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  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: The present interest in sediments which are rich in organic matter results not only from their economic significance as potential oil and gas source rocks, but also from the fact that their deposition is the result of special environments. Subtle changes in the environmental conditions may result in great variations in the geochemical and petrographical characteristics of the organic matter. Therefore, the study of organic matter-rich sediments can provide a key to past sedimentary conditions. In addition, the elucidation of the depositional controls is of importance for oil and gas exploration strategies, for which the knowledge of source rock distribution and quality is critical. Furthermore, organic matter reacts extremely sensitive to changes in temperature during burial. The result of this sensitivity is the generation of volatile products such as carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen, oil and gas and a reorganization of the solid organic residue. Some of these changes are quantified as maturity parameters which can be used as calibration tools in basin modelling, i.e., in the modelling of temperature histories of sedimentary basins. The use of maturity parameters and other organic matter characteristics as indicators for diagenetic conditions and depositional processes is, however, restricted, if analyses are performed on outcrop samples, because weathering also affects organic matter.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (216 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540566618
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Description / Table of Contents: INTRODUCTION Sediments are increasingly recognized as both a carrier and a possible source of contaminants in aquatic systems, and these materials may also affect groundwater quality and agricultural products when disposed on land. Contaminants are not necessarily fixed permanently by the sediment, but may be recycled via biological and chemical agents both within the sedimentary compartment and the water column. Bioaccumulation and food chain transfer may be strongly affected by sediment-associated proportions of pollutants. Benthic organisms, in particular, have direct contact with sediment, and the contaminant level in the sediment may have greater impact on their survival than do aqueous concentrations. Following the findings of positive correlations between liver lesions in English Sole and concentrations of certain aromatic hydrocarbons in Puget Sound (Washington) sediment, it can be suspected that such substrates may also be responsible for a host of other serious and presently unrecognized changes at both the organismal and ecosystem levels (Malins et al., 1984). Modern research on particle-bound contaminants probably originated with the idea that sediments reflect the biological, chemical and physical conditions in a water body (Züllig, 1956). Based on this concept the historical evolution of limnological parameters could be traced back from the study of vertical sediment profiles. In fact, already early in this century Nipkow (1920) suggested that the alternative sequence of layers in a sediment core from Lake Zürich might be related to variations in the trophic status of the lake system. During the following decades of limnological research on eutrophication problems sediment aspects were playing only a marginal role, until it was recognized that recycling from bottom deposits can be a significant factor in the nutrient budget of an aquatic system. Similarly, in the next global environmental issue, the acidification of inland waters sediment-related research only became gradually involved. Here too, it is now accepted that particle-interactions can affect aquatic ecosystems, e.g. by enhancing the mobility of toxic metals. In contrast to the eutrophication and acidification problems, research on toxic chemicals has included sediments aspects from its beginning: Artificial radionuclides in the Columbia and Clinch Rivers in the early sixties (Sayre et al., 1963); in the late sixties heavy metals in the Rhine River system (De Groot, 1966) and methyl mercury (Jensen & Jerne- 16v, 1967) at Minamata Bay in Japan, in Swedish lakes, in Alpine Lakes, Laurentian Great Lakes and in the Wabigoon River system in Canada; organochlorine insecticides and PCBs in Lakes St. Clair and Erie during the seventies (Frank et al., 1977); chlorobenzenes and TCDDs in the Niagara River system and Lake Ontario in the early eighties (Oliver & Nicol, 1982; Smith et al., 1983). In the present lecture notes, following the description of priority pollutants related to sedimentary phases (Chapter 2), four aspects will be covered, which in an overlapping succession also reflect the development of knowledge in particle-associated pollutants during the past twenty-five years: - the identification, surveillance, monitoring and control of sources and distribution of pollutants (Chapter 3); - the evaluation of solid/solution relations of contaminants in surface waters (Chapter 4); - the study of in-situ processes and mechanisms in pollutant transfer in various compartments of the aquatic ecosystems (Chapter 5);- The assessment of the envlroD-mental impact of particle-bound contaminants, i.e. the development of sediment quality criteria (Chapter 6). A final chapter will focus on practical aspects with contaminated sediments. Available technologies will be described as well as future perspectives for the management of dredged materials. Here too, validity of remedial measures can only be assessed by integrated, multidisciplinary research. In the view of the growing information on the present subject and owing to the limitations in the framework of this monography, the reader is referred to additional selected bibliography, which is attached at the end of this Chapter i. Additional information on the more recent publications on contaminated sediments is given in the annual review volume of the Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, June edition.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (157 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540510765
    Language: English
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  • 3
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE The aim of this volume is two-fold. At the more pragmatic level, it is to help answer the many questions about the structure of the Pacific continental margin of North America, which have arisen over the years as a result of continuing field mapping and geophysical surveys. The second objective is methodological - to illustrate the irreplaceable role of geological information among the various data sets used in earth-science studies. The need to address these issues became apparent to the author during the several years he spent taking part in geological and geophysical studies on the west coast of Canada. All too often, results of geologic field mapping disagreed with tectonic predictions from too-straightforward local applications of global plate reconstructions, which due to their generality do not always take a full account of specific character of particular regions. To be sure, the global approach has during the last q~/artercentury greatly expanded the vision of geoscientists, previously restricted to continental regions. However, a negative by-product of this expansion has been a decline of attention paid to local information, as tectonic studies have increasingly relied on simply fitting the development of a particular region into this or that prefabricated tectonic template. Direct geological observations have limitations of their own. The observer in most cases deals with products of geologic processes, rather than with the processes themselves. Field mapping provides local information, and many years of effort are needed before a regional overview becomes possible. Geologic mapping is restricted to the ground surface, and even the deepest drillholes cannot sample more than the outermost shell of the Earth. The factual side of geologic mapping is usually limited to determination of rock types and their relationships in areas of exposure. Conclusions about the three-dimensional structure of a region and its evolution are still mostly inferential. Broad incorporation into geological studies of geophysical data, assisted by ever-more-sophisticated modern computers, provides a huge volume of information unobtainable in other ways. Geophysical methods quickly afford regional coverage or images of the Earth's deep interior. Geophysical methods have prompted the application in geological sciences of methodologies borrowed from exact sciences, such as mathematics and physics. Particularly important has been quantitative modeling, which allows a scientist to use the known parameters of a system to predict others. But in taking this approach too far, one encounters a dangerous pitfall. A model is a simplified representation of a natural phenomenon. The quality of this or that representation is relative, and a representation is never perfect. To incorporate all characteristics of a geologic phenomenon, in a parametrized form, into a numerical or physical imitation is impossible. This requires one to rely on simplifying assumptions, and a model is no better than the assumptions at its base. Unrealistic assumptions lead to unrealistic models. When a disagreement arises between model predictions and observations - such as those from geologic field mapping - a modeler may be tempted to downplay the differences or the significance of the offending observations. It becomes tempting to underestimate the role of an experienced geologist as a principal arbiter of the realism of a model. But it is geological data and geological control that provide the ultimate means of testing abstract models. From this methodological position, the present study of the western North American continental margin is organized as follows: 1. Geological information, available from field mapping and drilling, is gathered and summarized. 