement at city level by using a large dataset from one of Germany’s main internet property platforms to examine how the willingness of tenants to pay for energy efficiency varies across residential locations in the city of Wuppertal. The small-scale spatial analysis highlights the existence of a price premium for energy efficiency in the rental market for apartments; however, this premium is generally small (especially in comparison to other property enhancements, especially visible improvements) or even non-existent in some residential areas. Consequently, investing in energy efficiency is rarely an attractive option for landlords. Therefore, strong policy action, aligned with social and urban development policy objectives, is necessary to establish an effective incentive structure in the market and make investing in energy efficiency more attractive for both landlords and tenants.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2022-02-23
    Description: Direct Air Capture (DAC) is increasingly being discussed as a possibility to limit climate change. In this study, a possible rollout of the DAC technology at German coastal areas is analysed based on an existing climate neutrality scenario. For the year 2045 the resulting costs as well as land, water and energy consumption are examined. It is concluded that a realization of the DAC technology in Germany might be possible from a technical point of view. However, there is a high demand for land and energy. Since a rollout is needed to start in 20 years at the latest, the required discussion and evaluation should be initiated as quickly as possible.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2022-02-23
    Description: This chapter reconstructs the main actors, objectives and the pertinent contextual factors that co-determined the German coal phase-out. The German decision to phase out coal no later than 2038 was prepared by intense negotiations under the German "coal commission". It was tasked with finding an end date for coal-fired electricity generation and proposing ways and means to support coal workers and the affected regions. This latter objective was the dominant one, supported by a coalition of trade unions, industry, state-level governments as well as major political parties fearing a surge of far-right populism. Meanwhile, meeting the German climate targets was a key condition in the mandate of the coal commission. Yet, the German targets date back to 2010 and are not aligned with the more ambitious objectives enshrined in the Paris Agreement. This explains why the German coal phase-out schedule is so late and so expensive.
    Keywords: ddc:320
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2022-02-23
    Description: The German-Japanese Energy Transition Council (GJETC) was established in 2016 by experts from research institutions, energy policy think tanks, and practitioners in Germany and Japan. The objectives and main activities of the Council and the supporting secretariats are to identify and analyze current and future issues regarding policy frameworks, markets, infrastructure, and technological developments in the energy transition, and to hold Council meetings to exchange ideas and propose better policies and strategies. In its second project phase (2018-2020), the GJETC had six members from academia on the Japanese side, and eight members on the German side, with one Co-Chair from each country. From October 2018 to March 2020, the GJETC worked on and debated six topics: 1) Digitalization and the energy transition. 2) Hydrogen society. 3) Review of German and Japanese long-term energy scenarios and their evaluation mechanism. 4) Buildings, energy efficiency, heating/cooling. 5) Integration costs of renewable energies. 6) Transport and sector coupling. The outputs and the recommendations of the second phase of the GJETC are summarized in this report.
    Keywords: ddc:600
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2022-02-23
    Description: The challenges and also potentials of the energy transition are tremendous in Germany, as well as in Japan. Sometimes, structures of the old energy world need "creative destruction" to clear the way for innovations for a decarbonized, low-risk energy system. In these times of disruptive changes, a constructive and sometimes controversial dialog within leading industrial nation as Japan and Germany over the energy transition is even more important. The German-Japanese Energy Transition Council (GJETC) released a summarizing report for the first project phase 2016-2018. It includes jointly formulated recommendations for politics as well as a controversial dialogue part. The Council jointly states and recommends that: Ambitious long-term targets and strategies for a low-carbon energy system must be defined and ambitiously implemented; Germany and Japan as high technology countries need to take the leadership. Both countries will have to restructure their energy systems substantially until 2050 while maintaining their competitiveness and securing energy supply. Highest priority is given to the forced implementation of efficiency technologies and renewable energies, despite different views on nuclear energy. In both countries all relevant stakeholders - but above all the decision-makers on all levels of energy policy - need to increase their efforts for a successful implementation of the energy transition. Design of the electricity market needs more incentives for flexibility options and for the extensive expansion of variable power generation, alongside with strategies for cost reduction for electricity from photovoltaic and wind energy. The implementation gap of the energy efficiency needs to be closed by an innovative energy policy package to promote the principle of "Energy Efficiency First". Synergies and co-benefits of an enhanced energy and resource efficiency policy need to be realized. Co-existence of central infrastructure and the growing diversity of the activities for decentralization (citizens funding, energy cooperatives, establishment of public utility companies) should be supported. Scientific cooperation can be intensified by a joint working group for scenarios and by the establishment of an academic exchange program.
    Keywords: ddc:600
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2022-01-24
    Description: In Argentina, renewable energies are promoted as a way of decarbonising the electricity mix and providing reliable energy services. The national goal is to generate 20% of electricity from renewable sources by 2025. However, despite significant natural potential, solar photovoltaic still represents only a small share of Argentina's total electricity generation. Although this picture may look bleak, a wide range of market segments relating to decentralised photovoltaic generation in Argentina have developed. The general objective of this study is to examine the dynamics that currently enable or constrain the diffusion of distributed photovoltaic systems in Argentina. By applying the Technical Innovation System (TIS) approach, the aim is to understand which functions of the system are strong/weak and how these are influenced by endogenous/exogenous system strengths and weaknesses. To that end, a mixed method research strategy is applied. The exploratory sequential research design allows first to explore system strengths and weaknesses based on qualitative approaches, and then to further analyse the contextual embeddedness and the level of importance of the identified variables using quantitative survey instruments. Thereby, this study provides an important analytical method that contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the interdependencies of the TIS. The empirical results indicate that system weaknesses are shaped to a large extent by the overall contextual dynamics - such as political instability, energy subsidies and high inflation rates. System strengths relate to both the TIS itself (particularly knowledge development through pilot projects and market formation through provincial and national support programmes), to contextual relationships (linked to the availability of educational institutions that enable the rapid diffusion of knowledge) and to the importance of rural areas as protected spaces for the application of photovoltaic systems. Consequently, the study highlights the challenges to overcome for the broader diffusion of distributed photovoltaic generation.
