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  • 1
    Call number: (DE-599)GBV03709842X
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Language: German
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Monograph non-lending collection
    Leiden : Nijhoff ; 1.2009 -
    Call number: IASS 17.92082
    Type of Medium: Monograph non-lending collection
    ISSN: 1876-8814
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 3
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Bonn : Helmholtz Association ; 2006-
    Associated volumes
    Call number: 3/S 07.0034(2016)
    In: Annual report
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 51 Seiten
    ISSN: 1865-6439 , 1865-6447
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Annual report ... / Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Call number: M 18.91571
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 134 Seiten
    ISSN: 2363-7196
    Series Statement: Global tectonics and metallogeny : special issue Vol. 10/2-4
    Classification: A.3.4.
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Global tectonics and metallogeny
    Language: English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 5
    Call number: AWI G6-19-92375
    In: Berichte / Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Geowissenschaften, Nr. 9
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 278 Seiten , Illustrationen
    ISSN: 0175-9302
    Series Statement: Berichte / Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Geowissenschaften 9
    Language: German
    Note: Zugleich: Dissertation, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 1999 , INHALTSVERZEICHNIS 1. Einleitung 1.1 Kenntnisstand und offene Fragen 1.2 Fragestellung und Ziele dieser Arbeit 2. Umweltbedingungen in den Arbeitsgebieten 2.1 Hydrographie, Eisverhältnisse und NAO 2.2 Zur Variation von Wassertiefe und Breite der Dänemarkstraße und zur Vereisung Islands während des letzten Glazials 3. Methoden 3.1 Auswahl der Kernstationen 3.2 Probennahme und Analysen (Übersicht) 3.3 Zur Rekonstruktion von Paläobedingungen im Oberflächenwasser Zur Aussage stabiler Isotopenverhältnisse in planktischen Foraminiferen Zur Messung stabiler Isotopenverhältnisse Zur Massenspektrometrie Zur Rekonstruktion von Oberflächentemperaturen Alkane und Alkohole als Maß für Staubeintrag Eistranspmtiertes Material und vulkanische Aschen 3.4 Zur Rekonstruktion von Paläobedingungen im Zwischen-/ Tiefenwasser Häufigkeit von Cibicides- und anderen benthischen Arten (inkl. Taxonomie) Stabile Isotopenverhältnisse in benthischen Foraminiferen 3.5 AMS 14C-Datierungen Probenreinigung 3. 6 Hauptelementanalysen von vulkanischen Asche-Leithorizonten 3. 7 Geomagnetische Meßgrößen und magnetische Suszeptibiltät 3.8 Techniken zur Spektralanalyse 4. Methodische Ergebnisse 4.1 Zum Einfluß der Probenreinigung auf δ18O-/ δ13C-Werte 4.2 Probleme bei der langfristigen Reproduzierbarkeit von δ18O-Zeitreihen 4.3 Einfluß der Korngröße und Artendefinition planktischer Foraminiferen auf SST-Rekonstruktionen in hohen Breiten 4.4 Vergleich der stabilen Isotopenwerte von Cibicides lobatulus und Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi 5. Stratigraphische Grundlagen und Tiefenprofile der Klimasignale 5.1 Stratigraphische Korrelation zwischen parallel-gekernten GKG- und SL-/KL-Profilen 5.2 Flanktische δ18O-/ δ13C-Kurven, 14C-Alter und biostratigraphische Fixpunkte Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Kern 23351 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.3 Benthische δ18O-/ δ13C-Werte in Kern PS2644 5.4 Siliziklastische Sedimentkomponenten: Eistransportiertes Material Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.5 Vulkanische Glasscherben in Kern PS2644: Wind- und Eiseintrag 5.6 Geochemie und Alter einzelner Tephralagen als Leithorizonte Westliches Islandbecken Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 Kern PS2647 Vøring-Plateau Kern 23071 Kern 23074 5.7 Magnetische Suszeptibilität in den Kernen PS2644, PS2646 und PS2647 Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 und PS2647 5.8 Geomagnetische Feldintensität und Richtungsänderungen in Kern PS2644 5.9 Variation von Planktonfauna und -flora Westliches Islandbecken: Kern PS2644 Kern PS2646 und PS2647 Vøring-Plateau: Kern 23071 und 23074 5.10 Benthische Foraminiferen in Kern PS2644 6. Entwicklung von Temperatur und Salzgehalt nördlich der Dänemark-Straße 6.1 Variation der Oberflächentemperatur nach Planktonforaminiferen 6.2 Variation der Oberflächentemperatur nach Uk37 6.3 Variation der Oberflächensalinität 7. Die Feinstratigraphie von Kern PS2644 als Basis für eine Eichung der 14C-Altersskala 22 - 55 ka 7.1 Korrelation zwischen den Klimasignalen in Kern PS2644 und der GISP2-Klimakurve zum Kalibrieren der 14C-Alter und Erstellen eines Altersmodells Tephrachronologische Marker Korrelationsparameter und -regeln Sonderfälle/ Probleme bei der Korrelation 7.2 Alters-stratigraphische Korrelation der Klimakurven von Kern 23071 und 23074 7.3 Variation der Altersanomalien zwischen 20 und 55 14C-ka 7.4 Variabilität des planktischen 14C-Reservoiralters in Schmelzwasserbeeinflußten Seegebieten Variation der planktischen 14C-Alter unmittelbar an der Basis von Heinrich-Ereignis 4 Unterschiede zwischen planktischen und benthischen 14C-Altern in der westlichen Islandsee. Zur Erklärung der inversen Altersdifferenzen 7.5 Differenz zwischen 14C- und Kalenderalter: Zeitliche Variation unter Einfluß des Erdmagnetfeldes - Modell und Befund 7.6 Sedimentationsraten der Kerne 23071, 23074 und PS2644 nach dem GISP2-Altersmodell Vøring-Plateau: Kerne 23071 und 23074 Südwest-Islandsee: Kern PS2644 8. Klimaoszillationen im Europäischen Nordmeer in der Zeit und Frequenzdomäne 8.1 "Der Einzelzyklus" in den Klimakurven von Kern PS2644 8.2 Zur Veränderlichkeit der Warm- und Kaltextreme sowie Zyklenlänge Besonderheiten in der Zyklenlänge Variation der Kalt-(Stadiale) Variation der Interstadiale 8.3 Periodizitäten der Klimasignale im Frequenzband der D.-Oe.-Zyklen. Der D.-Oe.-Zyklus von 1470 J., seine Multiplen und harmonischen Schwingungen Weitere Frequenzen: 1000-1150 Jahre- und 490- 510 Jahre-Zyklizitäten Höhere Frequenzen im Bereich von Jahrhunderten und Dekaden 8.4 Phasenbeziehungen und (örtliche) Steuemngsmechanismen der Dansgaard-Oeschger-Zyklen 9. Schlußfolgerungen Danksagung Literaturverzeichnis Anhang
    Location: AWI Reading room
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 6
    Journal available for loan
    Journal available for loan
    München : Altop-Verlag ; 2007 -
    Call number: Z 19.92410
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1865-4266
    Former Title: Vorg. Nachhaltiges Wirtschaften in Deutschland
    Language: German
    Note: Ungezählte Beil. ab 2010: Special , Erscheint jährlich 4x
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 7
    Call number: M 92.0634
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISBN: 9054100605
    Language: English
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 8
    Call number: Z 06.0500
    Type of Medium: Journal available for loan
    Pages: 30 cm
    ISSN: 1824-7741
    Former Title: Vorgänger Geologisch-paläontologische Mitteilungen, Innsbruck
    Language: German , English
    Note: Ersch. unregelmäßig , Beiträge teilweise in Englisch
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 9
    Call number: IASS 15.89494
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: Losebl.-Ausg.
    Edition: Stand: Oktober 2010
    ISBN: 9783768501828
    Language: German
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 10
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    [Edgecumbe, N.Z.] : A. Muller
    Call number: M 15.89146
    Description / Table of Contents: An account of the results of the 2 March 1987 earthquake in the eastern Bay of Plenty and the aftermath's effects on the people and places on the Rangitaiki Plains
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 223 S., , Ill.
    Language: English
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 11
    Keywords: Deutschland ; Tarifvertrag ; Öffentlicher Dienst ; Eingruppierung ; Lohn ; Kommentar
    Pages: Bände (Loseblattsammlung) , 23 cm
    ISBN: 9783807303789 , 9783807305110
    Language: German
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 12
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Garmisch-Partenkirchen : Institut für atmosphärische Umweltforschung der Fraunhofer- Gesellschaft
    Call number: MOP 44829 / Mitte
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 25 S. , graph. Darst.
    Language: English
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 13
    Call number: S 90.0066(162,1)
    In: Geologisches Jahrbuch / A
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 261 Seiten , Ill., 1 DVD-ROM (12 cm) und 1 Tafel-Beil. ([2] S.)
    ISBN: 9783510968534
    Series Statement: Geologisches Jahrbuch 162
    Classification: A.2.8.
    Language: German
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 14
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    London : Penguin Books
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISBN: 9780141985206
    Language: English
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 15
    Call number: PIK N 453-17-91096
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 50 Seiten , Illustrationen, Diagramme
    Language: German
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 16
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    Chicago: University of Chicago Press | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-22
    Description: 9-ending prices, which comprise between 40%–95% of retail prices, are popular because shoppers perceive them as being low. We study whether this belief is justified using scanner price-data with over 98-million observations from a large US grocery-chain. We find that 9-ending prices are higher than non 9-ending prices, by as much as 18%. Two factors explain why shoppers believe, mistakenly, that 9-ending prices are low. First, we find that among sale-prices, 9-ending prices are indeed lower than non 9-ending prices, giving 9-ending prices an aura of being low. Second, at first, 9-ending prices were indeed lower than other prices. Shoppers, therefore, learned to associate 9-endings with low prices. Over time, however, 9-ending prices rose substantially, which shoppers failed to notice, because the continuous use of 9-ending prices for promoting deep price cuts draws shoppers’ attention to them, and helps to maintain-and-preserve the image of 9-ending prices as bargain prices.