2. Current geophysical models for this region are considered, with particular attention to their underlying assumptions. 3. The available data, geological and geophysical, are synthesized into an internally consistent geologic-evolution concept. 4. This concept is tested by comparison with direct geological observations from field mapping and drilling. Because most current data sets and models cover northwestern Washington and western British Columbia, particular attention was paid to these areas. Fortunately, these areas contain many keys that help understand the structure of the entire western North American continental margin, which has baffled scientists for decades. The author does not claim to have resolved all these problems, but he does believe he has made a useful contribution to understanding continental-oceanic plate interrelations at this continental margin. Rigidity of lithospheric plates is a critical assumption in current models of plate evolution. The lithophere of a plate is created at spreading centers manifested in the global system of mid-ocean ridges. It moves away from the place of its birth towards boundaries with other plates, with which it can interact in a variety of ways. Some interactions are of strike-slip type, with two plates simply sliding past each other. However, to compensate for the creation of new lithosphere at spreading centers, older lithosphere at some plate boundaries descends into the mantle as it is overriden by other plates. At such plate boundaries lie subduction zones. If both regimes occur along a single plate boundary, the transition between them must be abrupt. Unless it can be tied to a change in orientation of the boundary, it must be associated with a junction of not two, but three different plates. Such a template was used to interpret the structure and tectonic evolution of the western North American continental margin in the late 1960s and thereafter (Atwater, 1970; McManus et al., 1972; Barr and Chase, 1974; Riddihough and Hyndman, 1976). To satisfy the principles of rigid-plate tectonics, both regimes have to exist along this continental margin. Also needed in rigid-plate reconstructions is a plate triple junction somewhere between the areas of proven ongoing subduction (in Oregon and southern Washington) and transform plate motion (along the southeastern Alaska margin; Atwater, 1970; McManus et al., 1972). Such a triple junction has been placed off Queen Charlotte Sound offshore British Columbia (Keen and Hyndman, 1979; Riddihough et al., 1983), where a spreading center has been postulated between the Pacific and Explorer oceanic plates (Hyndman et al. 1979; Riddihough, 1984). Off northern Vancouver Island, a transform boundary between the Explorer and Juan de Fuca oceanic plates has been postulated, but both these plates are assumed to be subducting beneath Vancouver Island (Hyndman et al., 1979; Riddihough and Hyndman, 1989)o With the assumed universality of the rigid-plate model, "broad similarity" has been suggested between the geology of western Oregon and that of western British Columbia, and the Cascadia zone of active subduction has been extended as far north as the mouth of Queen Charlotte Sound (Riddihough, 1979, 1984). An accretionary sedimentary prism (Yorath, 1980) - or even an accretionary complex containing several exotic "terranes" (Davis and Hyndman, 1989) - has been postulated off Vancouver Island. Geological observations onshore and offshore (Shouldice, 1971; Tiffin et al., 1972) have come to be considered too "surficial" to be of major consequence for large-scale tectonic modeling (Yorath et al., 1985a,b; Yorath, 1987). Variants of the principal geophysical model for this area during the last decade (Clowes et al., 1987; Hyndman et alo, 1990; Spence et al. 1991; Yuan et al., 1992; Dehler and Clowes, 1992) have become increasingly distant from geological observations. As new model variants emerged, they were checked for internal consistency, compatibility with neighboring local models and fidelity to the overall assumed tectonic picture. However, detailed geological work continued, and many of its results proved incompatible with the conventional wisdom (Gehrels, 1990; Babcock et al., 1992, 1994; Allan et al., 1993; Lyatsky, 1993a). Importantly, questions arose about the applicability in this region of the conventional, simple rigid-plate assumption, as it was shown to be unable to account for all the geological and geophysical peculiarities in some areas (Carbotte et al., 1989; Allan et al., 1993; Davis and Currie, 1993). New solutions were made necessary by new findings and by rediscovery of forgotten old data (see Lyatsky et al., 1991; Lyatsky, 1993b). Without aiming to resolve all the outstanding debates, tectonic implications of the geologic mapping and drilling results in this region are considered in the following chapters. These results are integrated with geochemical and geophysical data. Interpretations of these data, made by this author and by other workers, are verified by geological observations and by geologically plausible extrapolations from these observations. In searching for solutions consistent with all the information, the author has restricted himself to analyzing continental-crust structures along this continental margin. He believes, however, that future models for the offshore regions of the northeastern Pacific should consider the results obtained herein.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (352 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540608424
    Language: English
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  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: Biolaminated deposits, produced by microbial communities, were studied in modern peritidal environments and in the rock record. The term microbial, mat refers to modern, the term stromatolite to ancient analogs. The term biolaminated deposits was used to encompass both microbial mats and stromatolites. Microbial mat environments studied are the Gavish Sabkha, the Solar Lake, both hypersaline back-barrier systems at the Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai Peninsula, and the "Farbstreifen-Sandwatt" (versicolored sandy tidal flats) on Mellum, an island in the estuary embayment of the southern North Sea coast. Three facies-relevant categories were distinguished: (i) the mat-forming microbiota, (2) environmental conditions controlling mat types and lithology, (3) bioturbation and grazing. Cyanobacteria account for biogenic sediment accretion in all cases studied. Three major groups occur: filamentous cyanobacteria, coccoid unicells with binary fission and those with multiple fission. In the presence of these groups the following mat types evolve: (i) continuously flat (stratiform) L~-laminae (occur in all environments studied); (2) translucent, vertically extended Lv-laminae (only Gavish Sabkha and Solar Lake); (3) nodular granules (only Gavish Sabkha). Basically, the development of mats is controlled by moisture. Thus high-lying parts where the groundwater table runs more than 40 cm below surface are bare of mats. These are: The circular slope and elevated center of the Gavish Sabkha, the shorelines of the Solar Lake and the episodically flooded upper supratidal zone of Mellum Island. The following situations of water supply were found to stimulate mat growth: (i) Capillary movement of groundwater to exposed surfaces, (2) shallowest calm water, both realized in the Gavish Sabkha and the Solar Lake. On Mellum Island, mats form in the lower supratidal zone, which is flooded in the spring tide cycle and wetted during low tide by capillary groundwater. Salinity is almost that of normal seawater, whereas in the Solar Lake, it ranges from 45 °/oo to 180 °/oo and in the Gavish Sabkha, it reaches more than 300 °/oo. Salinity increase is correlated with rising concentrations of magnesium and sulfate ions. In the Gavish Sabkha, episodic sheetfloods cause high-rate sedimentation which is accidental to the living mats. Episodic low-rate sedimentation stimulates the mats to grow through the freshly deposited sediment layer. This occurs predominantly on Mellum Island due to eolian transport. Within the Gavish Sabkha, mineralogy of sediments, community structures, standing crops, redox potentials and pH are highly correlative to the increasing evenness in moisture supply which is realized by the inclination of the system below mean sea level. These conditions bring about a lateral sequence of facies types which include (I) siliciclastic biolaminites at the coastal bar base, (2) nodular to biolaminoid carbonates at saline mud flats, (3) regularly stratified stromatolitic carbonates with ooids and oncoids within the hypersaline lagoon, (4) biolaminated sulfate towardthe elevated center. High-magnesium calcite in facies type 3 precipitates around decaying organic matter and forms also the ooids and oncoids. These occur predominantly within hydroplastic Lv-laminae which provide numerous nucleation centers. Within the Solar Lake, facies type 3 (stromatolitic carbonates with ooids and oncoids) is most important, and grows to extraordinary thickness at the lake's shelf. The regular alternation of dark and light laminae results from seasonally oscillating water depths. These conditions couple back over changing light and salinity intensities to changing dominance structures of mat-building communities. Increasing salinity correlates with decreasing water depth and accounts for the relative abundance of coccoid unicells and diatoms, both active producers of extracellular slimes (Lv-laminae). Water depths locally or temporarily increased favor surface colonization by Mic~ocoleu8 chthonoplastes (Lh-laminae). The biolaminated deposits of the versicolored tidal flats on Mellum Island are similar to facies type 1 of the Gavish Sabkha (siliciclastic