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  • Armut
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  • 1
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    Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Description: This manual describes a new methodology to measure a decent but basic standard of living in different countries and how much workers need to earn to afford this, making it possible for researchers to estimate comparable living wages around the world and determine gaps between living wages and prevailing wages, even in countries with limited secondary data.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Development Economics ; Labour Economics ; Political Economy ; Grundbedürfnisse ; Mindestlohn ; Messung ; Armut ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: In contrast to his contribution to other areas, Shubhashis Gangopadhyay's contributions to our understanding of poverty are often thought of as indirect consequences of the main themes of his work. Yet in more than 15 published papers Gangopadhyay directly takes on poverty, including its estimate and understanding its sources. Our contribution honours Gangopadhyay's work in this area by outlining an approach useful in deconstructing the changes and differences in the likelihood of poverty incidence. We highlight how far it can take us, and how it still leaves us far short of understanding much of what drives poverty.
    Keywords: C20 ; I30 ; ddc:330 ; poverty incidence ; headcount ratio ; probit decomposition ; capabilities approach ; Armut ; Konzentrationsmaß ; Capability-Ansatz ; Theorie ; Schätzung ; Serben ; Albaner ; Kosovo
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Poverty is a problem of extreme seriousness in any society that limits and hinders the path to social progress. Much has been said about poverty, but the essential and inescapable point is that the real solution to the problem is to remove the factors that sustain it over time. And this is the only possible way that could help a country to embark on the path to social progress. An important point that should be taken into account has been pointed out by some authors who have argued that "clearer and more transparent definitions of poverty are essential prerequisites of any development policy that puts poverty reduction at its center". To clarify this objective we must refer to the characterization of the concept of poverty and to the analysis of different notions or qualifications that have been proposed in studies and reports.
    Keywords: I31 ; I32 ; ddc:330 ; Armut ; Armutsbekämpfung ; Argentinien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 4
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-08-17
    Description: It is heavily discussed whether trade liberalization is good or bad for the poor in a given (developing) country. The answer depends on a wide variety of factors, such as the type of trade barrier removed, the economic and institutional environment in the country, and the characteristics of the poor in that country (Winters 2002; Winters et al. 2004). In addition, the results can also be driven by the specific method used to measure the impact of the trade-policy reform on poverty. For an informed discussion, it is, therefore, important to understand the corresponding empirical methods at hand. Most generally, empirical studies on trade impacts can be divided into ex-post and ex-ante analyses. Whereas ex-post studies focus on the effects of trade policies that have already been implemented, ex-ante analyses simulate the effects of potential future (and actual) trade policies (Piermartini and Teh 2005). In other words, ex-post studies have both pre- and post-reform data at their disposal, while ex-ante studies rely exclusively on pre-liberalization data. Ex-post analyses have the advantage of being grounded on real-world observations; however, their difficulty lies in applying appropriate statistical methods to separate the impact of a given trade-policy reform from any other shock affecting the economy in the observation period (Hertel and Reimer 2005; Piermartini and Teh 2005). This identification problem is absent in ex-ante studies, conducting counterfactual analyses, as they allow to explicitly and exclusively simulate the trade-policy shock (Hertel and Reimer 2005). However, simulation studies encounter yet other challenges, namely to verify the assumptions concerning the model specification (e.g., parameters and functional forms) and, thus, to ensure the quality of the results (Piermartini and Teh 2005; Winters et al. 2004). Their strength, in turn, is to reveal possible orders of magnitude of a policy impact, to identify relative winners and losers, and to give insights into the quantitative importance of the mechanisms behind the effects of a given trade-policy reform on poverty (Winters 2003; Winters et al. 2004; Bourguignon et al. 1991). While examples of ex-post methods to analyze the effects of trade liberalization on poverty can be found in Winters et al. (2004), this Roundup gives an overview of some basic ex-ante methods available to quantify and evaluate the impact of a trade-policy reform - or, more generally, a macro-economic shock - on the distribution of household income for poverty (and inequality) analysis, i.e. on the micro-economic level. The methods considered here center all around so-called computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. On the one hand, they include the standard CGE approach with (one or) several representative households; on the other hand, they cover macro-micro simulations, subdivided into the top-down approach, the top-down/bottom-up approach, and the integrated approach. For each method, the Roundup provides a brief description, some applications, and a critical assessment.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; CGE-Modell ; Handelsliberalisierung ; Armut ; Wirkungsanalyse
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Cuando se habla de progreso social se apunta al hecho de que se hace referencia a un proceso por el cual la sociedad, los individuos o ambos están sujetos a cambios que se consideran positivos. Y, en consecuencia, este concepto lleva siempre implícito juicios de valor. Una cuestión que no aparece claramente explicitada en los estudios referidos al progreso social es la de la pobreza. Y la pobreza constituye un problema de extrema seriedad en cualquier sociedad, que la limita y que obstaculiza el sendero hacia el progreso social. Mucho se ha dicho respecto de la pobreza pero el punto esencial e ineludible es que la verdadera solución del problema consiste en remover los factores que la sostienen a lo largo del tiempo. Y esta sería la única forma posible que podría ayudar a un país a emprender la senda hacia el progreso social. Y aparece por demás claro que el PIB no puede constituir una medida razonable y aceptable de los niveles de pobreza de un país.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Armut ; Armutsbekämpfung ; Sozialer Wandel ; Argentinien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 6
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: H55 ; J14 ; J16 ; J26 ; ddc:330 ; Armut ; Frauen ; Altersarmut ; OECD-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-05-08
    Description: This paper analyzes policy shifts in two core welfare state programs in Germany: old-age pensions and health care. Both programs are prototypes of Bismarckian/conservative program design (benefits are based on occupational and family status; financing is based on payroll contributions, and administration is based on corporatist arrangements) and both have experienced tremendous cost pressures because of demographic change and rising non-wage labor costs. A series of reforms since the late 1980s has reduced the generosity of benefits and aims to change the governance structures of both programs. Although the reforms include substantial benefit cuts, key conservative principles concerning benefit entitlement and financing remain largely untouched. In both programs, derived rights based on family status remain strong, and occupational fragmentation continues to characterize the overall structure of both systems. The paper argues that this pattern of institutional change is not new, but is typical of the politics of muddling through that has characterized the German system since its inception. I emphasize the impact of German political institutions, the structure of electoral competition, and the legacies of conservative social policy to explain the contemporary pattern of policy development.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Gesundheitspolitik - Reform ; Krankenversicherung - Reform ; Rentenreform ; institutionelle Faktoren ; Sozialpolitik ; demografischer Wandel ; Kostenentwicklung ; Altersarmut ; Armut
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Oxford: University of Oxford, Global Economic Governance Programme (GEG)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Description: The year 2015 is the "finish line" for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). What should the post-2015 goals look like for Africa? The goal of ending extreme poverty remains paramount. Globally, the World Bank has set goals to end extreme poverty by 2030 and to promote shared prosperity in every society. We examine feasibility of these objectives for Sub-Saharan Africa, the world's poorest but rapidly rising region. We find that under plausible assumptions on consumption growth and redistribution, eliminating poverty by 2030 is out of the region's reach. Even under our "best case" scenario of accelerated growth and redistribution from the richest 10 percent to the poorest 40 percent of the population, the poverty rate would still remain around 10 percent in 2030. A more realistic goal for the region would be reducing poverty by two thirds of current poverty levels. At this rate, especially if in part achieved by lowering inequality, the Africa region would meaningfully contribute to the global agenda. Policies need to focus on mutually reinforcing objectives of making growth stronger, resilient to shocks, and inclusive.