    Description: Special Issue on Behavioral Pricing
    Keywords: M30 ; M31 ; L11 ; L16 ; L81 ; D12 ; D22 ; D40 ; D90 ; D91 ; E31 ; ddc:330 ; Behavioral Pricing ; Psychological Prices ; Price Perception ; Image Effect ; 9-Ending Prices ; Price Points ; Regular Prices ; Sale Prices
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    Leiden: Brill | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-02-14
    Description: The Gnassingbé clan has ruled the country since 1967. The demand for political alternance, initiated by institutional and electoral reforms, constituted the major contentious issue between the government and the challengers of the Gnassingbé regime throughout the survey period. An alliance of opposition parties and civil society groups organized peaceful demonstrations in opposition to the regime, which were often violently suppressed. Civil society organizations and representatives of the Christian church supported the demands of the opposition. The legislative elections of 20 December 2018, boycotted by the major opposition parties, resulted in an easy victory of the ruling party. The local elections, crucial for democratization at the grass-roots, but postponed time and again since 1987, were again postponed in December 2018 sine die. The human rights record of the government has improved but remains poor. Despite undeniable improvements to the framework and appearance of the regime's key institutions during the review period, democracy remains far from complete. However, the international community, notably Togo’s African peers, the AU and ECOWAS, followed a ‘laissez-faire’ approach in the interests of regional stability and their national interests in dealing with Togo. Economic growth remained stable at about 5% per annum. Public investment in infrastructure (e.g. roads, harbour) and increases in agricultural productivity, notably of export crops, had been the key drivers of economic growth. However, growth remains vulnerable to external shocks and the climate and has not been inclusive. Positive growth was overshadowed by increasing inter-personal and regional inequality as well as an increase in extreme poverty. Moreover, money-laundering, illegal money transfers and trafficking grew alarmingly. The business climate improved considerably nevertheless.
    Description: Author’s extended and up-dated version of ‘BTI 2020 – Togo Country Report’ (forthcoming)
    Description: RÉSUMÉ: Le clan Gnassingbé dirige le pays depuis 1967. La demande d'alternance politique, initiée par des réformes institutionnelles et électorales, a constitué le principal différend entre le gouvernement et les rivaux du régime de Gnassingbé tout au long de la période d'enquête. Une alliance de partis d'opposition et de groupes de la société civile a organisé des manifestations pacifiques contre le régime, qui ont souvent été réprimées avec violence. Les organisations de la société civile et les représentants de l'église chrétienne ont soutenu les revendications de l'opposition. Les élections législatives du 20 décembre 2018, boycottées par les principaux partis de l'opposition, ont permis une victoire facile du parti au pouvoir. Les élections locales, cruciales pour la démocratisation à la base, mais reportées à plusieurs reprises depuis 1987, ont été à nouveau reportées en décembre 2018 sine die. Le bilan du gouvernement en matière de droits de l'homme s'est amélioré mais reste médiocre. Malgré des améliorations indéniables du cadre et de l’apparence des principales institutions du régime au cours de la période considérée, la démocratie est loin d’être achevée. Cependant, la communauté internationale, notamment ses homologues africains du Togo, l’UA et la CEDEAO, a adopté une approche de «laisser-faire» dans l’intérêt de la stabilité régionale et de leurs intérêts nationaux face au Togo. La croissance économique est restée stable à environ 5% par an. Les investissements publics dans les infrastructures (par exemple, les routes et les ports) et l’augmentation de la productivité agricole, notamment des cultures d’exportation, ont été les principaux moteurs de la croissance économique. Cependant, la croissance reste vulnérable aux chocs extérieurs et au climat et n’a pas été inclusive. La croissance positive a été éclipsée par l'augmentation des inégalités interpersonnelles et régionales ainsi que par l'augmentation de l'extrême pauvreté. En outre, le blanchiment d’argent, les transferts d’argent illégal et le trafic se sont multipliés de manière alarmante. Le climat des affaires s’est néanmoins considérablement amélioré. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Der Gnassingbé-Clan hat das Land seit 1967 regiert. Die Forderungen nach institutionellen und Wahlrechtreformen sowie nach politischem Wandel bildeten während des Erhebungszeitraums das umstrittenste Thema zwischen der Regierung und den Herausforderern des Gnassingbé-Regimes. Ein Bündnis von Oppositionsparteien und zivilgesellschaftlichen Gruppen organisierte friedliche Demonstrationen gegen das Regime, die oft gewaltsam unterdrückt wurden. Zivilgesellschaftliche Organisationen und Vertreter der christlichen Kirche unterstützten die Forderungen der Opposition. Die Parlamentswahlen vom 20. Dezember 2018, die von den großen Oppositionsparteien boykottiert wurden, führten zu einem leichten Sieg der Regierungspartei. Die für die Demokratisierung an der Basis entscheidenden Kommunalwahlen, die seit 1987 immer wieder verschoben wurden, wurden im Dezember 2018 erneut auf unbestimmte Zeit verschoben. Die Menschenrechtsbilanz der Regierung hat sich verbessert, ist aber nach wie vor schlecht. Trotz unbestreitbarer Verbesserungen der Rahmenbedingungen und des Erscheinungsbildes der wichtigsten Institutionen des Regimes im Überprüfungszeitraum ist die Demokratisierung bei weitem nicht vollständig. Die internationale Gemeinschaft, insbesondere die afrikanischen peers des togosichen Präsidenten, die AU und die ECOWAS, verfolgten jedoch einen "Laissez-faire" -Ansatz im Interesse der regionalen Stabilität und ihrer nationalen Interessen im Umgang mit Togo. Das Wirtschaftswachstum blieb stabil bei etwa 5% pro Jahr. Öffentliche Investitionen in die Infrastruktur (z. B. Straßen, Häfen) und die Steigerung der landwirtschaftlichen Produktivität, insbesondere von Exportkulturen, waren die Hauptfaktoren des Wirtschaftswachstums. Das Wachstum bleibt jedoch anfällig für externe Schocks und das Wachstum war nicht inklusiv. Das positive Wachstum wurde durch die zunehmende Ungleichheit zwischen Personen und Regionen sowie durch die Zunahme extremer Armut überschattet. Darüber hinaus nahmen Geldwäsche, illegale Geldüberweisungen und Menschenhandel alarmierend zu. Das Geschäftsklima hat sich dennoch deutlich verbessert.
    Keywords: A14 ; F35 ; N97 ; O17 ; O55 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; Togo ; West Africa ; ECOWAS ; WAEMU ; Democratization ; Good Governance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-29
    Description: We document an asymmetry in the rigidity of 9-ending prices relative to non-9-ending prices. Consumers have difficulty noticing higher prices if they are 9-ending, or noticing price-increases if the new prices are 9-ending, because 9-endings are used as a signal for low prices. Price setters respond strategically to the consumer-heuristic by setting 9-ending prices more often after price-increases than after price-decreases. 9-ending prices, therefore, remain 9-ending more often after price-increases than after price-decreases, leading to asymmetric rigidity: 9-ending prices are more rigid upward than downward. These findings hold for both transaction-prices and regular-prices, and for both inflation and no-inflation periods.
    Keywords: L16 ; C91 ; E31 ; C93 ; D80 ; M31 ; ddc:330 ; Asymmetric Price Adjustment ; Sticky/Rigid Prices ; 9-Ending Prices ; Psychological Prices ; Price Points ; Regular/Sale Prices
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-11-23
    Description: This open access book addresses an urgent issue on which little organized information exists. It reflects experience in Africa but is highly relevant to other fragile states as well. - Constantine Michalopoulos, John Hopkins University, USA and former Director of Economic Policy and Co-ordination at the World Bank. Fragile countries face a triple data challenge. Up-to-date information is needed to deal with rapidly changing circumstances and to design adequate responses. Yet, fragile countries are among the most data deprived, while collecting new information in such circumstances is very challenging. This open access book presents innovations in data collection developed with decision makers in fragile countries in mind. Looking at innovations in Africa from mobile phone surveys monitoring the Ebola crisis, to tracking displaced people in Mali, this collection highlights the challenges in data collection researchers face and how they can be overcome.