biolaminites). Differences exist in the lithology: Sediments upon or through which the mats on Mellum Island grow are made up of clean sand. The grains originate predominantly from re-worked glacial sediments and are rounded to well rounded. By contrast, the strong angularity of siliciclastic grains in the Gavish Sabkha clearly shows their status as primary weathering products. In all environments studied, insects play a significant role. Mainly salt beetles contribute to the lebensspuren spectrum. There is no indication that burrowing and grazing beetles and dipterans are detrimental to the growing mat systems. According to the marine fauna, two distributional barriers exist: (i) physical and (2) biogeochemical factors. Physical barriers are (a) hypersalinity and barrier-closing, which restrict the marine fauna in the Gavish Sabkha and the Solar Lake to a few species, mainly meiofaunal elements such as ostracods and copepods. Only in the Gavish Sabkha, one marine gastropod species occurs which colonizes mud flats of lower salinity. A salinity barrier of about 70 °/oo separates the gastropod habitats from the zones of growing mats. Under reduced salinity, the snails are able to destroy the microbial mats completely. (b) Decreasing regularity of flooding in the microbial mat environment of Mellum Island excludes intertidal deformative burrowers such as cockles and lugworms. However, locally the mats are pierced by numerous dwelling traces. These stem from small polychaetes and amphipod crustaceans which are able to spread over the intertidal-supratidal boundary and settle up to the MHWS-Ievel. Biogeochemical barriers are oxygen depletion within the sediments, high ammonia and sulfide contents, which generate through bacterial break-down of organic matter. Within the highly productive mats of Mic~ocoleu8 chthonoplastes on Mellum Island, dwelling traces of marine polychaetes and amphipod crustaceans disappear due to these conditions. The name of the mat-forming species, Microcoleus chthonoplastes, indicates its capacity to form "soils" (Greek chthonos). While lithology is not altered, the presence of Mic~ocoleu8 mats leads to a habitat change which excludes trace-making "arenophile" invertebrate species and favors "chthonophile" species which do not leave traces. Stromatolitic microstructures studied in rock specimens were interpreted using modern analogs: Microcolumnar buildups in Precambrian stromatolites, ooids and oncoids were compared with those of modern microbial mats. The nodular to biolaminoid facies type found in the Gavish Sabkha was suggested to be an analog to the Plattendolomite facies of Permian Zechstein, North Poland. Studies of the Lower Jurassic ironstone of Lorraine clearly indicate that fungi have been involved in the formation of stromatolites, ooids and oncoids. In conclusion, the comparative study of microstructures in microbial mats and stromatolites reveals a better understanding in both fields. In many cases, it was geology which first revealed the similarity of recent forms to those ancient ones and consequently encouraged research into them.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (183 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540179375
    Language: English
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  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: The study of calcareous bedding rhythms has become an important field in Geology. Often these bedding rhythms are simply interpreted as representations of primary climatic cycles without showing the effects of any appreciable diagenetic overprinting. This study, however, deals predominantly with the diagenetic processes which are usually large and affect both the amplitude and rhythm of carbonate oscillations. The purpose of this textbook is two fold. First, it intends to provide a better understanding of the processes of diagenetic bedding. Secondly, this new approach allows one to quantify and to understand diagenesis in terms of mass exchanges. This is possible through the development of methods which combine chemical data with compaction measurements. These methods can be also used independent of the marl-limestone alternation problem.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (210 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540164944
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Description / Table of Contents: INTRODUCTION Ecometry concerns measurements and interpretation of ecological data and relationships between data. It deals with most matters involved in the scientific aspects of the representativity and information value of samples and does not, in fact, concern statistical methods. In particular, ecometry can be regarded as an approach to obtain so-called load models and load diagrammes (effect-dose-sensitivity diagrammes), which are one of the aims/final products in aquatic environmental consequence analysis (H~- kanson, 1990; all these terms will be explained later on). This publication is meant to demonstrate what can and cannot be done using ecometric approaches. It must be emphasized at the outset that the main intention here is not to provide new radioecological knowledge on how Cs-137 is dispersed in aquatic ecosystems after the Chernobyl accident and is taken up in fish, but to use Cs-137 as a type substance and pike as a biological indicator to go through methods which should also apply to other types of environmentally hazardous substances (it could just as well have been substance X in ecosystem Y). As a secondary effect, we may also learn something about Cs-137. Several terms and methods, which have not been used earlier in the aquatic environmental sciences, e.g., ecometric analysis and dynamic modelling using moderators, will be discussed and defined...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (158 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540539971
    Language: English
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  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: INTRODUCTION Evaporites may form in a spectrum of environments from continental sabkha (playa) to deep basins (see Kendall 1978 a, b, Schreiber 1978, 1986, Friedman and Krumbein 1985, for review). In the last two decades, many ancient evaporite basins have been interpreted using the sabkha model and the deep desiccated basin model, the former not excluding the latter. However, growing evidence has been gathered indicating that most evaporites are formed in subaqueous environments, so that it cannot be reasonably expected that one depositional model alone will explain the entire basin fill. The chapters in this volume discuss characteristic examples of evaporite basins, mostly of moderate size. Aspects of a saline giant, the Zechstein basin of Central and NW Europe, have been considered in Volume 10 of "Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences"...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (188 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540186793
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE This volume presents results from members of the Project 216 "Global Biological Events in Earth History" of the International Geological Correlation Programme (IGCP). The project, initiated by the elder editor (O.H.W.) within the framework of the International Palaeontological Association (IPA) in the late 70s, was officially established in 1984. Subsequently, it led to the first three conferences on Global Bio-Events, and their respective symposia volumes: 1) In G6ttingen, West Germany in 1986 (WaUiser, O. H., Ed., 1986, Global Bio-Events, Springer-Verlag); in Bilbao, Spain in 1987 (Lamolda, M. A., Kauffrnan, E. G., and Walliser, O. H., Eds., 1988, Paleontology and Evolution: Extinction Events; Rev. Espafiola de Paleont., n. extraord.); and in Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A. in 1988 (this volume). The next meeting, on Innovations and Revolutions in the Biosphere, is planned in Oxford, England in 1990, to be hosted by Martin Brasier. During the history of this project, the focus of our research has shifted significantly. Initial focus was on specific global mass extinctions (e.g. the Precambrian/Cambrian, Frasnian/Fammenian, Cretaceous/Tertiary, and Eocene/Oligocene events) to a broader treatment of Phanerozoic mass extinctions, their differences or unifying factors, and their causal mechanisms. Subsequent meetings have attempted to focus attention on a fuller spectrum of global bio-events in Earth history. The Boulder Conference, and this volume, although still strongly influenced by the excitement of mass extinction research, expresses these new trends in bioevent studies. The Boulder conference, held on May 16-23, 1988, focused on a broad spectrum of Abrupt Changes in the Global Biota. Over 100 participants from 13 nations attended this meeting, representing diverse disciplines of palaeobiology, palaeoclimatology, palaeoceanography, sedimentology, geochemistry, and a broad spectrum of the stratigraphic and geological sciences. Four days of talks were supplemented by field trips to the continental Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in the Raton Basin, New Mexico, and to the Cenomanian/Turonian mass extinction interval exposed near Pueblo, Colorado. The Conference itself was characterized by a great diversity of approaches to bio-event research, and the phenomenon of mass extinction. In particular, interactive causes involving both extraterrestrial and earthbound (tectonic, oceanographic, climatic) forces were discussed, and each major Phanerozoic mass extinction was treated by specialists in the field. In addition, many presentations focused on the causal mechanism and patterns of bio-event development that were not restricted to mass extinction intervals, but which could cause regional to global biotic response at any time in Earth history. Thus, both the conference, and this volume, focus attention on climatic and oceanic