    Keywords: I32 ; E21 ; J11 ; C63 ; ddc:330 ; Poverty reduction ; inequality ; inclusive growth ; Africa ; numerical simulations ; Armut ; Armutsbekämpfung ; Subsahara-Afrika
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Uppsala: Uppsala University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: We study an innovative welfare program in Chile which combines a period of frequent home visits to households in extreme poverty, with guaranteed access to social services. Program impacts are identified using a regression discontinuity design, exploring the fact that program eligibility is a discontinuous function of an index of family income and assets. We find strong and lasting impacts of the program on the take up of subsidies and employment services. These impacts are important only for families who had little access to the welfare system prior to the intervention.
    Keywords: C26 ; I38 ; J08 ; ddc:330 ; Social Exclusion ; Social Protection ; Chile ; Extreme Poverty ; Armutsbekämpfung ; Sozialer Dienst ; Öffentliche Sozialleistungen ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Armut ; Soziale Isolation ; Chile
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    London: Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice (cemmap)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: We study an innovative welfare program in Chile which combines a period of frequent home visits to households in extreme poverty, with guaranteed access to social services. Program impacts are identified using a regression discontinuity design, exploring the fact that program eligibility is a discontinuous function of an index of family income and assets. We find strong and lasting impacts of the program on the take up of subsidies and employment services. These impacts are important only for families who had little access to the welfare system prior to the intervention.
    Keywords: C26 ; I38 ; J08 ; ddc:330 ; Social Exclusion ; Social Protection ; Chile ; Extreme Poverty ; Armutsbekämpfung ; Sozialer Dienst ; Öffentliche Sozialleistungen ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Armut ; Soziale Isolation ; Chile
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 11
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Este trabajo estudia la evolución de los indicadores de pobreza intertemporal en Argentina durante los últimos 15 años. Aprovechando el esquema de rotación de la EPH, se construyen paneles sucesivos durante el período 1997-2012 que permiten descomponer la pobreza en sus componentes crónico y transitorio. Los resultados muestran que el factor transitorio está asociado principalmente con las características laborales, mientras que las cualidades estructurales y demográficas del hogar, y la educación del jefe y cónyuge del mismo, poseen incidencia fundamentalmente sobre el componente crónico. Sin embargo, en periodos con trayectorias divergentes de pobreza surgen diferencias considerables en los determinantes principales de cada uno de los componentes. Durante la última década, se evidencia, en particular, una caída generalizada en la incidencia relativa de las características de los hogares sobre la pobreza crónica, aun de aquellas cualidades tradicionalmente vinculadas con dicho componente.
    Description: This paper studies the evolution of intertemporal poverty indicators in Argentina for the past 15 years. We exploit the rotation scheme of the EPH survey to construct successive panels covering the period 1997-2012. This allows decomposing poverty into its chronic and transient components. The results show that the transient factor is associated primarily with employment characteristics, while chronic poverty is particularly explained by structural characteristics, head and spouse education and household demographic composition. However, in periods with divergent poverty paths, differences in the main determinants of each component arise. In particular, during the last decade there is a general fall in the relative incidence of household characteristics on chronic poverty, even those traditionally associated with that component in Argentina.
    Keywords: I32 ; P36 ; ddc:330 ; Armut ; Haushaltsstatistik ; Sozialstatistik ; Sozialer Indikator
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 12
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Keywords: C15 ; C24 ; D31 ; J16 ; J21 ; ddc:330 ; Weibliche Arbeitskräfte ; Arbeitsmarktstatistik ; Arbeitszeitgestaltung ; Einkommensverteilung ; Armut ; Uruguay
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 13
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    Luxembourg: Luxembourg Income Study (LIS)
    Publication Date: 2014-04-04
    Description: This paper considers groups who are most likely to be vulnerable to new social risks and tests the effects of social policies on their poverty levels. Specifically, the paper conducts multi-level regression analyses across 18 OECD countries near the year 2004, analyzing the effects of social policies on the likelihood of being poor of low-skilled young women and men aged 18-30, and of those at risk of possessing obsolete skills, namely low-educated men aged 55-64. The analyses are conducted by combining both macro-level policy data and household-and person-level micro-data from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) cross-national database. The central question asks which policies - active labor market policies (ALMP), passive labor market policies (PLMP), employment protection legislation (EPL), family policies, government daycare spending - are effective at combating new social risks. In addition to analyzing social policies, the paper also considers union density and representation of women in national parliaments as two measures that depict agents who are most intent on combating old and new social risks, respectively. The findings show that active labor market policies (ALMP) are the most important predictor of a decrease in poverty levels among the low skilled. The negative effect of passive labor market policies (PLMP) on poverty is only significant for the older male group. Family policies are related to a reduction in poverty for both low-skilled young women and men. Union density is significant in reducing the odds of poverty of the older male group, while it is insignificant for both younger males and females - thereby reflecting a measure of prevention against old, but not new, social risks. Additionally, the paper's findings support the hypothesis that the greater the representation of women in national parliaments, the greater the chances of having policies that are associated with a reduction of poverty across age levels. Lastly, gross public social spending as a measure of overall welfare generosity is found to be associated with a reduction in poverty only of the older male group, but not that of the younger groups. The paper's analyses suggest that some social policies remain geared toward older segments of society, leaving the younger population at greater financial and therefore social risk.