    Keywords: ddc:320 ; Data collection ; Fragile states ; Development economics ; Economic development ; African economics ; African innovations ; Mobile phone surveys ; Rapid emergency response survey ; Displaced people ; Central African Republic ; Geo-spatial sampling ; Rapid consumption surveys ; Vulnerable populations
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-11-23
    Description: In diesem Open Access-Buch werden fünf zentrale Themenbereiche des Umwelt- und Bioressourcenmanagement (UBRM) vorgestellt. Umwelt- und Bioressourcenmanagerinnen und -manager kennen die Herausforderungen des 21. Jahrhunderts, wie sie zum Beispiel in der Agenda 2030 der Vereinten Nationen - den sogenannten nachhaltigen Entwicklungszielen (Sustainable Development Goals - SDGs) - formuliert wurden. Sie denken vernetzt und verfügen über fachliche, methodische und soziale Kompetenzen, die für eine inter- und transdisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit erforderlich sind. Sie sind in der Lage, mit sich verändernden Anforderungen umzugehen und können sich in eine breite Palette von Fachbereichen vertiefen. Ihre Qualifikation wird in vielen Wirtschaftsbereichen, in nationalen und internationalen Organisationen sowie in privaten und öffentlichen Einrichtungen nachgefragt. Die Leserinnen und Leser bekommen in jedem der hier vorgestellten Themenbereich Einblicke in verschiedene UBRM-Fachbereiche sowie darüber, welche Kompetenzen und Fertigkeiten erworben werden können. Dies wird anhand konkreter Fallbeispiele verdeutlicht. Abschließend veranschaulichen Porträts von Absolventinnen und Absolventen die Studien- und Berufspraxis und zeigen, wie nachhaltige Zukunftsgestaltung im Sinne der Agenda 2030 aussehen kann.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Umweltmanagement ; Bioressourcen ; Nachhaltigkeit ; Sustainability ; Universität für Bodenkultur ; Open Access ; UBRM
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019-11-23
    Description: Dieses Open-Access-Fachbuch setzt sich empirisch und theoretisch mit Teilaspekten der digitalen Transformation und deren Konsequenzen für die Unternehmensführung auseinander. Die mit der Digitalisierung verbundenen neuen Technologien, Geschäftsmodelle sowie Denk- und Handlungsweisen verändern die Welt grundlegend und mit einer hohen Geschwindigkeit. Der Band greift aktuelle, praxisrelevante Fragestellungen und Herausforderungen des Megatrends Digitalisierung auf und bietet Informationen zu Themen wie plattformbasierte Dienstleistungen, Cybersicherheit, Ambidextrie, Big Data Analytics, Kryptowährungen, Smart Contracts, Online Marketing Tools, Augmented Reality und Social Influencing. Die 15 Beiträge wurden durch Autorenteams erarbeitet. Diese setzen sich aus Lehrenden und Forschenden sowie Vertreterinnen und Vertretern der Unternehmenspraxis mit akademischem Background zusammen. Sämtliche Beiträge basieren auf empirischen Analysen, die zumeist ihren Schwerpunkt auf Gestaltungsprobleme aus der Unternehmenspraxis legen, und beinhalten somit ein breites Spektrum an konkreten Fallbeispielen.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Digitale Transformation ; Digitalisierung ; Open Access ; Digitaler Wandel ; Digital Business ; Unternehmensführung ; Management ; Megatrend ; Big Data ; Geschäftsmodelle ; Cybersicherheit ; Digitales Zeitalter ; Virtual Reality ; Arbeitsmodelle ; Google AdWords ; Schweiz ; Social Influencing ; Augmented Reality ; Ambidextrie ; Kryptowährungen
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 22
    Call number: 978-3-030-26732-2 (e-book)
    Description / Table of Contents: Dedication -- Preface -- Chapter 1: Introduction -- Chapter 2: Introduction to Spherical Elementary Current Systems -- Chapter 3: Spherical Elementary Current Systems applied to Swarm data -- Chapter 4: Local least squares analysis of auroral current structures in multi-spacecraft data -- Chapter 5: Multi-spacecraft current estimates at Swarm -- Chapter 6: Applying the dual-spacecraft approach to the Swarm constellation for deriving radial current density. Chapter 7: Science data products for AMPERE -- Chapter 8: ESA Field Aligned Currents - Methodology Inter-Comparison Exercise -- Chapter 9: Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis techniques for mapping high-latitude ionospheric plasma flow - Application to the Swarm satellite mission -- Chapter 10: Recent Progress on Inverse and Data Assimilation Procedure for High-Latitude Ionospheric Electrodynamics -- Chapter 11: Estimating currents and electric fields at low-latitudes from satellite magnetic measurements -- Chapter 12. Models of the main geomagnetic field based on multi-satellite magnetic data and gradients – Techniques and latest results from the Swarm mission -- Index
    Description / Table of Contents: This open access book provides a comprehensive toolbox of analysis techniques for ionospheric multi-satellite missions. The immediate need for this volume was motivated by the ongoing ESA Swarm satellite mission, but the tools that are described are general and can be used for any future ionospheric multi-satellite mission with comparable instrumentation. In addition to researching the immediate plasma environment and its coupling to other regions, such a mission aims to study the Earth’s main magnetic field and its anomalies caused by core, mantle, or crustal sources. The parameters for carrying out this kind of work are examined in these chapters. Besides currents, electric fields, and plasma convection, these parameters include ionospheric conductance, Joule heating, neutral gas densities, and neutral winds
    Type of Medium: 12
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (X, 288 p. 97 illus., 85 illus. in color)
    Edition: 1st ed. 2020
    ISBN: 9783030267322
    Series Statement: ISSI Scientific Report Series 17
    Language: English
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  • 23
    Unknown
    Washington, D. C. : The World Bank
    Keywords: world development
    Description / Table of Contents: Global value chains (GVCs) powered the surge of international trade after 1990 and now account for almost half of all trade. This shift enabled an unprecedented economic convergence: poor countries grew rapidly and began to catch up with richer countries. Since the 2008 global financial crisis, however, the growth of trade has been sluggish and the expansion of GVCs has stalled. Meanwhile, serious threats have emerged to the model of trade-led growth. New technologies could draw production closer to the consumer and reduce the demand for labor. And conflicts among large countries could lead to a retrenchment or a segmentation of GVCs. This book examines whether there is still a path to development through GVCs and trade. It concludes that technological change is, at this stage, more a boon than a curse. GVCs can continue to boost growth, create better jobs, and reduce poverty provided that developing countries implement deeper reforms to promote GVC participation; industrial countries pursue open, predictable policies; and all countries revive multilateral cooperation.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XIX, 266 Seiten) , Illustrationen, Diagramme
    ISBN: 9781464814952
    Language: English
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  • 24
    Keywords: Mathematics ; Numerical analysis ; Computer mathematics ; Computer software ; Mathematics ; Computational Science and Engineering ; Numeric Computing ; Mathematical Software ; programming ; Python ; verification ; numerical methods ; differential equations
    Description / Table of Contents: The First Few Steps --- A Few More Steps --- Loops and Branching --- Functions and the Writing of Code --- Some More Python Essentials --- Computing Integrals and Testing Code --- Solving Nonlinear Algebraic Equations --- Solving Ordinary Differential Equations --- Solving Partial Differential Equations
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XXIII, 332 pages) , illustrations, diagrams
    Edition: 2nd edition
    ISBN: 9783030168773
    Language: English
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  • 25
    Keywords: Linked Dataspaces ; Smart Environments ; Distributed Computing Methodologies ; Internet of Things ; Ubiquitous computing
    Description / Table of Contents: Real-time Linked Dataspaces: A Data Platform for Intelligent Systems Within Internet of Things-Based Smart Environments --- Enabling Knowledge Flows in an Intelligent Systems Data Ecosystem --- Dataspaces: Fundamentals, Principles, and Techniques --- Fundamentals of Real-time Linked Dataspaces --- Data Support Services for Real-time Linked Dataspaces --- Catalog and Entity Management Service for Internet of Things-Based Smart Environments --- Querying and Searching Heterogeneous Knowledge Graphs in Real-time Linked Dataspaces --- Enhancing the Discovery of Internet of Things-Based Data Services in Real-time Linked Dataspaces --- Human-in-the-Loop Tasks for Data Management, Citizen Sensing, and Actuation in Smart Environments --- Stream and Event Processing Services for Real-time Linked Dataspaces --- Quality of Service-Aware Complex Event Service Composition in Real-time Linked Dataspaces --- Dissemination of Internet of Things Streams in a Real-time Linked Dataspace --- Approximate Semantic Event Processing in Real-time Linked Dataspaces --- Enabling Intelligent Systems, Applications, and Analytics for Smart Environments Using Real-time Linked Dataspaces --- Autonomic Source Selection for Real-time Predictive Analytics Using the Internet of Things and Open Data --- Building Internet of Things-Enabled Digital Twins and Intelligent Applications Using a Real-time Linked Dataspace --- A Model for Internet of Things Enhanced User Experience in Smart Environments --- Future Research Directions for Dataspaces, Data Ecosystems, and Intelligent Systems