perturbations from anoxia, advection, rapid thermal change, toxic chemical enrichment, and energy shock from impacts and giant tsunamis as forcing mechanism for regional to global bio-events. The delicate balance of perched ocean/ctimate~fe systems under typical warm equable non-glacial Phanerozoic conditions, and their susceptibility to shock from even small perturbations, was a philosophical theme that ran throughout the meeting. The case for extraterrestrial forcing of tectonic, volcanic, and biological events was greatly strengthened by new data presented at this conference, with special concern for the effects of small comet/meteorite impacts in the oceans, and their chemical/physical/biological signature which might be used, in the absence of shocked minerals, microspheres or trace metals, to identify extraterrestrial events associated with global and regional bio-events. The conference benefitted from the introduction of much new data at high levels of resolution, especially from poorly studied mass extinction intervals. Interactive discussions, and many new ideas characterized the meeting. The new scientific results of this meeting are exciting; they are reviewed in the Conference Report published in Episodes (1988, v. 11, n. 4, p. 289-292). Most of the key papers presented at the Boulder meeting appear in this volume. What lies ahead in bio-event research? Clearly, a great deal of excitement and an age of discovery. We have only touched the surface of this new and dynamic field. We are starting to comprehend the dynamics of global mass extinctions, integrating detailed geochemical, physical and biological data into scenarios of cause and effect. But in the years ahead lies the job of understanding the whole spectrum of regional bioevents preserved in the ancient record, and especially the application of this research to solutions of the critical problems inherent in global change and the modern biotic crisis. Future directions for research at this conference include the investigation and modeling of abrupt chemical and thermal shifts in the ocean, the effects of impacts at deep ocean sites, the documentation of successful survival strategies and repopulation patterns following biotic crises, the deep ocean record of bio-events, and focus on alternative forces other than impacting to account for mass extinction events. This volume introduces some of these new pathways in bio-event research.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (432 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540526056
    Language: English
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  • 9
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE The objective of this book is to introduce the practitioner as well as the more theoretically interested reader into the integration problem of spatial information for Geo-lnformation Syslems. Former Get-Information Systems are restricted to 2D space. They realize the integration of spatial information by a conversion of vector and raster representations. This, however. leads to conceptual difficulties because of the two totally different paradigms. Furthermore, the internal topology of the get-objects is not considered. In recent years the processing of 3D information has played a growing role in Get-Information Systems. For example, planning processes for environmental protection or city planning are dependent on 3D data. The integration of spatial reformation will become even more impoaant in the 3D context and with the development of a new generation of open GISs. This book is intended to respond to some of these requirements. It presents a model for the integration of spatial information for 3D Geo-lnformation Systems (3D-GISs). As a precondition for the integration of spatial information, the integration of different spatial representations is emphasized. The model is based on a three-level notion of space that likewise includes the geometry, metrics and the topology of get-objects. The so called extended complex (e-complex) is introduced as a kernel of the model. Its internal basic geometries are the point, the line, the triangle and the tetrahedron. It is shown how a convex e-complex (ce-complex) is generated by the construction of the convex hull and the "'filling" of lines, triangles and tetrahedra, respectively. As we know from computer geometry, this results in substantially simpler geometric algorithms. Additionally, the algorithms gain by the explicit utilization of the topology of the ce-complex. This book also builds a bridge from the GIS to the object-oriented database technology, which will likely become a key technology for the development of a new generation of open Geo-lnformation Systems. In the so-called GEtmodel kernel "building blocks" are introduced that s~mplify the development of software architectures for geo-applications. A geological application in the Lower Rhine Basin shows the practical use of the introduced geometric and topological representation for a 3D-GIS...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (171 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540608561
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  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: INTRODUCTION The awareness that mankind is able to influence and modify not only the local but also the global climate has led to a strongly growing interest in climate research. Strengthened research activities, which also made use of improved and novel experimental techniques, have yielded a wealth of information on climatic patterns in the past. At the same time, climate modelling has made much progress. While some questions have been answered, new problems have been recognized. One question related to anthropogenio climatic change is about the nature and causes of natural variations, against the background of which man-made changes must be viewed. The contributions to this volume all deal with the variabilitY of climate. Some papers are reviews of the knowledge to a current topic, others have more the character of an original contribution. The obseryational studies cover the range from year-to-year variations up to glacial-interglacial contrast, thereby going from instrumental data to results from proxy records...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (175 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540188438
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  • 11
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE The search for tin dates back to the earliest days of civilization. For about 40 years, world tin mining has oscillated at a level of 150,000-250,000 t Sn/year, with a mine output in 1989 of 210,000 t Sn (MCS 1990). This figure corresponds to a current annual value of about US$1.5 billion and places tin ninth on the metal market behind iron, gold, uranium, copper, zinc, silver, platinum and nickel. Tin deposits belong to the granite-related ore deposit spectrum which includes many metals vital to current and future technologies such as Cu, W, Mo, U, Nb, Ta, Ag, Au, Sb, Bi, As, Pb, Zn, REE, Be, Ga and Li. The granitic rocks associated with tin and tin-tungsten deposits have long been identified as a special group of granites, the so-called tin granites. These rocks provide a unique opportunity to study the magmatic and hydrothermal history of tin ore formation. Tin granites are more easily identifiable as parent rocks for tin (and tungsten) mineralization than is the case for other mineralized granitic rocks such as molybdenum and copper porphyries. The magmatic molybdenum and copper distribution patterns are more complex (control by sulfide solubilities), and commonly obliterated by fluid interaction. The relatively simple situation of tin granites provides therefore an invaluable opportunity to study some metallogenic aspects of magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits in general. The present study attempts to develop a general metallogenic model for tin in identifying the essential or relevant processes in tin ore formation. The methodological principle is based, on an interplay between a background of some basic petrogenetic concepts and a number of specific local and regional data on tin deposits and tin provinces, with particular reference to those areas with which the author is most familiar with (Bolivia, SE Asia, Europe). This inductive approach condenses the many apparently specific complexities encountered in individual ore deposits to a few major processes of general importance. The inherent reductionism may have a personal bias which is probably inevitable in any simple and broad-scale picture ("Apr6s tout, la raison est bien I'esclave des passions"; Feyerabend 1979:210). The critical problem of the relevance of those factors chosen for our model can be judged by its degree of consistency and predictive capability for new and analogous cases...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (211 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540528067
    Language: English
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  • 12