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Sozialpolitik ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Armut ; Qualifikation ; Junge Arbeitskräfte ; Ältere Arbeitskräfte ; Regression ; OECD-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: This volume presents new insights on marginality, i.e. the situation of people living on the edge of socio-economic and ecological systems. The marginality concept leads to different development policies. While the prevalence of poverty declined by about 50 percent in the past two decades, any further reduction of poverty will be more difficult, because of high diversity of extremely poor people, and complex interrelations between poverty, exclusion and ecology. The marginality concept provides guidance to address this issue. Marginality entails addressing the structural forces of poverty, such as exclusion, discrimination and ecological degradations which lead to vulnerability of the poor. In this volume economists, ecology experts, geographers, agronomists, sociologist, and business experts come together to address marginality. The inter-disciplinary research offers conceptual innovations and presents the dimensions of marginality in developing countries. Economic, political, and environmental drivers are assessed and mapped globally and in detail for countries in Africa and Asia, especially Ethiopia, India, Bangladesh, China, Indonesia. Economic growth especially in rural areas remains and farming communities is central to poverty reduction but needs to be complemented with specific actions to reach those at the margins. The social policy actions and measures to end exclusions are highlighted, and the roles of the state, local government, business and community in them are pointed out for overcoming marginality.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Developing countries ; Development ; Environmental changes ; Marginalization ; Poverty ; Soziale Integration ; Armut ; Soziale Ungleichheit ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 15
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    Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: The recent spikes of global food prices induced a rapid increase in mass media coverage, public policy attention, and donor funding for food security, and for agriculture and rural poverty. This has occurred while the shift from "low" to "high" food prices has induced a shift in (demographic or social) "location" of the hunger and poverty effects, but the total number of undernourished and poor people have declined over the same period. We discuss whether the observed pattern can be explained by the presence of a "global urban bias" on agriculture and food policy in developing countries, and whether this "global urban bias" may actually benefit poor farmers. We argue that the food price spikes appear to have succeeded where others have failed in the past: to move the problems of poor and hungry farmers to the top of the policy agenda and to induce development and donor strategies to help them.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Lebensmittelpreis ; Preisniveau ; Armut ; Medienwirkung ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Entwicklungsländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 16
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    Lüneburg: Leuphana Universität Lüneburg, Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)
    Publication Date: 2019-02-05
    Description: Income and wealth are important determinants of individual economic well-being because they are a fundamental resource for consumption. Due to increasing inequality the distribution of income and wealth has moved more and more into the focus of scientific and political attention. The aim of this paper is to determine the extent and the intensity of multidimensional polarization of both income and wealth. Individual well-being is modeled by a well-being function directly affected by income and wealth. In order to have a flexible functional form for the well-being function the translog function is chosen. The parameters of the well-being function are not chosen arbitrarily but determined by the German population. From the perspective of an interdependent relation of the polarization dimensions income and wealth, the extent of multidimensional poverty and affluence is represented by the number of people who are assigned to be multidimensionally poor or affluent. The polarization intensity is measured by the multidimensional mean minimum polarization gap (2DGAP). This polarization intensity measure provides a transparent representation of each singular attribute and account for their possible interdependent relations. The data basis for the empirical investigation is the SAVE study from 2010 for Germany.
    Description: Einkommen und Vermögen leisten einen wichtigen Beitrag zur individuellen ökonomischen Wohlfahrt, da sie eine wichtige Grundlagen für den Konsum von Gütern sind. Aufgrund einer zunehmenden Ungleichheit ist die Verteilung von Einkommen und Vermögen privater Haushalte in den letzten Jahren in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland zunehmend in das Zentrum der wissenschaftlichen und politischen Aufmerksamkeit gerückt. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist, das Ausmaß und die Intensität der Polarisation von Einkommen und Vermögen zu bestimmen. Die individuelle Wohlfahrt wird von einer Wohlfahrtsfunktion modelliert, die direkt von Einkommen und Vermögen abhängt. Für eine möglichst flexible funktionale Form der Wohlfahrtsfunktion wurde die Translog Funktion gewählt. Die Parameter der Wohlfahrtsfunktion werden nicht willkürlich gewählt, sondern anhand der deutschen Bevölkerung bestimmt. Unter der Perspektive einer interdependenten Betrachtung wird das Ausmaß der multidimensionalen Polarisierung über die Anzahl der Personen in den Polen belegt. Die Polarisationsintensität wird über den Mean Minimum Polarization Gap (2DGAP) gemessen. Dieses Maß der Polarisierungsintensität berücksichtigt transparent jede einzelne Dimension und erlaubt gleichzeitig eine interdependente Betrachtung beider Dimensionen. Als Datengrundlage für die empirische Untersuchung wird die SAVE-Studie von 2010 für Deutschland verwendet.
    Keywords: I32 ; D31 ; J22 ; ddc:330 ; multidimensional polarization ; polarization intensity ; income ; wealth ; poverty ; affluence ; translog well-being function ; Minimum Multidimensional Polarization Gap (2DGAP) ; Multidimensionale Polarisierung ; Polarisierungsintensität ; Einkommen ; Vermögen ; Armut ; Reichtum ; Translog-Nutzenfunktion ; CES Nutzenfunktion
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 17
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Basingstoke [u.a.] : Palgrave Macmillan
    Keywords: Entwicklungsländer ; Armut ; Marginalität ; Mediation ; Organisation
    Description / Table of Contents: "This book sets out to answer what appears to be a deceptively simple question: how do poor and marginalized citizens engage the state in the global South? Drawing on twelve case studies from the global South, this book explore the politics of 'mediated citizenship' in which citizens are represented to the state through third party intermediaries who 'speak for' the people they represent. These intermediaries include political parties, non-governmental organisations, community-based organisations, social movements, armed non-state actors, networks or individuals. Collectively the cases show that mediation is both widely practiced and multi-directional in relations between states and key groups of citizens in the global South. Furthermore, they show how mediated forms of representation may have an important role to play in deepening democracy in the global South"..
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XX, 260 S.
    Edition: 1. publ.
    ISBN: 9781137405302
    Series Statement: Frontiers of globalization
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 18
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    Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: China's economic development in recent decades has been tremendous, but subject to debate. This paper calculates regional prices that make incomes comparable across both time and space using the Engel-curve approach. Incomes are adjusted using these price indices, providing new estimates of inequality and poverty development. Our findings contrast with measures based on the official consumer price indices (CPIs) - in a time characterized by high economic growth, we find a larger increase in inequality and a more moderate poverty reduction than what is indicated by the CPI-adjusted measures.