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XXIII, 325 pages) , illustrations, diagrams
    ISBN: 9783030296650
    Language: English
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  • 26
    Keywords: ionosphere ; magnetospheric coupling ; geomagnetic field ; field-aligned currents ; spherical elementary current systems ; Swarm data ; Swarm constellation ; ionospheric plasma flow ; ionospheric electrodynamics ; satellite magnetic measurements ; geomagnetic field modeling
    Description / Table of Contents: Introduction / Malcolm Wray Dunlop, Hermann Lühr / Pages 1-4 --- Introduction to Spherical Elementary Current Systems / Heikki Vanhamäki, Liisa Juusola / Pages 5-33 --- Spherical Elementary Current Systems Applied to Swarm Data / Heikki Vanhamäki, Liisa Juusola, Kirsti Kauristie, Abiyot Workayehu, Sebastian Käki / Pages 35-53 --- Local Least Squares Analysis of Auroral Currents / Joachim Vogt, Adrian Blagau, Costel Bunescu, Maosheng He / Pages 55-81 --- Multi-spacecraft Current Estimates at Swarm / Malcolm Wray Dunlop, J.-Y. Yang, Y.-Y. Yang, Hermann Lühr, J.-B. Cao / Pages 83-116 --- Applying the Dual-Spacecraft Approach to the Swarm Constellation for Deriving Radial Current Density / Hermann Lühr, Patricia Ritter, Guram Kervalishvili, Jan Rauberg / Pages 117-140 --- Science Data Products for AMPERE / Colin L. Waters, B. J. Anderson, D. L. Green, H. Korth, R. J. Barnes, Heikki Vanhamäki / Pages 141-165 --- ESA Field-Aligned Currents—Methodology Inter-comparison Exercise / Lorenzo Trenchi, The FAC-MICE Team, K. Kauristie, S. Käki, Heikki Vanhamäki, L. Juusola et al. / Pages 167-188 --- Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis Techniques for Mapping High-Latitude Ionospheric Plasma Flow—Application to the Swarm Satellite Mission / Robyn A. D. Fiori / Pages 189-218 --- Recent Progress on Inverse and Data Assimilation Procedure for High-Latitude Ionospheric Electrodynamics / Tomoko Matsuo / Pages 219-232 --- Estimating Currents and Electric Fields at Low Latitudes from Satellite Magnetic Measurements / Patrick Alken / Pages 233-254 --- Models of the Main Geomagnetic Field Based on Multi-satellite Magnetic Data and Gradients—Techniques and Latest Results from the Swarm Mission / Christopher C. Finlay / Pages 255-284
    Pages: Online-Ressource (X, 288 pages) , Illustrationen, Diagramme
    ISBN: 9783030267322
    Language: English
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  • 27
    Keywords: Coastal Resilience ; Social Justice ; Extreme Weather ; Natural Disaster ; Disaster Recovery ; Adaptation ; Severe Storm ; Climate Change management ; Coastal hazards ; Hurricane ; Katrina ; Flood ; Gentrification ; Environmental Policy ; Water Policy ; Environmental Law
    Description / Table of Contents: Introduction to the Book: “Ahead of the Curve” / Shirley Laska / Pages 1-31 --- Louisiana’s Risks Anticipating the Future Challenges to Other U.S. Coastal Communities --- Managing Risks in Louisiana’s Rapidly Changing Coastal Zone / Donald F. Boesch / Pages 35-62 --- Climate Adaptation Challenges and Solutions --- Connecting the Dots: The Origins, Evolutions, and Implications of the Map that Changed Post-Katrina Recovery Planning in New Orleans / Zachary Lamb / Pages 65-91 --- Antagonisms of Adaptation: Climate Change Adaptation Measures in New Orleans and New York City / Kevin Fox Gotham, Megan Faust / Pages 93-112 --- Adapting to a Smaller Coast: Restoration, Protection, and Social Justice in Coastal Louisiana / Scott A. Hemmerling, Monica Barra, Rebecca H. Bond / Pages 113-144 --- Relocation and Resettlement: An Extreme Adjustment --- Community Resettlement in Louisiana: Learning from Histories of Horror and Hope / Nathan Jessee / Pages 147-184 --- Sojourners in a New Land: Hope and Adaptive Traditions / Kristina J. Peterson / Pages 185-214 --- Types/Locations of Communities and Their Responses to Extreme Weather: Urban --- Post-disaster Development Dilemmas: Advancing Landscapes of Social Justice in a Neoliberal Post-disaster Landscape / Anna Livia Brand, Vern Baxter / Pages 217-240 --- Reimagining Housing: Affordability Crisis and Its Role in Disaster Resilience and Recovery / Andreanecia M. Morris, Lucas Diaz / Pages 241-259 --- Types/Locations of Communities and Their Responses to Extreme Weather: Suburban/Mid State --- The 2016 Unexpected Mid-State Louisiana Flood: With Special Focus on the Different Rescue and Recovery Responses It Engendered / Michelle Annette Meyer, Brant Mitchell, Shannon Van Zandt, Stuart Nolan / Pages 263-281 --- Types/Locations of Communities and Their Responses to Extreme Weather: Rural --- Challenges of Post-Disaster Recovery in Rural Areas / Alessandra Jerolleman / Pages 285-310 --- Types/Locations of Communities and Their Responses to Extreme Weather: Coupled Coastal-Inland --- Regional Resilience: Building Adaptive Capacity and Community Well-Being Across Louisiana’s Dynamic Coastal–Inland Continuum / Traci Birch, Jeff Carney / Pages 313-340
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XIV, 361 pages) , Illustrationen, Diagramme
    ISBN: 9783030272050
    Language: English
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  • 28
    Keywords: Sustainable development ; Sustainability and resilience ; Nature and society ; Urban landscape and challenges ; Sustainable mindset
    Description / Table of Contents: Framing in Sustainability Science / Shogo Kudo, Takashi Mino / Pages 3-15 --- Theoretical and Methodological Pluralism in Sustainability Science / Anne Jerneck, Lennart Olsson / Pages 17-33 --- Approaches for Framing Sustainability Challenges: Experiences from Swedish Sustainability Science Education / Barry Ness / Pages 35-53 --- The Value of Grey / Makoto Yokohari, Akito Murayama, Toru Terada / Pages 57-96 --- Framing in Placemaking When Envisioning a Sustainable Rural Community in the Time of Aging and Shrinking Societies in Japan / Shogo Kudo / Pages 97-118 --- Role in Framing in Sustainability Science — The Case of Minamata Disease / Motoharu Onuki / Pages 119-131 --- Time-Scale in Framing Disaster Risk Reduction in Sustainability / Miguel Esteban, Lilian Yamamoto, Lau Jamero, Takashi Mino / Pages 133-151 --- Framing Food Security and Poverty Alleviation / Hirotaka Matsuda, Makiko Sekiyama, Kazuaki Tsuchiya, Chiahsin Chen, Eri Aoki, Rimbawan Rimbawan et al. / Pages 153-171 --- Linking Framing to Actions for Sustanability / Takashi Mino, Shogo Kudo / Pages 175-180
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VIII, 196 pages) , Illustrationen, Diagramme
    ISBN: 9789811390616
    Language: English
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: Abstract
    Description: This publication contains tabular summaries of the data management survey carried out at the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, as well as the diagrams of individual questions shown in Radosavljevic et al. (2019).The online survey was conducted from August 27 to September 27, 2019. The survey design leaned on similar surveys carried out at German universities and research institutions (e.g. Paul-Stüve et al., 2015; Simukovic et al., 2013) The survey queried aspects of the complete data life cycle - from the planning stage to reuse in 37 questions: 16 single response (SR); where only one answer was possible, and 20 multiple response (MR) where multiple answers could be selected, and one free text question. Research staff at all career levels was the target audience for the survey. Invitations to participate in the completely anonymous online survey were sent out over the general GFZ lists. The survey was carried out with the Questback EFS Survey platform.226 attempts, out of 411, led to completed questionnaires corresponding to a 55% completion rate. Compared to the target audience at GFZ, the participation rate amounted to ca. 24%. However, less than 20% of employees classified as infrastructure support employees or bachelor’s and master’s students and student assistants completed the survey. Replies falling into these categories were grouped into “others” in the report as well as in the data presented here.Data summaries are given in two tab-separated tables corresponding to response counts or percentage for each question. These are grouped by department, role and employment length. Questions 5 and 34 were ranking questions and the corresponding responses in the percentages table represent arithmetic means of the replies for these questions – not percentages. The response counts for these question are presented in the “Counts” table. Free text replies are omitted from these results. In addition, the diagrams of individual questions are presented Radosavljevic et al. (2019) are also provided in png and pdf formats.