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE The four-year period of activity of the Groupement de Recherche 942 (GDR) of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) came to an end in December 1993. This GDR was a scientific association grouping research teams from the academic sphere -- i.e. the Unités de Recherches Associées 723 & 724 of the CNRS as well as the Universities of Orléans and Paris-Sud -- and from the industrial world: Elf-Aquitaine Production, TOTAL and the Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP). The aim of the GDR was to understand the processes and the causes of organic carbon fossilization in sediments, especially when they can be modified by environmental conditions such as climate, eustatism, productivity etc., factors which can alko interact. This goal implies the simultaneous study of ancient geological formations (hydrocarbon source rocks from the famous Kimmeridge Clay Formation) and recent Quaternary sediments (the Lac du Bouchet or lake Bouchet maar, Massif Central, France). In the latter case, we benefit from a fine-scale stratigraphical framework as well as a reliable reconstruction of the local and regional environment. This volume is a collection of papers representing oral presentations given on December 7, 1993, at the Société Géologique de France in Paris, during the final meeting of the GDR. These articles thus report the latest developments of the studies carried out under the GDR. However, this is not the first publication of our results, which can be found in the papers referred to in each article. The Kimmeridge Clay Formation was previously studied in 1987, by the Yorkim Group from IFP, Elf-Aquitaine and the British Geological Survey, on the basis of a series of wells drilled across the Cleveland Basin of Yorkshire. In each well, the distribution with depth of the total organic content is cyclic. We have compared some of the organic cycles from two wells (Matron and Ebberston) based on mineralogy, organic and inorganic geochemistry and petrography, at a high resolution scale (centimetric). The main conclusion of this work is that the driving force for organic matter accumulation in the studied cycles was organic phytoplankton productivity. Oxygenation conditions seem to have played a secondary role as a positive feedback action enhancing organic matter storage. Lac du Bouchet is located on the Devès volcanic plateau, 15 km SW of Le Puy en Velay, at an altitude of 1205 m. The depth of the water column is 28 m. The lake has a subcircular shape (1 km in diameter) and a very restricted watershed. This site is exceptionally suitable for research on climate variations and palaeomagnetic field modifications (Euromaars EC Program). The GDR focused on sedimentary organic matter and its relationship to inorganic phases. An important result is that organic matter appears to be a good indicator of palaeoenvironmental reconstructions for over 350 000 years. In addition, the study of early diagenetic reactions in surficial sediments (porewater and solid phase) allows the specification of the processes of organic matter degradation and storage in such an oligothrophic lake.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (187 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540591702
    Language: English
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  • 13
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE During the last decades, remarkable progress in heat flow studies has been made and a rough picture of the global surface heat flow density distribution can now be drawn. Simultaneously, the question of over which time period the surface heat flow is constant arose. There is a big field of model calculations, based on the changes in radioactive heat generation of the Earth, on plate motions, on stretching hypotheses or on other ideas, which result in geotherms in the geological past. Although these speculative paleogeotherms seem to be realistic especially in oceanic areas they do not belong to the scope of this book. In continental areas however, it is not possible to find a simple time dependence of the surface heat flow density. However, petroleum research and tectogenetic studies are very interested in the geothermal history of sedimentary basins and other continental areas. To obtain satisfactory results, a more or less direct determination of paleo heat flow density or geothermal gradient would be necessary to give more certain boundary conditions for calculating oil generation, and for controlling tectogenetic hypotheses. There are many methods available in the geosciences to determine temperatures in the geological past. Most of these models are able to estimate temperatures at which a mineral or a mineral assemblage was formed. These methods, however, are mostly unsuitable to reach the main goal of paleogeothermics in general, which is to determine the (regional) heat flow density variations during the geological past for bigger geological units, such as sedimentary basins. The methods applied most in sedimentary basins have been deduced from the degree of coalification of organic matter. Although much effort has been made to explain analytically the organic metamorphism, the results found up to now have been insufficient . However, the widespread application of this thermometer to estimate ancient thermal conditions is also reflected in the contents of this very volume where the interpretation of the degree of coalification of organic matter plays an important role. As well as this geothermometers, other methods are reviewed from a geophysical viewpoint which favours methods suitable to determine a paleothermal state of the upper crust. Further contributions of this book deal with - the history of the earth's surface temperature whose change provides an essential correction factor in heat flow density determinations, - isotope geothermometers and their application to various environments to evaluate thermal conditions in the past geological history, - an application of the radiometric dating method to retrace the paleothermal condition of the Central Alps. Most of the contributions were presented at the symposium "Paleogeothermics" which was held at the 18. General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, August 15-27, 1983 in Hamburg/FRG. It has been the first time that such a symposium has been organized by the International Heat Flow Commission, and this book presents an attempt to define paleogeothermics under the auspices of the International Heat Flow Commission.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (234 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540166450
    Language: English
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  • 14
    Description / Table of Contents: INTRODUCTION Humic substances, comprise a class of biogenic, coloured, organic substances that are ubiquitous in soil, sediment and water. Originally, the occurrence and nature of humic substances were regarded as issues of primarily academic interest. This situation is now rapidly changing, and studies of humics have gained recognition as important contributions to environmental science. In particular it has been shown that humic substances, in several different ways can interact with biologically active substances, thereby modifying their environmental impact. Whereas the history of soil humus studies goes back to the 19th century, the awareness of aquatic humus is more recent. The brownish colour that, in many surface waters, shows the presence of substantial amounts of humic substances, was long considered to be a harmless phenomenon that did not call for detailed investigations. Hnmic waters had few known toxic effects, and the refractory character of hnmic substances indicated the they played a peripheral role in most biochemical processes. In fact, it was not until the mid 70's that aquatic humus was brought into focus in environmental science. The event trigging this was the discovery of the interaction between humic substances and chlorine used for disinfection of drinking water. Toxic substances, such as chloroform, were detected in all chlorinated waters, and humic substances were identified as the main precursors. The role of humics in the mobilization and subsequent transport of trace elements in the environment was recognized for the first time in the early 80's. This role was considered to be of particular importance in connection with geologic storage of high-level radioactive waste. In water with "normal" concentration levels of humic compounds, the speciation of e.g. the trivalent actinides, would be entirely dominated by the complexation with these agents. The topics of this conference (Session 1 - Isolation, fractionation and characterization; Session 2 - Biological and chemical transformation and degradation; Session 3 - Complex formation and interactions with solids; Session 4 - Biological activity; and session 5 Halogenation of humic substances) were selected to represent areas of current environmental interest...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (514 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540537021
    Language: English
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  • 15
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE In recent years, there has been increasing interest from geoscientists in potassic igneous rocks. Academic geoscientists have been interested in their petrogenesis and their potential value in defining the tectonic setting of the terranes into which they were intruded, and exploration geoscientists have become increasingly interested in the association of these rocks with major epithermal gold and porphyry gold-copper deposits. Despite this current interest, there is no comprehensive textbook that deals with these aspects of potassic igneous rocks. This book redresses this situation by elucidating the characteristic features of potassic (high-K) igneous rocks, erecting a hierarchical scheme that allows interpretation of their tectonic setting using whole-rock geochemistry, and investigating their associations with a variety of gold and copper-gold deposits, worldwide. About twothirds of the book is based on a PhD thesis by Dr Daniel MOiler which was produced at the Key Centre for Strategic Mineral Deposits within the Department of Geology and Geophysics at The University of Western Australia under the supervision of Professor David Groves, the late Dr Nick Rock, Professor Eugen Stumpfl, Dr Wayne Taylor, and Dr Brendon Griffin. The remainder of the book was compiled from the literature using the collective experience of the two authors. The book is dedicated to the memory of Dr Rock who initiated the research project but died before its completion...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (225 Seiten)
    Edition: 2nd, updated and enlarged ed.