    Keywords: D1 ; E31 ; F01 ; ddc:330 ; Mikroökonomische Konsumfunktion ; Verbraucherpreisindex ; Verbraucherpreisindex ; Soziale Ungleichheit ; Armut ; China
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 19
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    München: ifo Institut - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Universität München
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Keywords: I31 ; ddc:330 ; Armut ; Soziale Isolation ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: Aid is not generally aimed at the poorest people, though most multilateral or bilateral agencies would like to think they get included. However, donors' strategies are generally blind to differentiation among the poor, and have not improved in this respect. The special provisions for the least developed countries, where many of the poorest people live, have not worked well. Aid to conflict-affected countries is itself in crisis. Much greater and more integrated aid is called for in both cases. Middle-income countries are themselves becoming donors, but the poorest populations of these countries have benefited from international partnerships which draw attention to the poorest and help foster innovative policy responses. Equity is far from being a strong principle of aid givers UNICEF is the exceptional agency. The human rights based approach to development, which would give much greater weight to the poorest, in practice languishes at the margins of development, though where this has been taken up in middle-income countries (e.g., India) donors have stood on the sidelines. Explanations of this fairly dismal state of affairs are offered in terms of political economy and organizational and profession incentives. Finally the paper sketches a set of issues which need to be incorporated into the post 2015 framework and its preparation if poverty is to be taken more seriously by donors.
    Keywords: F35 ; F50 ; F55 ; D63 ; I38 ; ddc:330 ; aid ; poverty ; conflict ; least developed countries ; post-2015 ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Armut ; Vierte Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper examines the measurement of social welfare, poverty and inequality taking into account reference-dependence, loss aversion and diminishing sensitivity - aspects emphasized in Prospect Theory - to social welfare measurement. We suggest a new notion of equivalent income, the income level with which the individual would be as well off, evaluated using a standard utility function, as he/she actually is, evaluated with a reference-dependent utility function. We examine the differences between standard poverty and inequality measures based on observed income and measures that are calculated based on equivalent income. These differences are illustrated using household-level panel data from Russia and Vietnam.
    Keywords: I32 ; O12 ; ddc:330 ; Prospect Theory ; poverty ; inequality ; welfare measurement ; vulnerability ; Soziale Wohlfahrtsfunktion ; Messung ; Armut ; Disparitätsmaß ; Prospect Theory ; Theorie ; Russland ; Vietnam
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: The poverty mapping methodology for estimating welfare rankings from small areas has proven to be useful in guiding allocation of government funds, regional planning, and general policy formulation. Nevertheless, poverty mapping also suffers from a series of by now well recognized shortcomings. We apply an approach based on first order dominance (FOD) to small area estimation. Five advantages to the FOD approach are highlighted. First, it can serve as a complement to, substitute for, and/or extension of the poverty mapping methodology. Second, it directly uses census data with a minimum of assumptions imposed. Third, the methodology is straightforward to implement and the concepts are intuitive. Fourth, the FOD approach is multi-dimensional allowing for a broader conception of poverty. Finally, FOD indicators can be chosen that relate directly to public expenditure priorities We apply the approach to census data from Mozambique for 1997 and 2007 and compare results with the poverty mapping methodology. We conclude that the FOD approach is well suited to small area estimation.
    Keywords: C15 ; C81 ; I32 ; ddc:330 ; small area estimation ; welfare ; poverty mapping ; multidimensional poverty measurement ; first order dominance ; Mozambique ; Armut ; Messung ; Statistische Methode
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: Mozambique has achieved remarkable macroeconomic success over recent decades, boasting one of the world's highest rates of GDP growth. However, absolute poverty remains persistent, spilling over into social unrest. To better understand the link between aggregate growth and household welfare, this study focuses on labour market trends. We ask: (a) what has happened to jobs in Mozambique over the past 15 years; (b) what has been the link between jobs and development outcomes; and (c) where should policymakers focus to create more good jobs? We conclude that jobs policy must seek to raise agricultural productivity and stimulate labour-intensive exports.
    Keywords: J01 ; O13 ; O17 ; O55 ; ddc:330 ; Mozambique ; labour market ; jobs ; agriculture ; structural transformation ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Arbeitsnachfrage ; Armut ; Mosambik
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: This paper examines the impacts of the financial, food and fuel crises on the livelihoods of low-income households Nigeria. It uses primary household level data from Nigeria to analyse the impacts of induced price variability on household welfare. Our results indicate that aggregate shocks have significant adverse effects on household consumption, human capital, and labour decisions with a degree of impact variability between northern and southern regions of the country. We find that the coping strategies adopted by the poor to deal with the short-term effects of the crises, and which include substitution for lower quality food, increasing the intensity of work, withdrawing children from school - especially girls - and engaging children in child labour, can lock households in a low-income equilibrium or poverty trap. Provided that covariate shocks exacerbate these effects, tackling the effects of covariate risks becomes central for present and future development policy.
    Keywords: I2 ; I3 ; O1 ; O5 ; ddc:330 ; food ; fuel ; financial crisis ; poverty ; vulnerability ; sub-Saharan Africa ; Nigeria ; Lebensmittelpreis ; Kraftstoff ; Preis ; Finanzkrise ; Armut ; Nigeria
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: El presente documento analiza las encuestas de hogares y las metodologías de las estimaciones oficiales de pobreza de la región; en particular, en primer lugar busca analizar la forma en que se miden los ingresos de las personas y los hogares en las encuestas de hogares de América Latina y el Caribe (ALC). El segundo objetivo consiste en reseñar las características principales de las metodologías de identificación de hogares e individuos pobres que se realizan en la región utilizando el enfoque de los ingresos, lo cual permitirá indagar acerca del grado de comparabilidad de las estimaciones resultantes. Finalmente, y en base a la evidencia que permita alcanzar la búsqueda de los dos objetivos anteriores, se efectuarán algunas sugerencias sobre ciertas modificaciones que algunos países podrían considerar, tanto en la medición de los ingresos como en las metodologías de estimación de pobreza.
    Keywords: F16 ; D58 ; J2 ; J6 ; ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Armut ; Messung ; Haushaltsstatistik ; Lateinamerika ; Karibische Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Este trabajo obtuvo el Premio Fundación Vidanta 2012 “Contribuciones a la reducción de la pobreza y la desigualdad en América Latina y el Caribe”. El material utilizado para este documento fue producido en el marco del proyecto de investigación “Mercados de Trabajo para el Crecimiento Inclusivo en América Latina”, desarrollado en el CEDLAS con el apoyo del Centro Internacional de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo (IDRC-Canadá).