    Keywords: data management survey ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 DATA MANAGEMENT/DATA HANDLING
    Language: English
    Type: Dataset , Dataset
    Format: 1 Files
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  • 30
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    Unknown
    Halle (Saale): Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-10
    Description: In der vorliegenden Studie werden zunächst die weltweiten konjunkturellen Aussichten für das Ende des Jahres 2018 und für die Jahre 2019 bis 2023 dargestellt. Dabei wird folgender Länderkreis betrachtet: Deutschland, Frankreich, Griechenland, Großbritannien, Irland, Italien, Niederlande, Polen, Portugal, Schweden, Slowakei, Spanien und Tschechien. Im Herbst 2018 sind die Unsicherheiten über den Fortgang der Weltkonjunktur groß. Bis zum Sommer expandierte die globale Produktion zwar weiterhin recht kräftig. In den meisten Ländern schätzen die Unternehmen aber gegenwärtig ihre Geschäftslage deutlich weniger günstig ein als in der ersten Jahreshälfte, und im Oktober haben die Aktienbewertungen weltweit deutlich nachgegeben. Auch stellen sich nunmehr die finanziellen Rahmenbedingungen für die Schwellenländer aufgrund eines Rückzugs von internationalen Investoren schlechter dar. Allerdings dürfte in den meisten fortgeschrittenen Volkswirtschaften die Binnenkonjunktur angesichts eines zumindest bis in das Jahr 2019 hinein insgesamt expansiven geld- und finanzpolitischen Umfelds zunächst recht kräftig bleiben. Belastend wirken indes die protektionistischen Maßnahmen der US-Politik sowie die Verunsicherung über die Zukunft der Welthandelsordnung. Ein Hauptrisiko für die Weltkonjunktur ist gegenwärtig die Gefahr einer weiteren Zuspitzung des Handelskonflikts zwischen den USA und China. Aber auch die handelspolitischen Spannungen zwischen den USA und der Europäischen Union sind noch nicht ausgeräumt. Speziell für die Konjunktur in Europa sind zwei Risiken zu nennen: zum einen die Möglichkeit eines ungeordneten Austritts Großbritanniens aus der EU im Frühjahr 2019, zum anderen eine neue Schuldenkrise, falls die Regierung Italiens ihre expansiven finanzpolitischen Vorhaben in großem Stil umsetzt und dabei weiter Vertrauen der Finanzmärkte in die Solvenz des italienischen Staates verspielt. Die wahrscheinlichste wirtschaftliche Entwicklung in dem betrachteten Länderkreis (Basisszenario) wird anhand grundlegender volkswirtschaftlicher Kennzahlen, etwa der Zuwachsrate des Bruttoinlandsprodukts, beschrieben. Es wird auch die Entwicklung für den Fall skizziert, dass die Weltwirtschaft eine ungünstige, eine sehr ungünstige Wendung (mittelschweres und schweres Negativszenario), oder auch eine günstige Wendung nimmt (Positivszenario). Das mittelschwere Negativszenario ist so gewählt, dass die gesamtwirtschaftliche Produktion in der betrachteten Ländergruppe im Jahr 2019 gemäß der aus dem Modell resultierenden Wahrscheinlichkeitsverteilung nur mit einer Wahrscheinlichkeit von 10% noch geringer ausfällt; das schwere Negativszenario ist so gewählt, dass sich mit einerWahrscheinlichkeit von nur 1% eine noch geringere Produktion realisieren dürfte. Das Positivszenario wird schließlich so gewählt, dass es mit einer Wahrscheinlichkeit von nur 10% zu einer noch höheren Produktion in der genannten Ländergruppe kommen dürfte. Im Basisszenario liegt der Produktionszuwachs im betrachteten europäischen Länderkreis in den Jahren 2018 und 2019 bei jeweils 1,9%. Im Fall eines mittelschweren Einbruchs bleibt die Zuwachsrate der europäischen Ländergruppe im Jahr 2019 mit 0,3% um 1,6 Prozentpunkte unter der Rate im Basisszenario, im Fall eines schweren Einbruchs mit -1% um 2,9 Prozentpunkte. Besonders stark bricht in den negativen Risikoszenarien die Produktion in Griechenland, Irland, der Slowakei und Polen ein. Besonders stabil ist die Produktion dagegen in Frankreich. Der weltwirtschaftliche Schock reduziert die Produktion in Deutschland ungefähr so stark wie im Durchschnitt der Ländergruppe, die deutsche Wirtschaft erholt sich dann aber besonders rasch. Die länderspezifischen Szenarien erlauben auch die Antwort auf die Frage, wie stark die deutsche Wirtschaft von dem Wirtschaftseinbruch eines bestimmten Landes aus dem europäischen Länderkreis betroffen ist. Es zeigt sich, dass es für Deutschland nur bei einem schweren Einbruch der Konjunktur in Großbritannien, den Niederlanden und Polen zu messbaren Produktionsverlusten kommt. Zuletzt wird ein Szenario betrachtet, in dem ein mehrjähriger weltwirtschaftlicher Wirtschaftseinbruch mit einer deutlichen Erhöhung der Zinsen einhergeht. Ein solches Szenario könnte sich etwa aus einem Verlust an Vertrauen von Unternehmen und Haushalten in die Stabilitätsorientierung der Geldpolitik entwickeln. In einem solchen Fall können die Zentralbanken gezwungen sein, ihre Reputation durch eine Hochzinspolitik wieder herzustellen auch unter Inkaufnahme einer längeren Phase gesamtwirtschaftlicher Unterauslastung.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019-05-10
    Description: Now in its third compliance period, we can look back at more than 12 years of existence of the emissions trading system (ETS) in the European Union. The focus of this paper is to review the empirical literature on price formation in the EU ETS. As a reoccurring concept, we draw on a simple theoretical model of price formation that we subsequently extend to accommodate three different strands of literature. First, we gather evidence based on empirical papers which look at the role of fundamental price drivers. Second, we review the event study literature, where political and regulatory uncertainty is the main topic. Third, we devote a major part to finance literature in this market. In every section, we pay special attention to the challenges that arise when empirically modeling allowance prices in this complex market. We emphasize that there is a need for more evidence and possibly alternative approaches due to the complex interplay of compliance and finance trading motives. As a result, the findings of this review provide important lessons about price formation in the EU ETS, which can also inform the design of such programs in other countries.
    Keywords: Q48 ; Q50 ; ddc:330 ; Emission Trading ; EU ETS ; Carbon Pricing
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 32
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2019-05-10
    Description: This article introduces a quantitative measure of trade policy space at the national level, and investigates empirically whether it influences foreign direct investment (FDI) flows to countries. The empirical analysis covers an unbalanced panel dataset of 158 countries (both developed and developing countries), over the period 1995-2015, and uses the two-step system Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) approach. Results suggest that the impact of trade policy space on FDI inflows is positive and increases as countries enjoy greater trade policy space. Furthermore, advanced economies tend to experience a higher positive impact of trade policy space on FDI inflows than less advanced economies. Overall, trade policy space matters significantly for countries' FDI inflows.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Trade policy space ; FDI inflows
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2019-05-10
    Description: Das Verbot der betäubungslosen Kastration von Ferkeln sollte am 01.01.2019 in Kraft treten. Am 29. November 2019 verlängerte der Deutsche Bundestag diese Frist um zwei Jahre, weil Politik und Wirtschaft nicht in der Lage waren, sich auf eine oder mehrere der verfügbaren Alternativen einzulassen. Die Gesetzesänderung bedeutet für die schweinehaltenden Betriebe in Deutschland eine Umstellung ihrer bisherigen Praxis. Als Strategien werden die Jungebermast, die Impfung gegen Ebergeruch (die sogenannte Immunokastration), die Kastration unter Anwendung verschiedener Vollnarkoseverfahren und die Lokalanästhesie diskutiert. Zielsetzung dieser Studie ist es, aufbauend auf dem Working Paper 64 (Verhaagh & Deblitz, 2016) eine aktualisierte Analyse der betriebswirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen dieser alternativen Verfahren und einen Vergleich der Wirtschaftlichkeit zu erstellen. Im ersten Schritt wird eine Referenzsituation (Baseline) mit der derzeit praxisüblichen betäubungslosen Kastration männlicher Ferkel spezifiziert. Hierfür wurden Daten von 11 typischen Betrieben mit Schweinehaltung in den wichtigsten Regionen in Deutschland sowie mit unterschiedlichen Tierzahlen und Produktionsrichtungen (spezialisierte Ferkelproduktion bzw. Schweinemast, geschlossenes System) verwendet. Anschließend werden die Alternativen der derzeitigen Praxis und ihre Auswirkungen auf die Leistungsdaten sowie die Kosten und ggf. Erlöse definiert. Die Baseline und die Alternativen werden als Vollkostenrechnungen ausgewertet, weil neben den Direktkosten auch Investitionen und Gemeinkosten betroffen sind. Variationsrechnungen zu Preisen, Leistungsdaten und Anwendungsverfahren ergänzen die Analyse. Die Kosten der Ebermast mit Impfung (Immunokastration) werden durch die höhere Leistung der Tiere und eine bessere Futterverwertung kompensiert. Die Ebermast - also ein Verzicht auf Kastrationsmaßnahmen - schneidet aufgrund der geringeren Bezahlung durch die deutsche Schlachtindustrie (Eberpreismaske) etwas schlechter ab. Bei beiden Verfahren bestehen außerdem regionale Unterschiede. Die Auswirkungen der chirurgischen Verfahren sind hinsichtlich ihrer Ergebnisse zwischen den einzelnen Produktionsrichtungen und Regionen in Deutschland homogener: Unter den beiden Verfahren der Vollnarkose ist die Injektionsnarkose das teuerste der untersuchten Verfahren, gefolgt von der Inhalationsnarkose mit Isofluran. Die auch als 'vierter Weg' bekannte Lokalanästhesie (Betäubung der Hoden bei der Kastration) ist hingegen deutlich kostengünstiger. Ein wichtiger Grund für die höheren Kosten der Betäubungsverfahren ist die Tatsache, dass diese beim jetzigen Stand nur durch Tierärzte durchgeführt werden dürfen. Variationsrechnungen zeigen, dass die Kosten für diese Verfahren unter der Annahme sinken, dass die Landwirte diese selbst durchführen dürfen. Eine entsprechende Durchführungsverordnung für die Isoflurannarkose befindet sich in Vorbereitung.
    Description: The ban of piglet castration without anaesthesia should come into force on 01.01.2019. On 29 November 2019, the German Bundestag extended this deadline by two years because politicians and industry were unable to agree on one or more of the available alternatives. The change in the law means that pig-farms in Germany will have to change their present practices. The strategies discussed are fattening of entire males, vaccination against boar taint (so-called immunocastra-tion), castration using various anaesthetic methods and local anaesthesia. Building on Working Paper 64 (Verhaagh & Deblitz, 2016), the aim of this study is to provide an updated analysis of the economic effects of these alternative methods and to compare their economic viability. The first step is to specify a reference situation (baseline) with the current practice of castrating male piglets without anaesthesia. Data from 11 typical pig farms in the most important regions of Germany with different numbers of animals and production methods (specialised piglet production or pig finishing, closed system) were used. Then the alternatives of the current practice and their effects on the performance data as well as the costs and revenues are defined. The baseline and the alternatives are evaluated in a total cost analysis because, in addition to direct costs, investments and overheads are also affected. Variation calculations for prices, performance data and application methods complete the analysis. The costs of boar finishing with vaccination (immunocastration) are compensated by the higher performance of the animals and a better feed conversion. Boar fattening - i.e. the abandonment of castration measures - is less profitable due to reduced payments by the German slaughter industry (boar price mask). There are also regional differences between the two methods. The effects of the surgical measure are more homogeneous between the farm types and regions in Germany: among the two measures of general anaesthesia, injection anaesthesia is the most expensive, fol-lowed by inhalation anaesthesia with isoflurane. Local anaesthesia, also known as the "fourth way" (anaesthesia of the testicles during castration), has significantly lower costs. An important reason for the higher costs of anaesthesia procedures is the fact that based on the present legislation they may only be performed by veterinarians. Variation calculations show that the costs for all measures decrease under the assumption that the farmers are allowed to carry them out themselves. A cor-responding implementing regulation for isoflurane anaesthesia is in preparation.