    ISBN: 9783540620754
    Language: English
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  • 16
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE In the geologic record, vertical crustal uplift has often resulted in erosional removal of huge thicknesses of sedimentary strata. If the uplift is of a broad regional nature or the uplifted strata remain relatively undeformed and sediments deposited after the uplift are not preserved, the magnitude of uplift and subsequent erosion may be difficult to quantify. This may lead to misinterpretation or omission of chapters of geologic history of a region. Fortunately, a number of indirect methods can be used to infer the thicknesses of missing strata and reconstruct the geologic history. Our book titled "Thick Post-Devonian Sediment Cover Over New York State: Evidence from Fluid-Inclusion, Organic Maturation, Clay Diagenesis and Stable Isotope Studies" uses four techniques of paleotemperature measurements in sedimentary rocks in order to determine burial depths of the existing Paleozoic strata in New York State. Since every technique has its own analytical and interpretative uncertainties, the use of four techniques allowed us to place a better constraint on our results. We show how regionally extensive paleotemperature data can be used to estimate the thicknesses of strata lost from an uplifted sedimentary basin. We also provide a tentative tectonic-, paleogeographic- and depositional history of New York State after the Devonian when the missing strata were deposited...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (113 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540594581
    Language: English
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  • 17
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Keywords: Fehlersuche ; Geophysikalische Methoden ; entropy ; environment ; error analysis ; exploration ; geophysical methods ; geophysics ; inversion ; modeling ; signal processing
    Description / Table of Contents: Introduction / Pages 1-32 --- Interpretation using nomograms / Pages 33-47 --- Linear parameters / Pages 49-114 --- Non-linear parameters / Pages 115-173 --- Maximum likelihood and maximum entropy / Pages 175-193 --- Analytic inversion / Pages 195-211 --- Advanced inversion methods / Pages 213-227 --- Error analysis / Pages 229-243 --- Parallel computation in modelling and inversion / Pages 245-255
    Pages: Online-Ressource (262 Seiten) , Illustrationen, Diagramme
    ISBN: 9783540472636
    Language: English
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  • 18
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: INTRODUCTION The International Summer School of Theoretical Geodesy on Satellite Altimetry in Geodesy and Oceanography was held in Trieste (Italy) from May 25 to June 6, igg2. It was organized by Prof. R. Rummel of the Delft University of Technology and by Prof. F. Sansò of the Politecnico di Milano and was attended by 63 participants and 7 lecturers from 17 countries. The School was hosted by the International Centre of Theoretical Physics of Trieste. Satellite altimetry provides a lot of data that require more and more sophisticated models in order to be interpreted and exploited. One of the main problems related to the practical treatment of the data can be summarized as follows: oceanographers would like to ask geodesists to compute precise orbits and a precise geoid in order to put into evidence the Sea Surface Topography that can be interpreted as an oceanographic signal related to currents and to several physical parameters; on the other hand, geodesists would like to ask oceanographers to a-priori determine the Sea Surface Topography, in order to be able to extract from the altimeter data the geoid and the orbit errors to be used in the gravity field modelling. The solution to this dilemma can only be found in a cooperative frame. An integrated model to be used for a single-step treatment of altimetry is probably far to be defined, so at present geodesists and oceanographers must cooperate to obtain step-wise and iterative modelling of the gravity field and of the oceanographic phenomena. This is precisely the reason why the school on Satellite Altimetry was organized on an interdisciplinary basis...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (479 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540568186
    Language: English
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  • 19
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE Sedimentation as a Three-Component System describes the most common styles of deposition in marine environments as they relate to sediment composition. Three components, organic matter, carbonate, and siliciclastic sediment, may settle concurrently, but at different rates, intermixing on the sea floor to form a particular sediment composition. A change in the flux of one component is capable of relatively diluting or concentrating the other two components, which can be expressed in the characteristic ratio of organic carbon to carbonate in the resulting sediment. The basic concept of this book is to address organic carbon-carbonate associations in terms of depositional inputs and time spans. In addition, the three-component system describes organic carbon changes related to major facies transitions. Examples include models of the genesis of carbonaceous sediments, with their various laminated to bioturbated lithotypes, and numerical organic carbon prediction. I hope that this book will encourage stimulating discussions and promote a new approach to quantitative stratigraphy...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (211 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540573869
    Language: English
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  • 20
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE It was only during the last few years, that the geological effects of storms and hurricanes in shallow-marine environments have been better appreciated. Not only were storm deposits recognized to dominate many shelf sequences, they also proved to be valuable tools in facies and paleogeographical analysis. Additionally, storm layers form important hydrocarbon reservoirs. Storm-generated sequences are now reasonably mell documented in terms of their facies associations in the stratigraphic record. Much less is known, however, about the effects and the depositional processes of modern storms, and about the styles of storm sedimentation on basinwide scales. Accordingly, the goal of this study is two-fold: 1. it presents two case studies of modern carbonate and terrigenous clastics storm sedimentatioq. The models derived from these actualistic examples can be used to interprete possible ancient analogues. 2. it presents a comprehensive analysis of an ancient storm depositional system (Muschelkalk) on a basin-wide scale. The underlying approach of this study is a process-oriented analysis of sedimentary sequences, an approach that ~as summarized by Matthews (1974, 1984) as "dynamic stratigraphy". The integration of actualistic models with a "dynamic" stratigraphic analysis helps to understand the dynamics of storm depositional systems; these models have a potential to be applied to other basins and to predict the facies organisation and the facies evolution in such systems...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (174 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540152316
    Language: English
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  • 21
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: The aim of this volume is to reflect the current state of geoscientific activity focused on the geodynamic evolution of the Atlas system and to discuss new results and ideas. The volume provides a selection of papers on the geological history, structural development, and geophysical data of Morocco. It was not possible to cover all areas of geoscientific interest, however, we hope to shed some light on the major geodynamic problems.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (499 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540190868
    Language: English
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  • 22
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: This book is the collection of the Lecture Notes of an International Summer School of Theoretical Geodesy held in Assisi (Italy) from May 23 to June 3 -1988.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (491 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540515289
    Language: English
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  • 23
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE Seismic imaging is the process through which seismograms recorded on the Earth's surface are mapped into representations of its interior properties. Imaging methods are nowadays applied to a broad range of seismic observations: from nearsurface environmental studies, to oil and gas exploration, even to long-period earthquake seismology. The characteristic length scales of the features imaged by these techniques range over many orders of magnitude. Yet there is a common body of physical theory and mathematical techniques which underlies all these methods. The focus of this book is the imaging of reflection seismic data from controlled sources. At the frequencies typical of such experiments, the Earth is, to a first approximation, a vertically stratified medium. These stratifications have resulted from the slow, constant deposition of sediments, sands, ash, and so on. Due to compaction, erosion, change of sea level, and many other factors, the geologic, and hence elastic, character of these layers varies with depth and age. One has only to look at an exposed sedimentary cross section to be impressed by the fact that these changes can occur over such short distances that the properties themselves are effectively discontinuous relative to the seismic wavelength. These layers can vary in thickness from less than a meter to many hundreds of meters. As a result, when the Earth's surface is excited with some source of seismic energy and the response recorded on seismometers, we will see a complicated zoo of elastic wave types: reflections from the discontinuities in material properties, multiple reflections within the layers, guided waves, interface waves which propagate along the boundary between two different layers, surface waves which are exponentially attenuated with depth, waves which are refracted by continuous changes in material properties, and others. The character of these seismic waves allows seismologists to make inferences about the nature of the subsurface geology. Because of tectonic and other dynamic forces at work in the Earth, this first-order