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Sozialpolitik ; Einkommensverteilung ; Armut ; Lateinamerika ; Karibische Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-20
    Description: This paper examines the role of competition law and policy as tools for poverty reduction and development. The authors put forward five related principles, building upon the important work on related issues that has been done by the OECD, the International Competition Network (ICN), UNCTAD and civil society organizations such as CUTS in recent years, in addition to the earlier work done on these topics in the WTO Working Group on the Interaction between Trade and Competition Policy when that body was active from 1997 through 2003. Together, these principles comprise the holistic approach to competition law and policy which is referenced in the title of the paper: * First, the focus of policy makers in using competition policy as tool for poverty reduction should be on approaches that are relatively easy to implement but have a trackrecord of being effective and economically sound. * Second, for competition policy reforms and legislation to be successful, public acceptance and support is critical and must be an essential focus of related initiatives. * Third, to serve as an effective tool of poverty reduction, competition policy needs to address the needs of the citizens of poorer societies in their capacities as producers (and, therefore, as users of extensive input goods and services, including public infrastructure), in addition to their capacities as final consumers/households. * Fourth, it is posited that competition policy is more than just what competition agencies do and includes the full spectrum of measures that governments employ to enhance competition and improve the performance of markets. * Fifth, in order to address the challenges posed by the changing landscape of competition policy worldwide, new forms of international co-operation may need to be considered. The paper then develops the application of these principles with respect to five specific areas in which competition policy can contribute to poverty reduction, namely: (i) the reform of public and business infrastructure sectors, particularly in the context of developing and transition economies; (ii) the complementary roles of competition law enforcement and market liberalization in public procurement markets; (iii) various related dimensions of competition policy as they relate to public health objectives; (iv) the addressing of possible monopsonistic practices in international supply chains that may affect the ability of developing country producers to reap gains from participation in international markets; and (v) measures to address the enduring problem of international cartels which, despite an impressive record of prosecutions by developed jurisdiction competition agencies over the past decade, continue to impose substantial costs on developing economies. The paper concludes with some observations regarding the future of international cooperation in the competition policy sphere.
    Keywords: F ; F1 ; F13 ; F5 ; H ; H5 ; H51 ; H57 ; I ; I1 ; I18 ; K2 ; K21 ; K23 ; O ; O13 ; O19 ; O24 ; ddc:330 ; competition policy ; poverty reduction ; development ; infrastructure reforms ; international trade ; government/public procurement ; public health ; international supply chains ; international cartels ; international co-operation. ; Armut ; Armutspolitik ; Entwicklung ; Wettbewerbsrecht ; Wettbewerbspolitik
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Brasilia: International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper examines the substantive pros and cons of the multidimensional poverty index (MPI) recently developed by Oxford University's Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI). It provides comparative cross-country and country-specific discussion on multidimensional poverty and inequality in the non-income space, with a special reference to the countries in the Arab region. Despite the large degree of subjectivity in selecting the dimensions and the cut-off threshold (k=3) determining the minimum number of dimensions required to identify whether or not a household is multidimensionally poor, the MPI has an important advantage of capturing more dimensions of human deprivations and includes both the level of human deprivation and a measure of the intensity of poverty using micro survey data. Using survey data from 13 Arab countries with a combined population of 221.2 million in 2007, the OPHI estimated that 41.2 million people, representing 18.64 per cent of the combined population were living in multidimensional poverty in 2007, with an average intensity of 50.9. It is shown that the average intensity (A) has a strong positive correlation to headcount (H) in the Arab region. Somalia has the highest MPI value, 81 per cent of the population, with deprivation concentrated in indicators of living standard. The United Arab Emirates, the only Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) state considered here, has the lowest MPI value, 0.57, with deprivation concentrated in education. Arab Mashreq countries have highest deprivation in both education and health, while Arab Maghreb countries have low deprivation in health and education but also in standard of living compared to both Arab Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and Arab Mashreq countries.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Armut ; Disparitätsmaß ; Arabische Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: This paper provides compelling evidence that equity market liberalization, as the most efficient way to smooth financial market frictions such as credit constraints, can alleviate persistent cross-dynastic income inequality by promoting increased human capital accumulation. The authors examine the effect of equity market liberalization on inequality by using data from 72 countries for 1980-2006. Their measured effect is robust to alternative measures of equity market liberalization. Finally, the authors show that foreign equity flows benefit initially less-active stock markets more than the active ones, providing evidence that foreign equity flows act as a substitute for domestic financial markets. This finding emphasizes the possibility of reducing inequality and poverty through equity market liberalization.
    Keywords: F41 ; O16 ; O15 ; O11 ; G0 ; F36 ; ddc:330 ; income inequality ; equity market liberalization ; human capital ; economic growth ; Aktienmarkt ; Deregulierung ; Kapitalmarktregulierung ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Einkommensverteilung ; Bildungsinvestition ; Armut ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: In this paper we study income polarization by first comparing the efficiency of two statistical models to identify the number of poles in the income distribution empirically. The statistical models used are a multi-resolution analysis (MRA) and a log-normal approach (LNA). We then apply the methodology to Israeli income data over the years 1997-2008 in order to empirically detect the number of income classes as sub-populations of incomes concentrated around an optimally determined number of poles. After that we compute polarization using a multiplicative normalized polarization measure, developed by Palacios-González and García-Fernández (An Intra-Group Variance Based Polarization Measure, 2010), which consists of three interacting components based on well-known axioms of Esteban and Ray (Extensions of a Measure of Polarization OCDE Countries, 1994). Finally we study the causes of the obtained polarization results in a multinomial logit analysis.
    Keywords: H54 ; I21 ; I3 ; J1 ; O15 ; O53 ; ddc:330 ; polarization ; poverty ; multiresolution analysis ; income distribution ; Disparitätsmaß ; Einkommensverteilung ; Soziale Schicht ; Soziale Ungleichheit ; Armut ; Schätzung ; Israel
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: The extent to which local communities benefit from commodity booms has been subject to wide but inconclusive investigations. This paper draws from a new district-level database to investigate the local impact on socioeconomic outcomes of mining activity in Peru, which grew almost twentyfold in the last two decades. We find evidence that producing districts have better average living standards than otherwise similar districts: larger household consumption, lower poverty rate, and higher literacy. However, the positive impacts from mining decrease significantly with administrative and geographic distance from the mine, while district-level consumption inequality increases in all districts belonging to a producing province. The inequalizing impact of mining activity, both across and within districts, may explain part of the current social discontent with mining activities in the country, even despite its enormous revenues.