    Keywords: Q12 ; ddc:630 ; Betäubungslose Ferkelkastration ; Ebermast ; Immunokastration ; Kastration mit Narkoseverfahren ; Lokalanästhesie ; betriebswirtschaftliche Auswirkungen ; piglet castration ; boar fattening ; immunocastration ; castration with(-out) anesthesia ; local anesthesia ; farm economic impact
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 34
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Braunschweig: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut
    Publication Date: 2019-05-10
    Description: Der Wandel unserer fossilbasierten Wirtschaftsweise hin zu einer nachhaltigeren biobasierten Ökonomie erfordert eine breite gesellschaftliche Akzeptanz. Grundlegend dafür sind Kenntnisse über die Meinungen, Einstellungen und Zweifel der Bevölkerung. Aufbauend auf einer Q-Studie über die gesellschaftlichen Meinungsbilder bezüglich der Bioökonomie im Allgemeinen, wurden Gruppendiskussionen zu konsumrelevanten Aspekten im Besonderen durchgeführt. Die Teilnehmenden diskutierten im Spannungsfeld von Suffizienzstrategien und der Entwicklung innovativer Technologien. Darauf folgte eine deutschlandweite Onlinebefragung, die Erkenntnisse aus den ersten beiden Erhebungsschritten aufgriff, wodurch Ergebnisse quantifiziert werden konnten. Auf Basis gemeinsamer gesellschaftlicher Perspektiven zur Bioökonomie besteht eine sehr große Heterogenität in Bezug auf die Einschätzung und Umsetzung verschiedener Handlungsoptionen zur Schonung von Umwelt und Ressourcen in der Gesellschaft insgesamt. Viele Menschen fühlen sich schlecht informiert und haben daher Schwierigkeiten, die "richtigen" Entscheidungen zu treffen. Sie wünschen sich Unterstützung seitens der Politik, welcher eine relativ große Verantwortung bei der Weiterentwicklung der Bioökonomie zugesprochen wird. Allerdings ist der Grat zwischen dem Wunsch nach Unterstützung und dem Gefühl der Bevormundung durch den Staat sehr schmal. Die Akzeptanz verschiedener staatlicher Maßnahmen ist ein Feld, das zukünftig noch verstärkt untersucht werden sollte.
    Description: The transformation from our fossil-based economy to a more sustainable, bio-based economy demands a broad societal acceptance. Therefore, it is essential to learn more about people's opinions, attitudes and doubts. Based on a Q study about the societal perspectives concerning bioeconomy in general, focus group discussions with a more specific focus on aspects of consumption were carried out. The participants debate in an area of tension between sufficiency strategies and the development of innovative technologies. The discussions were followed by a representative online survey in Germany which took on insights from the first two explorative studies and yielded quantifiable results. It becomes apparent that there are distinct perspectives which are very similar in their attitudes towards a bioeconomy, but that there is much heterogeneity in the society as a whole with regard to the assessment and feasibility of different actions for the protection of nature and resources. A lot of people feel badly informed and find it difficult to take the "right" decisions. They ask for support from politics which is assigned considerable responsibility for the development of a bioeconomy. Nevertheless, there is a very fine line between the demand for support and the feeling of paternalism through the state. The acceptance of different state measures is a field which needs to be further explored.
    Keywords: ddc:630
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019-05-10
    Description: This paper analyzes the relationship between education and health outcomes using a natural experiment in Turkey. The compulsory schooling increased from 5 to 8 years in 1997. This increase was accompanied by a massive construction of classrooms and recruitment of teachers in a differential rate across regions. As in previous studies, we confirm that the 1997 reform substantially increased education in Turkey. Using the number of new middle school class openings per 1000 children as an intensity measure for the 1997 reform, we find that, on average, one additional middle school class increases the probability of completion of 8 years or more of schooling by about 7.1 percentage points. We use this exogenous increase in the educational attainment to investigate the impact of education on body mass index, obesity, smoking behavior, and self-rated health, as well as the effect of maternal education on the infant’s well-being. Using ordinary least squares, we find that there is a statistically significant favorable effect of education on health outcomes and behavior. However, this relationship becomes insignificant when we account for the endogeneity of education and health by instrumenting education with exogenous variations generated by the 1997 reform and the accompanying middle school class openings. The insignificance of the health effect may be due to lack of statistical power in our data, or to the fact that this policy affects only relatively low levels of schooling and the health effects of education need to be examined at higher levels of schooling.
    Keywords: C26 ; I12 ; I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; health ; education ; compulsory schooling ; body mass index ; obesity ; smoking ; selfrated health ; maternal education ; infant’s well-being ; Turkey
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 36
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    Mannheim: ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-05-08
    Description: Hidden Champions (HCs) are firms unknown to the wider public, but global leaders in the niche markets they serve. This paper looks at distinctive features of these firms, focusing on their dynamic capabilities. Employing a unique data base on German firms, we identify a representative sample of German HCs. Based on a matching technique, we examine differences to other firms in terms of the firms' processes, position, and path. We find that HCs' competitive strategy rests on technology leadership and customisation. HCs are more open in their knowledge management, but without compromising control over the new product development process. HCs do not invest more into innovation, but achieve higher innovation success. The higher efficiency can be linked to their superior technological capabilities and to higher investment in human capital and HR management practices that mobilise the creative potential of their employees.
    Keywords: L21 ; L25 ; M10 ; M21 ; O31 ; O32 ; ddc:330 ; Hidden Champions ; Germany ; Competitive Strategy ; Knowledge Management ; Innovation ; Dynamic Firm Capabilities
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 37
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    Mannheim: ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-05-08
    Description: Circular economy (CE) describes an economic concept that aims at saving resources by minimizing the use of material and energy over the entire life-cycle or products, including repair, reuse and recycling. CE innovations help to realize the goals of a sustainable development and target both the environmental, economic and social dimensions of sustainability. This paper looks at the economic and social dimensions by investigating the performance and employment effects of CE innovations at the firm level. CE innovations such as the reduction of energy and material consumption or the recycling of waste, water or material may lead to cost savings which in turn can increase the competitiveness of the firm and raise demand for a firm's products. Our econometric analysis uses data of two waves of the German part of the Community Innovation Survey (CIS). The performance effects of CE innovations measured by the financial standing of a firm and by turnover growth tend to be positive. The results of quantile regressions show that this is also the case for employment effects.
    Keywords: C21 ; Q01 ; Q55 ; ddc:330 ; circular economy ; Community Innovation Survey ; eco-innovation ; quantile regression
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2019-05-08
    Description: This paper studies the effects and causal links between the shadow economy and the unemployment rate using a dynamic simultaneous-equation panel data model for 38 developing and 40 developed countries over the 2000−2015 period. The analysis suggests that there is a unidirectional and negative causality running from the unemployment rate to the shadow economy in the developing countries. However, in the developed countries, there is a bidirectional and negative causal relationship between the shadow economy and unemployment rate. The sensitivity of the results makes the authors realize that institutional quality interacts strongly with the relationship between the shadow economy and the unemployment rate. In countries with a good institutional quality, the unemployment rate is associated with a weak informal economy, whereas in countries with low institutional quality, it strongly drives the informal economy.
    Keywords: O17 ; E26 ; J60 ; ddc:330 ; shadow economy ; unemployment rate ; institutional quality ; dynamic simultaneous-equation panel data models
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019-05-08
    Description: Fiscal policymakers are expected to conduct countercyclical policies to mitigate cyclical fluctuations of output, but the assessment of cyclical conditions in real time is subject to considerable uncertainty. They face two types of risk: (i) launching discretionary measures to support or dampen aggregate demand when no measures are required (type I error), or (ii) not launching any stabilising measures when this is warranted by cyclical conditions (type II error). A rational policymaker could manage these risks by correcting real-time estimates for past errors, notably the apparent tendency to underestimate good times when they occur. In practice, however, fiscal policy has been largely pro-cyclical or a-cyclical at best. Using statistical decision theory, we calculate thresholds for realtime output gap estimates beyond which governments could launch stabilisation measures, so as to reduce the risk of running pro-cyclical policies. We consider different preferences for avoiding type I or type II errors, and for addressing upside and downside growth risks. We show that the tendency to run pro-cyclical fiscal policy and the ensuing deficit bias can reflect two factors: a preference for activism that is, attaching a lower cost to type I errors, combined with an inclination to be gloomy about cyclical conditions.
    Keywords: E62 ; E63 ; H68 ; ddc:330 ; fiscal stabilisation ; pro-cyclical fiscal policy ; risk management ; real-time output gap estimates
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 40
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    Mannheim: ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-05-08
    Description: Because China has become one of the largest applicants of PCT patents, it is of interest to compare the quality of Chinese and non-Chinese applications. We extend a quality index based on internationally comparable citation data from international search reports (ISR) to consider foreign, domestic, and self citations. Whereas foreign citations show that Chinese PCT patent applications reach only a third of the non-Chinese quality benchmark, the extension towards domestic and self citations suggests a higher quality level that converges to or even surpasses the benchmark. We investigate these differences based on firm-level regressions and find that in China, only foreign citations, but not domestic and self citations, have a significant and positive relation to R&D stocks. Using Germany as a representative country without policy support for patenting, we show that all three citations types may be used as economic indicators if policy distortion is not a concern. Our results show that domestic and self citations suffer from an upward bias in China and should be employed with caution if they are to be interpreted as a measure of patent quality.