view of the subsurface geology as a layer cake must often be modified to take into account bent and fractured strata. Extreme deformations can occur in processes such as mountain building. Under the influence of great heat and stress, some rocks exhibit a taffy-like consistency and can be bent into exotic shapes without breaking, while others become severely fractured. In marine environments, less dense salt can be overlain by more dense sediments; as the salt rises under its own buoyancy, it pushes the overburden out of the way, severely deforming originally flat layers. Further, even on the relatively localized scale of exploration seismology, there may be significant lateral variations in material properties. For example, if we look at the sediments carried downstream by a river, it isclear that lighter particles will be carried further, while bigger ones will be deposited first; flows near the center of the channel will be faster than the flow on the verge. This gives rise to significant variation is the density and porosity of a given sedimentary formation as a function of just how the sediments were deposited. Taking all these effects into account, seismic waves propagating in the Earth will be refracted, reflected and diffracted. In order to be able to image the Earth, to see through the complicated distorting lens that its heterogeneous subsurface presents to us, in other words, to be able to solve the inverse scattering problem, we need to be able to undo all of these wave propagation effects. In a nutshell, that is the goal of imaging: to transform a suite of seismograms recorded at the surface of the Earth into a depth section, i.e., a spatial image of some property of the Earth (usually wave speed or impedance). There are two main types of spatial variations of the Earth's properties. There are the smooth changes (smooth meaning possessing spatial wavelengths which are long compared to seismic wavelengths) associated with processes such as compaction. These gradual variations cause ray paths to be gently turned or refracted. On the other hand, there are the sharp changes (short spatial wavelength), mostly in the vertical direction, which we associate with changes in lithology and, to a lesser extent, fracturing. These short wavelength features give rise to the reflections and diffractions we see on seismic sections. If the Earth were only smoothly varying, with no discontinuities, then we would not see any events at all in exploration seismology because the distances between the sources and receivers are not often large enough for rays to turn upward and be recorded. This means that to first order, reflection seismology is sensitive primarily to the short spatial wavelength features in the velocity model. We usually assume that we know the smoothly varying part of the velocity model (somehow) and use an imaging algorithm to find the discontinuities. The earliest forms of imaging involved moving, literally migrating, events around seismic time sections by manual or mechanical means. Later, these manual migration methods were replaced by computer-oriented methods which took into account, to varying degrees, the physics of wave propagation and scattering. It is now apparent that all accurate imaging methods can be viewed essentially as linearized inversions of the wave equation, whether in terms of Fourier integral operators or direct gradient-based optimization of a waveform misfit function. The implicit caveat hanging on the word "essentially" in the last sentence is this: people in the exploration community who practice migration are usually not able to obtain or preserve the true amplitudes of the data. As a result, attempts to interpret subtle changes in reflector strength, as opposed to reflector position, usually run afoul of one or more approximations made in the sequence of processing steps that makes up a migration (trace equalization, gaining, deconvolution, etc.) On the other hand, if we had true amplitude data, that is, if the samples recorded on the seismogram really were proportional to the velocity of the piece of Earth to which the geophone were attached, then we could make quantitative statements about how spatial variations in reflector strength are related to changes in geological properties. The distinction here is the distinction between imaging reflectors, on the one hand, and doing a true inverse problem for the subsurface properties on the other. Until quite recently the exploration community was exclusively concerned with the former, and today the word "migration" almost always refers to the imaging problem. The more sophisticated view of imaging as an inverse problem is gradually making its way into the production software of oil and gas exploration companies, since careful treatment of amplitudes is often crucial in making decisions on subtle lithologic plays (amplitude versus offset or AVO) and in resolving the chaotic wave propagation effects of complex structures. When studying migration methods, the student is faced with a bewildering assortment of algorithms, based upon diverse physical approximations. What sort of velocity model can be used: constant wave speed v? v(x), v(x, z), v(x, y, z)? Gentle dips? Steep dips? Shall we attempt to use turning or refracted rays? Take into account mode converted arrivals? 2D (two dimensions)? 3D? Prestack? Poststack? If poststack, how does one effect one-way wave propagation, given that stacking attenuates multiple reflections? What domain shall we use? Time-space? Time-wave number? Frequency-space? Frequency-wave number? Do we want to image the entire dataset or just some part of it? Are we just trying to refine a crude velocity model or are we attempting to resolve an important feature with high resolution? It is possible to imagine imaging algorithms that would work under the most demanding of these assumptions, but they would be highly inefficient when one of the simpler physical models pertains. And since all of these situations arise at one time or another, it is necessary to look at a variety of migration algorithms in daily use. Given the hundreds of papers that have been published in the past 15 years, to do a reasonably comprehensive job of presenting all the different imaging algorithms would require a book many times the length of this one. This was not my goal in any case. I have tried to emphasize the fundamental physical and mathematical ideas of imaging rather than the details of particular applications. I hope that rather than appearing as a disparate bag of tricks, seismic imaging will be seen as a coherent body of knowledge, much as optics is...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (291 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540590514
    Language: English
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  • 24
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE Our planet is evolving and changing; its surface is capable of unleashing great violence as its crust is created and destroyed. Quite remarkably, it has been only recently that the fundamental elements of this evolution were fully appreciated, and only within the last decade have there been technologies capable of directly meastLring the global motions of the Earth's crust which are one of the most visible manifestations of these processes. Before the advent of space technologies, the nature of contemporary global plate motions went largely unobserved. These motions were understood from the geological records, and plate rates for million year averages were established_ Fortunately, the revolution in geophysics brought about by the general acceptance of plate tectonic theory has been paralleled by significant advances in space geodesy oceanography and geophysics. New space technologies have rapidly matured, yielding new insights and capabilities for more completely understanding the dynamical properties of the Earth, its oceans and atmosphere. Likewise, the evolving earth sciences capabilities from space are fostering new questions and goals made possible through the creative exploitation of satellite missions. A workshop entitled "The Interdisciplinary Role of Space Geodesy" was held in Erice, Italy, on the island of Sicily on July 23-29, 1988, to discuss the directions and challenges of space geodeys for the decades to come. This international gathering was made possible by the E. Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture int he framework of tis International School of Geodesy. The workshop was sponsored by the Italian Ministry of education, the Italian Ministry of Scientific and Technological Research, the Sicilian Regional Government, the Italian National Institute of Geophysics, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States. This volume is the result of the dedicated effort undertaken by an international group of scientists and administrators who have contemplated the challenge of the future of space-based earth science for the next decade. Recognizing the need for defining new milestones both in science and technology, they have developed a detailed report of what could be achieved and what challenges remain after twenty fertile years of space exploration...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (300 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540511618
    Language: English
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  • 25
    facet.materialart.
    Tokyo : Terra Scientific Publishing Company
    Keywords: cosmic rays ; astrophysics
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VIII, 476 Seiten)
    Language: English
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  • 26
    facet.materialart.