    Keywords: D7 ; H7 ; O1 ; Q3 ; ddc:330 ; natural resource curse ; poverty ; inequality ; living standards ; Kommunale Wirtschaftsentwicklung ; Bergbau ; Lebensstandard ; Einkommensverteilung ; Armut ; Peru
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2014-04-04
    Description: A prime objective for welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and decrease mortality risks. Poverty has for several centuries been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relation between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious relation to the debated topic of the relation between population health and income inequality. In this study we make a comparative analysis on the relation between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-related poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005 merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regimes that partly go beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Sozialpolitik ; Sterblichkeit ; Gesundheit ; Armut ; Armutsbekämpfung ; Vergleich ; Nordeuropa ; Mitteleuropa ; Nordamerika ; Australien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 33
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    London : Portobello Books
    Keywords: Lebensmittelproduktion ; Lebensmittelversorgung ; Ernährungssicherung ; Hunger ; Fehlernährung ; Mangelernährung ; Armut ; Unterprivilegierung ; Lebensmittelproduktion ; Lebensmittelindustrie ; Globalisierung ; Agrarpolitik ; Wirtschaftspolitik ; Welternährung ; Landwirtschaft ; Bevölkerungswachstum ; Ernährungssicherung
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: IX, 418 S. , Ill., graph. Darst. , 20 cm
    Edition: Revised 2. edition
    ISBN: 1846274796 ((pbk)) , 9781846274794 ((pbk))
    Language: English
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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    Quezon City: University of the Philippines, School of Economics (UPSE)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: This is a follow up note on the UP School of Economics Faculty paper on the population issue. The poor who belong to the lowest two deciles of the income distribution have much higher actual and desired number of children, respectively 5.2 and 3.5. In contrast, the upper middle and higher income groups have less than 3 children which equal their desired number. It is argued that the poor who suffer serious deprivation in basic needs and see little opportunity for their children's education and other opportunities feel little interest in controlling their family size. For them it would not matter how many children they may bear since the intensity of their poverty as measured by average income to poverty ratio and food consumption to subsistence ratio marginally improve as the number of children falls. It is suggested that for a family planning program to succeed, it must be part of an anti poverty strategy.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Armut ; Fertilität ; Familienplanung ; Soziale Lage ; Philippinen
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Between 2003 and 2009, Argentina's social spending as a share of GDP increased by 7.6 percentage points. Marginal benefit incidence analysis for 2003, 2006, and 2009 suggests that the contribution of cash transfers to the reduction of disposable income inequality and poverty rose markedly between 2006 and 2009 primarily due to the launching of a noncontributory pension program - the pension moratorium - in 2004. Noncontributory pensions as a share of GDP rose by 2.2 percentage points between 2003 and 2009 and entailed a redistribution of income to the poor, and from the formal sector pensioners with above minimum pensions to the beneficiaries of the pension moratorium. The redistributive impact of the expansion of public spending on education and health was also sizeable and equalizing, but to a lesser degree. An assessment of fiscal funding sources puts the sustainability of the redistributive policies into question, unless nonsocial spending is significantly cut.
    Keywords: D31 ; H22 ; I38 ; ddc:330 ; social spending ; benefit incidence ; inequality ; poverty ; Argentina ; Öffentliche Sozialausgaben ; Einkommensverteilung ; Armut ; Argentinien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: The paper studies the effects of international remittances on poverty and inequality in Ethiopia using an urban household survey from 2004. In order to identify the effects of remittances on poverty and inequality, counterfactual consumption in the hypothetical case of no remittance is estimated in a selection corrected estimation framework. Inequality and poverty values in the hypothetical and actual cases are then compared. There is a significant reduction in poverty while inequality does not change. The head count, the poverty gap and the squared poverty gap ratios decreased by 2.5%, 1.1% and 0.6% respectively.
    Keywords: F24 ; I32 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; remittances ; poverty ; inequality ; Ethiopia ; Rücküberweisungen ; Armut ; Soziale Ungleichheit ; Schätzung ; Äthiopien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: We investigate the effects of two accountability measures on the decisions of the local governments under decentralization. Using a panel of Philippine municipalities and cities in three election years, we find that term limits have negative but weak effects on the provision of health insurance coverage to poor families and on expenditures on local services. However, yardstick competition (i.e., more subsidized insurance coverage for the poor in neighboring local governments) induces them to cover more poor families, but also reduce other public expenditures. To respond to critiques of health decentralization, our results suggest that the objectives of local politicians can be aligned with those of the health sector. The key insight is the incumbent may extend health insurance coverage like a redistributive transfer to pursue reelection objectives. However, the resulting trade off between subsidized insurance coverage and other public services must be considered.
    Keywords: H72 ; I18 ; H4 ; ddc:330 ; Local governments ; term limits ; yardstick competition ; health insurance ; poor ; Philippines ; Dezentralisierung ; Kommunale Dienstleistung ; Basisgesundheitsversorgung ; Armut ; Anreizregulierung ; Philippinen
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: This paper examines the measurement of social welfare, poverty and inequality taking into account features that have been found to be important welfare determinants in behavioural economics. Most notably, we incorporate reference-dependence, loss aversion and diminishing sensitivity - aspects emphasized in prospect theory - to social welfare measurement. We suggest a new notion of equivalent income, the income level with which the individual would be as well off, evaluated using a standard concave utility function, as he or she actually is, evaluated with a reference-dependent utility function. We examine the differences between standard poverty and inequality measures based on observed income and measures that are calculated based on equivalent income. These differences are illustrated using household-level panel data from Russia and Vietnam.
    Keywords: I32 ; O12 ; ddc:330 ; prospect theory ; poverty ; inequality ; welfare measurement ; vulnerability ; Soziale Wohlfahrtsfunktion ; Messung ; Armut ; Disparitätsmaß ; Prospect Theory ; Theorie ; Russland ; Vietnam
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Description: This paper argues that official development assistance (foreign aid) is partly responsible for the lack of structural change in Africa. Africa's development partners have devoted too few resources and too little attention to two critical constraints to private investment, infrastructure and skills, focusing instead on easily understood, but potentially low impact regulatory reforms. A new aid strategy, one that catalyses private investment in high value added sectors, is needed. Support for strategic interventions to push non-traditional exports, support industrial agglomerations, build firm capabilities, and strengthen regional integration should anchor a new donor agenda to create good jobs and sustain growth.