    Keywords: ddc:600
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2022-01-24
    Description: To limit global warming, the use of carbon capture and storage technologies (CCS) is considered to be of major importance. In addition to the technical-economic, ecological and political aspects, the question of social acceptance is a decisive factor for the implementation of such low-carbon technologies. This study is the first literature review addressing the acceptance of industrial CCS (iCCS). In contrast to electricity generation, the technical options for large-scale reduction of CO2 emissions in the energy-intensive industry sector are not sufficient to achieve the targeted GHG neutrality in the industrial sector without the use of CCS. Therefore, it will be crucial to determine which factors influence the acceptance of iCCS and how these findings can be used for policy and industry decision-making processes. The results show that there has been limited research on the acceptance of iCCS. In addition, the study highlights some important differences between the acceptance of iCCS and CCS. Due to the technical diversity of future iCCS applications, future acceptance research must be able to better address the complexity of the research subject.
    Keywords: ddc:300
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2022-01-26
    Description: Within the Shaping Digitalisation project, we aim to highlight and discuss the opportunities that digitalisation can bring to Germany. In particular, we are discussing three stand-out areas where action is most needed to achieve ecological transformation: mobility, the circular economy, and agriculture and food. This report addresses the second area in need of action. Up until now, discussions on the circular economy have been limited to recycling and the re-use of materials. We must expand the scope of these discussions to include new, resource-efficient business models and the comprehensive transformation of value chains and industrial structures. Our analysis has found that digitalisation is indispensable for this transformation if used properly. We hope this report will provide the impetus needed to kick-start a climate- and resource-friendly industrial transformation in Germany. Here, we have incorporated the findings of our interdisciplinary workshop on "Shaping the Digital-Ecological Industrial Transformation - Business Models and Political Framework Conditions for Climate and Resource Protection" that was attended by experts from international research institutes, civil organizations, public authorities, and private companies.
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2022-02-02
    Description: Although smart energy technologies (SETs) can fulfill multiple tasks in increasingly decarbonized and digitalized energy systems, market diffusion is still limited. This study investigates which beliefs influence consumers' intention to adopt two smart-energy offerings, whether the rapid growth of the smart home market will now drive SET adoption, and if consumer-driven diffusion will lead to sustainability potentials being realized. Building on UTAUT2, a new theoretical model is proposed, and a consumer acceptance survey was conducted in Germany (n = 700). Results indicate that a growing smart home market will not increase SET adoption and that "adjustable green defaults" should be introduced.
    Keywords: ddc:330
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2022-02-02
    Description: Model-based scenario analyses of future energy systems often come to deviating results and conclusions when different models are used. This may be caused by heterogeneous input data and by inherent differences in model formulations. The representation of technologies for the conversion, storage, use, and transport of energy is usually stylized in comprehensive system models in order to limit the size of the mathematical problem, and may substantially differ between models. This paper presents a systematic comparison of nine power sector models with sector coupling. We analyze the impact of differences in the representation of technologies, optimization approaches, and further model features on model outcomes. The comparison uses fully harmonized input data and highly simplified system configurations to isolate and quantify model-specific effects. We identify structural differences in terms of the optimization approach between the models. Furthermore, we find substantial differences in technology modeling primarily for battery electric vehicles, reservoir hydro power, power transmission, and demand response. These depend largely on the specific focus of the models. In model analyses where these technologies are a relevant factor, it is therefore important to be aware of potential effects of the chosen modeling approach. For the detailed analysis of the effect of individual differences in technology modeling and model features, the chosen approach of highly simplified test cases is suitable, as it allows to isolate the effects of model-specific differences on results. However, it strongly limits the model's degrees of freedom, which reduces its suitability for the evaluation of fundamentally different modeling approaches.
    Keywords: ddc:600
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
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    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Keywords: ddc:320
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2022-05-27
    Description: When dealing with the Great Transformation towards a sustainable world (WBGU 2011), one defining factor is the stark contradiction in the availability of knowledge: While there is almost unlimited knowledge on many technical and economic aspects of the sustainability transformation, while in some way all the tools are available and we, in theory, know exactly how to use them, there is a lack of action at all levels. If we assume that in principle a majority of decision-makers has understood the necessity to act, this ultimately points to a lack of knowledge on how major transformations can be triggered. To use a common distinction, we have solid knowledge of the systems at play, we know the targets society should be heading for, and these targets have been globally and politically agreed to, but our knowledge on transformations, while growing, is obviously lacking. While this is true for all forms of knowledge to some extent, especially transformation knowledge requires more than just disciplinary or interdisciplinary research because it depends on transdisciplinary approaches that integrate the knowledge of practitioners from politics, administration, civil society and business.
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  • 66