    Keywords: O34 ; O3 ; ddc:330 ; patent quality ; cross-country comparison ; China
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 41
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-08
    Description: A hedge fund's capital structure is fragile because uninformed fund investors are highly loss sensitive and easily withdraw capital in response to bad news. Hedge fund managers, sharing common investors and interacting with each other through market price, sensitively react to other funds' investment decisions. In this environment, panic-based market runs can arise not because of systematic risk but because of the fear of runs. The authors find that when the market regime changes from a normal state to a "bad" state (in which runs are possible), hedge funds reduce investment prior to runs. In addition, the market runs are more likely to occur in a market where hedge funds hold greater market exposure and uninformed traders have greater sensitivity to past price movement.
    Keywords: G01 ; G23 ; ddc:330 ; market sustainability ; market runs ; hedge funds ; limits of arbitrage ; financial crises ; synchronization risk
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 42
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    Mannheim: ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-05-08
    Description: Is a firm's ability to export an important determinant of environmental performance? To answer this question, we construct a unique micro dataset that merged two rich firm-level datasets for China for 2007. When combining this new dataset with well-received empirical specifications, we found that both export status and export intensity are associated with lower sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions intensity. In addition to the traditional OLS estimation, we verified this association by using the propensity score matching method. Our findings show that the baseline result still holds. In short, exporters are more environmentally friendly than non-exporters,which is in line with previous evidence reported for developed economies. We further discuss mechanisms that explain the observed pattern and show that exporters realize higher abatement efforts compared to non-exporters. This study complements the literature in terms of providing China's micro evidence on SO2 abatement efforts. It also serves as a first step toward a better understanding of the impact of trade on the environment, especially in developing countries.
    Keywords: F18 ; Q53 ; Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Exporters and the environment ; firm heterogeneity ; SO2 emissions ; abatement
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 43
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    Göttingen: University of Göttingen, Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-08
    Description: In this paper, I propose a life cycle model of painkiller consumption that combines the theory of health deficit accumulation with the theory of addiction. Chronic pain is conceptualized as a persistent negative shock to lifetime utility that can be treated by pain relief medication. Individuals treated with opioid pain relievers (OPR) develop addiction, which increases their demand for opioids and reduces their welfare and life expectancy through side effects and potential overdose. I calibrate the model for a benchmark American and investigate the comparative dynamics of alternative drug characteristics, pain intensities, and ages of onsets of pain and their implications for welfare and life expectancy. Computational experiments are used to identify fully rational and imperfectly rational addiction behavior. Fully rational addicts quickly quit OPR use when new information about their addictive potential arrives. Imperfectly rational addicts further develop their addiction and switch to illicit opioid use. Likewise, a discontinued prescription helps fully rational addicts to quit quickly while it induces imperfectly rational individuals to take up heroin. I also discuss treatment of OPR addiction and the use of opioids in palliative care.
    Description: First Version: December 2018. This Version: May 2019.
    Keywords: D15 ; D91 ; I10 ; I12 ; ddc:330 ; pain ; pain relief ; addiction ; opioid epidemic ; health deficits ; life expectancy ; illicit drugs
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 44
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    Mannheim: ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-05-08
    Description: Working from home (WfH) has become much more common since the early 2000s. We exploit the German Socio-Economic Panel between 1997 and 2014 to investigate how such a work arrangement affects labour market outcomes and life satisfaction. We find that childless employees work an extra hour per week of unpaid overtime and report higher satisfaction after taking up WfH. Among parents, WfH reduces the gender gap in working hours and monthly earnings, as contractual hours increase more among mothers. Hourly wages, however, increase with WfH take-up among fathers, but not among mothers unless they change employer. This points to poorer bargaining outcomes for women compared to men when staying with the same employer. Controlling for selection into paid employment due to changes in unobserved characteristics or preferences does not affect the magnitude of the effects.
    Keywords: J2 ; J31 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; working from home ; working hours ; wages ; gender ; flexible work arrangements.
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 45
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-08
    Description: We show that current differences in trust levels within former Soviet Union countries can be traced back to the system of forced prison labor during Stalin's rule, which was marked by high incarceration rates, repression, and harsh punishments. We argue that those exposed to forced labor camps (gulags) became less trusting and transferred this social norm to their descendants. Combining contemporary individual-level survey data with historical information on the location of forced labor camps, we find that individuals who live near former gulags have low levels of social and institutional trust. Our results are robust to a battery of sensitivity checks, which suggests that the relationship we document is causal. We outline several causal mechanisms and test whether the social norm of mistrust near gulags developed because of political repression or due to fear that inmates bring criminality. As such, we provide novel evidence on the channels through which history matters for current socio-economic outcomes today.
    Keywords: D02 ; H10 ; N94 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; social trust ; institutional trust ; trustworthiness ; forced labor ; economic history ; former Soviet Union
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 46
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-08
    Description: The objective of this paper is twofold: first, to determine the immigrants' ethnic identity, i.e. the degree of identification to the culture and society of the country of origin and the host country and second, to investigate the impact of ethnic identity on the immigrants' employment outcomes. Using rich survey data from France and relying on a polychoric principal component analysis, this paper proposes two richer measures of ethnic identity than the ones used in the literature, namely: i) the degree of commitment to the origin country culture and ii) the extent to which the individual holds multiple identities. The paper investigates the impact of the ethnic identity measures on the employment outcomes of immigrants in France. The results show that having multiple identities improves the employment outcomes of the migrants and contribute to help design effective post-immigration policies.
    Keywords: J15 ; J21 ; J71 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; Ethnic Identity ; Immigration ; Employment ; Polychoric Principal Component Analysis
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 47
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: We investigate the impact of errors in medium run tax revenue forecasts on the final budget balance. Our analysis is based on fiscal data for the entirety of German states and takes advantage of revenue forecasts and respective errors that can be considered as exogenously given in the budgeting process. We find that forecast errors at various forecast horizons translate considerably into the final budget balance, indicating that expenditure plans get only marginally adjusted when revenue forecasts get revised. Consequently, the accuracy of medium run forecasts considerably affects the sustainability of public finances. Our calculations suggest that a significant share of total debt of German states results from revenue forecasts that were too optimistic.
    Keywords: E62 ; H61 ; H68 ; ddc:330 ; fiscal policy ; fiscal planning ; medium run forecasting ; budget balance ; public debt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: We provide a simulation smoother to a exible state-space model with lagged states and lagged dependent variables. Qian (2014) has introduced this state-space model and proposes a fast Kalman filter with time-varying state dimension in the presence of missing observations in the data. In this paper, we derive the corresponding Kalman smoother moments and propose an efficient simulation smoother, which relies on mean corrections for unconditional vectors. When applied to a factor model, the proposed simulation smoother for the states is efficient compared to other state-space models without lagged states and/or lagged dependent variables in terms of computing time.
    Keywords: C11 ; C32 ; C38 ; C63 ; C55 ; ddc:330 ; state-space model ; missing observations ; Kalman filter and smoother ; simulation smoothing ; factor model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 49
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    Essen: RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: Some consumption opportunities are both indivisible and only valuable in particular tates of nature. The existence of such state-dependent indivisible consumption opportunities influences a person's risk attitudes. In general, people are not risk averse anymore even if utility from divisible consumption is concave. I propose a definition of insurance in the context of state-dependent preferences and investigate the different motives underlying insurance demand. The same reasons that rule out risk aversion turn out to be the basis of a desire to insure. This calls into question the standard approach that bases insurance demand on risk aversion with important implications for policy and research.
    Description: Einige Konsummöglichkeiten sind nicht teilbar und nur in bestimmten Naturzuständen wertvoll. Die Existenz solcher zustandsabhängigen, unteilbaren Konsummöglichkeiten beeinflusst das Risikoverhalten einer Person. Im Allgemeinen sind die Menschen nicht mehr risikoscheu, auch wenn der Nutzen aus dem teilbaren Konsum konkav ist. Ich schlage eine Definition von Versicherung im Zusammenhang mit zustandsabhängigen Präferenzen vor und untersuche die verschiedenen Motive für Versicherungsnachfrage. Die gleichen Gründe, die Risikoaversion ausschließen, erweisen sich als Grundlage für den Wunsch nach einer Versicherung. Damit wird der Standardansatz in Frage gestellt, nach dem Versicherungsnachfrage auf Risikoaversion beruht, mit wichtigen Konsequenzen für Politik und Forschung.
    Keywords: D01 ; D81 ; ddc:330 ; risk preferences ; indivisible consumption ; insurance ; gambling
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 50
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung Halle (IWH)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: Using firm-level data between 2004 and 2012 for eleven countries of the European Union (EU), we document the size of product and labour market imperfections within narrowly defined sectors including services which are virtually undocumented. Our findings suggest that perfect competition in both product and labour markets is widely rejected. Levels of the price-cost margin and union bargaining power tend to be higher in some service sectors depicting however substantial heterogeneity. Dispersion within sector and across countries tends to be higher in some services sectors assuming a less tradable nature which suggests that the Single Market integration is partial particularly relaxing the assumption of perfect competition in the labour market. We report also figures for the aggregate economy and show that Eastern countries tend to depict lower product and labour market imperfections compared to other countries in the EU. Also, we provide evidence in favour of a very limited adjustment of both product and labour market imperfections following the international and financial crisis.
    Keywords: D40 ; J50 ; L10 ; ddc:330 ; market imperfection ; market structure ; nash bargaining ; European Union
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 51
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    Frankfurt a. M.: Deutsche Bundesbank
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: Equilibrium real exchange rate and corresponding misalignment estimates differ tremendously depending on the panel estimation method used to derive them. Essentially, these methods differ in their treatment of the time-series (time) and the cross-section (space) variation in the panel. The study shows that conventional panel estimation methods (pooled OLS, fixed, random, and between effects) can be interpreted as restricted versions of a correlated random effects (CRE) model. It formally derives the distortion that arises if these restrictions are violated and uses two empirical applications from the literature to show that the distortion is generally very large. This suggests the use of the CRE model for the panel estimation of equilibrium real exchange rates and misalignments.