    Keywords: O14 ; O19 ; O25 ; O40 ; ddc:330 ; aid ; structural change ; private sector ; industry ; exports ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Strukturwandel ; Armut ; Privatwirtschaft ; Industrialisierung ; Investitionsklima ; Afrika
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 40
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Description: This paper explores the relationship between microcredit and poverty reduction. To investigate this question, we posit a bare-bone, household model that outlines the economic environment within which various types of family microenterprises operate. It highlights a number of issues that impinge on household earnings such as the nature of the labour market, technology, product demand and entrepreneurial skills. The paper argues that the impact of microcredit is likely to be different across household types as well as across different economic environments. The paper identifies several important demand and supply constraints to the household's graduation from poverty. These constraints are difficult to overcome in a traditional economic environment, marked by stagnant technology and market saturation. Finally, it is suggested that microcredit has a positive effect on female empowerment - i.e., the agency to make household decisions which helps to improve the quality of family consumption and 'human development indicators' of the family. This claim may hold sway in some contexts. However, our a priori reasoning, as well as the available contrary empirical evidence, suggests that female empowerment does not spring automatically from the introduction of microcredit: female empowerment (or the lack thereof) seems to closely track women's trajectory of economic success.
    Keywords: D13 ; I32 ; O12 ; O16 ; ddc:330 ; microcredit ; poverty reduction ; labour market ; intra-household decision-making ; Mikrofinanzierung ; Armut ; Haushaltsökonomik ; Arbeitsmarkt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 41
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Description: Since the 1970s, Chile has exhibited a highly skewed income distribution accompanied with strong fluctuations over time. Although income distribution worsened notably in the 1970s-80s, a significant improvement was recorded in the first half of the 1990s, resulting from better economic and social policies in the return to democracy. Nonetheless, Chile still faces significant challenges to improve development. There must be an active macroeconomic policy focused on the real economy. Chile also needs profound microeconomic reforms, including (i) capital markets, developing long-term financing channels for small businesses; (ii) radical progress in quality of education and labour training; and (iii) vigorous public support for innovation.
    Keywords: D31 ; E2 ; D04 ; ddc:330 ; income distribution ; macroeconomic policy ; microeconomic policies ; Einkommensverteilung ; Armut ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Wirtschaftspolitik ; Chile ; Einkommensverteilung ; Wirtschaftspolitik ; Mikroökonomische Fundierung ; Chile
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 42
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: A subjective well-being approach is followed to assess the magnitude of inefficiency in the use of income. The information comes from a Mexican survey and an X-inefficiency technique is used. The paper shows that there exists substantial inefficiency in the use of income at all income levels, even for those in income poverty. It is shown that inefficiency is significantly related to practices, attitudes, and motivations for consuming. Economic theory has focused on rising people's income to increase their economic well-being; this paper shows that reducing inefficiency in the use of income is an alternative instrument which deserves further consideration.
    Keywords: D1 ; D11 ; D12 ; D13 ; D61 ; I31 ; ddc:330 ; subjective well-being ; economic satisfaction ; X-inefficiency ; income poverty ; Mexico ; Armut ; Zufriedenheit ; X-Effizienz ; Mexiko
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: High income growth in many countries in East Asia and the Middle East has been accompanied by increasing income inequality and widening gaps between rich and poor, and urban and rural. It is therefore it is important to examine the interrelationships between inequality and economic growth. This paper develops a simple model to establish that the change in income growth rate is a non-linear function of the income growth if policy makers try to influence economic growth. As a result, inequality and growth bear a non-linear relationship: for low values of inequality, economic growth rate is an inverted U-shaped \function of inequality. This function becomes U-shaped for values of inequality beyond a critical value of inequality. As a result, the relationship between growth and inequality can take the form of a wave. This simple theoretical model is a sufficient case to explain why previous empirical studies might have failed to reach a consensus between economic growth and inequality. The paper estimates the model empirically by using a set of panel data for ten Middle Eastern countries. The empirical analysis finds statistical support for a possible wave like relationship between growth and inequality, which can bear ominous messages for using equitable growth in fighting poverty. Rapid growing developing economies need to adopt appropriate policies for achieving an optimal mix of inequality and growth. Promoting inclusive growth together with good governance is crucial to ensure more equity and social stability.
    Keywords: H21 ; O11 ; O15 ; O41 ; ddc:330 ; growth ; inequality ; poverty ; East Asia and the Middle East ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Einkommensverteilung ; Soziale Ungleichheit ; Armut ; Mittlerer Osten ; Ostasien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 44
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Description: In the presence of inequality a status-driven utility function reconciles the conflict between income-based and nutrition-based measures of poverty. Moreover, it can explain why the poor tend to save less, an established empirical fact in the developing countries. The result is independent of the assumption of imperfect capital market. The paper attempts to integrate various strands of literature on status effects.
    Keywords: D63 ; D91 ; D11 ; I3 ; ddc:330 ; inequality ; inter-temporal consumer choice ; utility ; poverty ; Einkommensverteilung ; Armut ; Sparen ; Nutzenfunktion ; Zeitpräferenz
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 45
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Description: Various development objectives are worthy, but to my mind, one objective dominates all others: reducing the scourge of absolute economic misery in the world. In this paper, I focus on an important but relatively underemphasized approach to poverty reduction: helping the poor earn more in the labour market for the work they do, so that they can buy the goods and services they need to move up out of poverty.
    Keywords: I3 ; J2 ; O1 ; O19 ; ddc:330 ; foreign assistance ; economic growth ; employment ; poverty ; developing countries ; Armut ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Beschäftigung ; Entwicklungsländer
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 46
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Description: The present paper is a selective overview, very considerably based on work in which the author himself has been involved, of the difficulties which can arise in the measurement of poverty and inequality when one compares populations of differing size. The paper begins with certain problems attending the measurement of poverty when the overall population size is fixed but the numbers of the poor are permitted to vary: one discovers a certain commonality of outcomes between Derek Parfit's quest for a satisfactory theory of wellbeing and the economist's quest for a satisfactory measure of poverty. Complications arising from both the poverty and inequality rankings of distributions when the aggregate size of the population is allowed to vary are also investigated. It is suggested in the paper that, from the perspectives of both logical consistency and ethical appeal, there are problems involved in variable population comparisons of poverty and inequality which deserve to be taken note of and enquired into.
    Keywords: I30 ; I32 ; J19 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; poverty ; inequality ; total principle ; average principle ; fixed population axioms ; variable population axioms ; impossibility theorems ; Armut ; Einkommensverteilung ; Messung
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 47
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Description: This article examines the relationship between women's economic and social empowerment in the context of extreme poverty. It is based on the findings of primary fieldwork on the char islands of north-west Bangladesh, investigating the processes resulting from the implementation of the Chars Livelihoods Programme (CLP). The first phase of the CLP, funded by the UK government's Department for International Development (DFID), operated from 2004-2010. Its central activity was the transfer of approximately £100s' worth of investment capital to targeted extremely poor households. This investment capital was given specifically to a woman within that household and the majority of these female beneficiaries used it to purchase cattle. This article argues that interventions which adopt primarily an economic entry point can contribute to women's empowerment beyond the economic realm, including in terms of changing intra-household relationships and increasing women's self-esteem. Clearly interventions beyond the economic sphere are needed to ensure that this empowerment is sustainable and can contribute to changing social norms. However, the contribution which practical gender needs make in providing a basis for extremely poor women to achieve their future strategic gender needs should not be underestimated.
    Keywords: F35 ; I32 ; J12 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; extreme poverty ; asset transfer ; female empowerment ; Bangladesh ; Armut ; Weibliche Arbeitskräfte ; Bangladesch
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 48
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Description: This paper reviews the pattern of poverty rates and income inequality in El Salvador since the 1990s. It discusses some of the likely factors that explain the reduction in income inequality that has taken place in the country in the last decade, which paradoxically has coincided with the long period of economic stagnation that has followed dollarization since 2001. After examination of the available evidence, we conclude that this trend has been mainly due to the equalizing effect of migration and remittances (that is, a 'private safety net' built around solidarity within families) rather than the distributive effect of public social expenditure or other public policies.
    Keywords: D63 ; E24 ; I32 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; El Salvador ; remittances ; migration ; inequality ; poverty ; labour market ; Armut ; Einkommensverteilung ; Rücküberweisungen ; El Salvador
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 49
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Description: This paper examines the macroeconomic policies and outcomes experienced by the Latin American economies during the period 1990-2010. Macroeconomic policies refer to exchange rates, monetary and aggregate fiscal policies, while macroeconomic outcomes, on the other hand, refer to the patterns of growth, inflation, employment, investment, balance of payments, and the evolution of external and public debts and international reserves. The analysis includes a discussion of the effects of macroeconomic outcomes on poverty rates. With regard to policy, the study examines the changes that took place in 1997-98, and then reviews the resulting new macroeconomic configuration that was established in 2002-03. This new configuration favoured the acceleration of output growth and employment creation, and contributed to reducing poverty rates.
    Keywords: E65 ; I32 ; N16 ; O54 ; ddc:330 ; Latin American economies ; macroeconomic policies ; economic growth ; employment ; poverty rates ; inequality ; Wirtschaftspolitik ; Makroökonomischer Einfluss ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Beschäftigung ; Armut ; Einkommensverteilung
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 50
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    Helsinki: The United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Description: Rapid urbanization is an important characteristic of African development and yet the structural transformation debate focuses on agriculture's relative merits without also considering the benefits from urban agglomeration. As a result, African governments are often provided conflicting recommendations on the importance of rural agriculture or urban industry. We develop dynamic economy-wide models for Ethiopia and Uganda that capture both traditional aspects of the debate (growth linkages and foreign trade) and benefits from urbanization (internal migration and agglomeration effects). Simulations suggest that urban agglomeration is an important source of long-term growth and structural transformation, but that investing in cities does not greatly reduce national poverty over the short-term. In this regard, agricultural growth is more effective, albeit with slower national growth. Given these trade-offs, we conclude that the urbanization's benefits argue against an agro-fundamentalist approach to African development, but the short-term imperative of reducing poverty necessitates further agricultural investment.
    Keywords: D58 ; O18 ; R11 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; urbanization ; rural development ; growth ; poverty ; CGE model ; Africa ; Urbanisierung ; Entwicklung ; Ländliche Entwicklung ; Armut ; CGE-Modelling ; Allgemeines Gleichgewicht ; Äthiopien ; Uganda
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 51
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    Düsseldorf: Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Institut für Makroökonomie und Konjunkturforschung (IMK)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-06
    Description: With the pension reforms of 2001 and 2004 the objective of stable living standards was abandoned, a gradual reduction of the pension level was envisaged and the funded "Riester Pension" was introduced on a voluntary basis. First analyses of this reform show that the promised effects - higher yields and the long-term stability of the overall pension level - have not materialised so far. A large number of people have not signed a "Riester Pension" contract or pay only small contributions. The financial and euro crises reduce yields. Funded pensions do not help to limit the demographic risks of old age provision. The reforms thus prove problematic: There is a high risk of increasing poverty among the elderly. Therefore, policy makers must act. The public pension level must not be reduced further. Instead it has to be increased to the average OECD level. Rather than subsidise "Riester Pensions" the government should use tax revenues for a targeted increase of low pensions. Further, a reasonable disability pension should be reintroduced.
    Description: Der Teilumstieg vom umlagefinanzierten gesetzlichen Rentensystem hin zur kapitalgedeckten Riester-Rente hält nicht, was er verspricht. Viele haben keinen Riester-Vertrag oder zahlen wenig ein. Finanzmarkt- und Euro-Krise reduzieren die Renditen. Auch mit der Kapitaldeckung können die demographischen Risiken in der Altersvorsorge nicht begrenzt werden. Die Rentenreformen von 2001 und 2004 mit dem Verzicht auf die Lebensstandardsicherung, der schrittweisen Senkung des Rentenniveaus und der gleichzeitigen Einführung der freiwilligen Riester-Rente erweisen sich so als problematisch: Es droht zunehmende Altersarmut. Daher muss die Politik handeln. Das gesetzliche Rentenniveau darf nicht weiter abgesenkt, sondern sollte auf das durchschnittliche Niveau in der OECD angehoben werden. Statt Riester-Verträge zu subventionieren sollten gezielt niedrige Renten steuerfinanziert angehoben und wieder eine vernünftige Erwerbsunfähigkeitsrente eingeführt werden.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Private Altersvorsorge ; Kritik ; Alte Menschen ; Armut ; Rentenpolitik ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-10-10
    Description: Aphorisms that "Rising tides raise all boats" or that material advances of the rich eventually "Trickle Down" to the poor are really maxims regarding the nature of stochastic processes that underlay the income/wellbeing paths of groups of individuals. This paper looks at the implications for the empirical analysis of wellbeing of conventional assumptions regarding such processes which are employed by both micro and macro economists in modeling economic behavior. The implications of attributing different processes to different groups in society following the club convergence literature are also discussed. Various forms of poverty, inequality, polarization and income mobility structures are considered and much of the conventional wisdom afforded us by such aphorisms is questioned. To exemplify these ideas the results are applied to the distribution of GDP per capita in the continent of Africa.
    Keywords: C22 ; D63 ; D91 ; I32 ; O47 ; ddc:330 ; Stochastic processes ; poverty ; inequality ; wellbeing measurement ; Soziale Mobilität ; Armut ; Soziale Ungleichheit ; Reichtum ; Stochastischer Prozess ; Wirtschaftsmodell ; Theorie ; Sozialprodukt ; Einkommensverteilung ; Afrika
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