    Keywords: F31 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; equilibrium real exchange rate ; panel estimation method ; correlated random effects model ; productivity approach ; BEER ; price competitiveness
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: Many studies have shown that childhood circumstances can have long term consequences that persist until old age. To better understand the transmission of early life circumstances, this paper analyses the effects of health and financial situation during childhood on quality of life after retirement as well as the mediating role of later life health, educational level, and income in this association. Moreover, this study is the first to compare these pathways across European regions. The analyses are based on data of 13,092 retirees aged 〉 60 and 〈 85 years from the fifth wave of the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) with full information on childhood and later life measures of health, educational level, financial situation, and quality of life as well as relevant covariates. Five European regions are studied: Central-Western Europe (Austria, Germany), Central-Eastern Europe (Czech Republic, Estonia, Slovenia), Northern Europe (Denmark, Sweden), Southern Europe (Italy, Spain), and Western Europe (Belgium, France, The Netherlands). Path analysis is used to identify the direct and indirect effects of childhood measures on quality of life. We find retirees' quality of life to be associated with childhood finances and health in all five European regions. While both the direct and indirect effects of childhood health are rather moderate and homogeneous across regions, especially the direct effects of childhood finances on quality of life after retirement display a distinct North-South gradient being strongest in Southern Europe. Potential explanations for the regional variations are differences in the countries' welfare systems.
    Description: Viele Studien belegen, dass sozioökonomische Faktoren der Kindheit langfristige Folgen bis ins hohe Alter haben können. Um diesen Zusammenhang besser zu durchleuchten, analysiert dieses Papier die Auswirkungen der gesundheitlichen und finanziellen Situation in der Kindheit auf die Lebensqualität im Rentenalter sowie den Einfluss des Bildungsniveaus und des Einkommens sowie der Gesundheit im Rentenalter als potenzielle Mediatoren in diesem Zusammenhang. Darüber hinaus vergleichen wir erstmals die Effekte in verschiedenen europäischen Regionen. Die Ergebnisse basieren auf Daten von 13.092 Rentnern im Alter von 〉 60 und 〈 85 Jahren aus der fünften Welle des Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) mit vollständigen Informationen über die Kindheit und Angaben zu Gesundheit, Bildungsniveau, finanzieller Situation und Lebensqualität im Alter sowie relevanten Kovariablen. Fünf europäische Regionen werden untersucht: Mittelwesteuropa (Österreich, Deutschland), Mittelosteuropa (Tschechien, Estland, Slowenien), Nordeuropa (Dänemark, Schweden), Südeuropa (Italien, Spanien) und Westeuropa (Belgien, Frankreich, Niederlande). Wir nutzen Pfadanalysen, um direkte und indirekte Effekte der sozioökonomischen Faktoren in der Kindheit auf die Lebensqualität zu identifizieren. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Lebensqualität im Rentenalter in allen fünf europäischen Regionen mit der finanziellen Situation sowie der Gesundheit im Kindesalter verbunden ist. Während sowohl die direkten als auch die indirekten Effekte der Gesundheit im Kindesalter in den Regionen eher moderat und homogen sind, zeigen insbesondere die direkten Effekte der finanziellen Situation im Kindesalter auf die Lebensqualität im Rentenalter ein deutliches Nord-Süd-Gefälle, mit den stärksten Effekten in Südeuropa. Mögliche Erklärungen für die regionalen Unterschiede sind Unterschiede in den Wohlfahrt- und Sozialsystemen der Länder.
    Keywords: H75 ; I31 ; J14 ; ddc:330 ; early life circumstances ; life course epidemiology ; retirement phase ; quality of life ; path analysis
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  • 53
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    Göttingen: Courant Research Centre Poverty, Equity and Growth
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: A crucial prerequisite for the success of development interventions is their uptake in the targeted population. We use the setup of an intervention conducted in Indonesia and Pakistan to investigate dis-/incentivizing factors for program's uptake and support. Making use of a framework grounded in psychological theory, "The Theory of Planned Behaviour", we consider three determinants for intervention uptake: personal attitudes, the social influence of important others and the perceived ease of intervention use. As most development interventions are characterized by a cooperation among local and international agents, we investigate further a potentially important dis-/incentivizing factor: the salience of the implementer's background. Our findings show that attitudes, important others and ease of intervention use are indeed associated with increased uptake in our two culturally different settings. Conducting a framed field experiment in Indonesia we show further that the study population in the Acehnese context exhibits higher levels of support for the project if the participation of international actors is highlighted. We find that previous experience with the respective actor is pivotal. To strengthen supportive behaviour by the target population for locally led projects, it is essential to strengthen local capabilities to create positive experiences. Hence, our results encourage development research and cooperation, first, to consider personal attitudes, the social influence of important others and the perceived ease of intervention use in the design of interventions in order to increase uptake. Second, depending on the country context, implementers should consider the previous experience with and attitude towards partners - either local or international - when aiming to achieve behavioural change.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Theory of Planned Behaviour ; Framed Field Experiment ; Implementation Research ; Public Health
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: In a parsimonious regime switching model, expected consumption growth varies over time. Adding in ation as a conditioning variable, we uncover two states in which expected consumption growth is low, one with high and one with negative expected in ation. Embedded in a general equilibrium asset pricing model with learning, these dynamics replicate the observed time variation in stock return volatilities and stock-bond return correlations. Furthermore, they provide an alternative way to come up with a measure of time-varying disaster risk in the spirit of Wachter (2013). Our findings imply that both the disaster and the long-run risk paradigm can be extended towards explaining movements in the stock-bond return correlation.
    Keywords: E31 ; E44 ; G12 ; ddc:330 ; long-run risk ; inflation ; recursive utility ; filtering ; disaster risk
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 55
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: Mindfulness could influence economic and health related behaviour by bringing about increased and unbiased attention to the present moment, for example to a decision making process. This study explores the relationship between mindfulness and economic preferences, and consequently well-being, of adolescents. Comprehensive data of 525 German secondary school students were elicited and show no evidence for a strong linear or non-linear correlation between mindfulness and economic preferences. However, both mindfulness and preferences have explanatory power for adolescents' field behaviour and thus contribute to explaining variation in behaviour that may translate into serious health and economic consequences. In this regard, my findings indicate that the two concepts play rather complementary than substitutable roles, which implies that an integration of economic preferences and personality traits such as mindfulness may improve the analysis of potential sources of variation in life outcomes. As mindfulness reflects on a healthier lifestyle (less smoking and smaller BMI) and higher life satisfaction, the findings furthermore point into the direction that the development of mindfulness skills might help students to grow social-emotional capacities and increase physical and psychological well-being.
    Keywords: C93 ; D81 ; D90 ; I12 ; I20 ; ddc:330 ; time preference ; risk preferences ; mindfulness ; personality ; experiments with adolescents ; subjective well-being
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 56
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    Essen: RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: How do international labor markets respond to a technology shock and what is the main transmission channel across countries with different labor market institutions? To answer these questions, I identify technology shocks using the approach of Galí (1999) and decompose the responses of total hours worked into movements along the extensive and the intensive margins. Overall, my analysis shows that technology shocks have a negative effect on total hours. This effect is stronger in countries with flexible labor markets, where the adjustment takes place along both margins. In contrast, the responses of total hours are smaller in countries with strict labor market legislation, where labor adjustment takes place along the intensive margin. These differences can be linked to the strictness of institutions that target quantity and price adjustments in the labor market.
    Description: Wie reagieren internationale Arbeitsmärkte auf neue Technologien und wie unterscheiden sich Transmissionsmechanismen zwischen Ländern mit unterschiedlichen Arbeitsmarktinstitutionen? Zur Beantwortung dieser Fragen wird zunächst die Reaktion der geleisteten Arbeitsstunden insgesamt auf einen Technologieschock länderspezifisch geschätzt. Anschließend werden diese Reaktionen in die Anpassungen der Anzahl der Beschäftigten und der Arbeitsstunden je Beschäftigten zerlegt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Arbeitsstunden insgesamt negativ auf neue Technologien reagieren. Dieser Effekt ist ausgeprägter in Ländern mit flexiblen Arbeitsmarktinstitutionen, in welchen sowohl die Anzahl der Beschäftigten als auch die Arbeitsstunden je Beschäftigten in Reaktion auf einen Technologieschock sinken. Dagegen ist der Rückgang der Arbeitsstunden kleiner in Ländern mit rigiden Arbeitsmarktinstitutionen. In diesen Ländern erfolgt die Anpassung in Folge eines Technologieschocks überwiegend über die Arbeitsstunden je Beschäftigten. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass es einen Zusammenhang zwischen den Transmissionsmechanismen der Technologieschocks und den internationalen Arbeitsmarktinstitutionen gibt.
    Keywords: O40 ; O57 ; E32 ; C32 ; ddc:330 ; technology shocks ; labor markets ; business cycle fluctuations ; structural identification
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: Little is known about foreign aid provided by private donors. This paper contributes to closing this research gap by comparing the allocation of private humanitarian aid to that of official humanitarian aid awarded to 140 recipient countries over the 2000-2016 period. We construct a new database that offers information on the country in which the headquarters of private donors are located to test whether private donors follow the aid allocation pattern of their home country. Our empirical results confirm that private aid "follows the flag." This finding is robust against the inclusion of various fixed effects, estimating instrumental variables models, and disaggregating private aid into corporate aid and NGO aid. Donor country-specific estimations reveal that private aid from China, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States "follow the flag".