    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE Some of the major ecological and social problems of the present and future are the production, treatment, and disposal of anthropogenic wastes. Iaais is equally true for sparsely and densely populated industrial areas, including large countries in which sites for waste disposal would seem to be readily available. Especially nonradioactive hazardous wastes with their long-term toxicity need to be isolated from the biosphere just as effectively as radioactive substances. The long-term safety required of waste disposal sites can only be assured under specific geological and mineralogical conditions in certain parts of the lithosphere (underground repositories). The subjects related to the production, avoidance, treatment, and disposal of anthropogenic wastes cover a range of knowledge encompassing the natural sciences, engineering, medicine, and law. This work presents some fundamental situations and problems conceming the disposal of toxic hazardous wastes which have been dealt with in several research projects. The individual chapters are related scientifically. Long-term, effective solutions to our waste problems can only be found when interrelationships and possible future developments are considered. Only the current status of this rapidly developing field can be discussed here. The individual chapters contain scientifically founded data and observations. Other aspects for which there are still controversial opinions and arguments are also discussed, which should stimulate further thought. Further developments and scientific advances can only be achieved by constantly challenging previous theories, and not through static observation and narrow-mindedness. The most extensive quantification possible of the problems related to disposal of hazardous wastes is an essential aim of our work. This not only involves calculating the volume of waste and available repository space, but also compiling data on the long-term effects and the safe, long-term isolation of anthropogenic wastes from the biosphere. A simple description of conditions and processes without using concrete data, which is still widespread, is rejected since it frequently leads to pure speculation. The scientific fundamentals and results presented in this work are of general validity for many questions concerning waste disposal. One example is the amount of waste produced annually in Germany, in which toxic, hazardous wastes play a major role. FoIlowing this train of thought, available data are used to show how limited the possibilities are for the long-term safe underground deposition of hazardous wastes with respect to the current quantities of waste. Of utmost importance is information on the 10ng-term effects of toxic wastes, as well as criteria which have to be considered with respect to the long-term safe deposition of hazardous waste. The natural chemical cycles and material transport in the various zones of the earth are the focus of interest here. They are the scientific basis for assessing every repository for anthropogenic wastes in geological systems. Therefore the significance of material transport and geochemical cycles is emphasized regarding all questions concerning the long-term safety of repositories on the earth's surface and in the lithosphere. Thus, our concept for the scientific evaluation of the long-term safety of underground repositories in geological systems differs from all other models presently under discussion in Germany. In this work, marine evaporites are discussed with respect to the underground deposition of hazardous wastes and the long-term safety of underground repositories in salt rocks. The isolation of hazardous materials from the biosphere can above all be influenced by fluid phases. Fluid phases can mobilize and transport hazardous materials through rocks in the biosphere. This is true, without exception, for all magmatic, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, and for marine evaporites, too! In Germany evaporites have commonly been considered to be completely impermeable with respect to fluid phases (solutions and gases). This erroneous view stems from a complete lack of knowledge or misestimation of the dynamic evolution of the composition of evaporite bodies. Unfortunately, this is still true today for parts of some state agencies which deal with repositories. However, all observations of evaporite bodies made over the last more than 100 years have clearly shown that under certain conditions fluid and gaseous components are mobile in evaporites as well. Solutions in marine evaporites have been the object of personal interest and scientific research of A.G. Herrmann for 40 years. The occurrence and formation of salt solutions in the various salt mining districts of Germany are presently being restudied and reevaluated on an extended scientific basis (e.g., v. BORSTEL 1992). A presentation of the current knowledge on salt solutions is beyond the scope of this publication. However, in the interest of continuing research a research project proposed by A.G. Herrmann (1987b) will be introduced here. The direct quantitative analysis of the chemical composition (quatemary and quinary systems) of small fluid inclusions in rocks of the salt deposits of Hessen and Niedersachsen are the primary focus of this project. Information important to fundamental research on the formation and alteration of salt rocks and on the long-term safety of underground repositories should be gained from these studies (e.g., HERRMANN & v. BORSTEL 1991). In addition to salt solutions, gases are also fluid components which occur in practically all marine evaporite deposits. Hence, both salt solutions and gases must be carefully considered when planning underground repositories in an evaporite body and evaluating their long-term safety. This publication contains an up-to-date overview of the gas occurrences in the marine evaporites of Central Europe. Despite previous studies, there is still a considerable deficit in scientific information regarding the distribution and formation of gases in the evaporites occurring in Germany. A detailed research program on the geochemical relationships involving the formation of evaporites and gases will draw attention to this situation. One aspect must be emphasized in the planning and construction of repositories for anthropogenic wastes: their long-term safety. This publication deals precisely with this subject, and in Part III of this work we will present the concept that we have developed. This concept is based on the fact that evaporite bodies are subject to a dynamic evolution and that the chemical and mineralogical composition provides important information on the effect of fluid phases on salt rocks. Previous works contain the testing of methods and presented initial results using the Gorleben salt dome as an example. However, we are just at the beginning of our research project on the long-term safety of underground repositories (e.g., HERRMANN & KNIPPING 1989, HERRMANN 1992). The information contained in this publication is based on years of experience in evaporite research and underground repositories for anthropogenic wastes. Examples are presented which can be applied to similar situations and problems in other countries. Waste disposal is not just a national problem, it has long become an international one for all types of anthropogenic wastes...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (193 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540562320
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  • 27
    facet.materialart.
    Tokyo : TERRAPUB
    Keywords: sedimentary processes ; fluvial to coastal facies ; shallow marine facies ; slope to deep-water facies ; volcanic facies ; tectonics and sedimentation
    Description / Table of Contents: Chapter 1: SEDIMENTARY PROCESSES --- Architectural Elements and Bounding Surfaces in Channelized Clastic Deposits: Notes on Comparisons between Fluvial and Turbidite Systems / A. D. MIALL / pp. 3-15 --- A Simulation of Basin Margin Sedimentation to Infer Geometry and Lithofacies—A Carbonate Example— / K. NAKAYAMA and C. G. St. C. KENDALL / pp. 17-31 --- Gravel Fabric of Clast-Supported Resedimented Conglomerate / K. YAGISHITA / pp. 33-42 --- Magnetic Fabrics and Depositional Processes / A. TAIRA / pp. 43-77 --- Chapter 2: FLUVIAL TO COASTAL FACIES --- Sedimentation in Coarse-Grained Sand-Bedded Meanders: Distinctive Deposition of Suspended Sediment / F. ISEYA and H. IKEDA / pp. 81-112 --- Mechanism of Inverse Grading of Suspended Load Deposits / F. ISEYA / pp. 113-129 --- Coastal Eolian Dune Deposits of the Pleistocene Shimosa Group in Chiba, Japan / H. NAKAZATO, H. SATO, and F. MASUDA / pp. 131-141 --- Synsedimentary Conjugate Faults in the Pleistocene Tidal Deposits at Ushibori, Ibaraki, Japan / H. AONO and F. MASUDA / pp. 143-149 --- Description and Genesis of Tidal Bedding in the Cobequid Bay-Salmon River Estuary, Bay of Fundy, Canada / R. W. DALRYMPLE and Y. MAKINO / pp. 151-177 --- Petrofacies of Paleo-Tokyo Bay Sands, the Upper Pleistocene of Central Honshu, Japan / M.ITO and F.MASUDA / pp. 179-196 --- Faunal Condensation in Early Phases of Glacio-Eustatic Sea-Level Rise, Found in the Middle to Late Pleistocene Shimosa Group, Boso Peninsula, Central Japan / Y. KONDO / pp. 197-212 --- Chapter 3: SHALLOW MARINE FACIES --- Sedimentology and History of Sea Level Changes in the East China Sea and Adjacent Seas / B.-C. SUK / pp. 215-231 --- Sediments and Sedimentary Processes in the Yellow and East China Seas / J. D. MILLIMAN, Y. S. QIN, and Y. A. PARK / pp. 233-249 --- Bedforms and Their Migration Patterns in the Southern Bungo Strait, Japan / K. IKEHARA and Y. KIN05HITA / pp. 251-260 --- The Kuroshio-Generated Bedform System in the Osumi Strait, Southern Kyushu, Japan / K. IKEHARA / pp. 261-273 --- Ocean Current-Controlled Sedimentary Facies of the Pleistocene Ichijiku Formation, Kazusa Group, Boso Peninsula, Japan / N. NAKAYAMA and F. MASUDA / pp. 275-293 --- Multi-Layered Progradational Sequences in the Shelf and Shelf Slope of the Southwest Japan Forearc / Y. OKAMURA / pp. 295-318 --- Storm-Built Sand Ridges on the Inner Shelf of Kashima-Nada, Northeast Japan / Y. SAITO / pp. 319-330 --- Storm Deposits in the Inner Shelf and Their Recurrence Intervals, Sendai Bay, Northeast Japan / Modern Y. SAITO / pp. 331-344 --- Sea-Level Controlled Shallow-Marine Systems in the Plio-Pleistocene Kakegawa Group, Shizuoka, Central Honshu, Japan: Comparison of Transgressive and Regressive Phases / M. ISHIBASHI / pp. 345-363 --- Coarse Clastic Sedimentation in the Triassic Offshore Sequence of the South- eastern Kitakami Mountains, Japan / K. KAMADA / pp. 365-375 --- Depositional Facies of the Viséan (Carboniferous) Limestones in the South Kitakami Terrane, Northeast Japan / T. KAWAMURA / pp. 377-391 --- Chapter 4: SLOPE TO DEEP-WATER FACIES --- Depositional Scheme of Neogene Bedded Siliceous Rocks in an Active Upwelling Area-On the Wakkanai Formation, Northern Hokkaido, Japan / H. FUKUSAWA / pp. 395-419 --- Turbidites and Related Clastic Systems in the Tertiary Chichibu Basin, Central Japan / K. M. LATT / pp. 421-438 --- Two Stages of Submarine Fan Sedimentation in an Ancient Forearc Basin, Central Japan / S. TOKUHASHI / pp. 439-468 --- Synsedimentary Folding of a Sandstone Layer: Paleoslope Deduced from the Folding Process / M. FUSEYA / pp. 469-481 --- Miocene Offshore Tractive Current-Worked Conglomerates—Tsubutegaura, Chita Peninsula, Central Japan— / T. YAMAZAKI, M. YAMAOKA, and T. SHIKI / pp. 483-494 --- Coarse Clast Dominant Submarine Debrite, the Mio-Pliocene Fujikawa Group, Central Japan / W. SOH / pp. 495-510 --- Basal Structures of the Pleistocene Chikura Submarine Sliding Sheet in the Southernmost Boso Peninsula, Central Japan / T. ITO and S. SUGIYAMA / pp. 511-528 --- Topography and Sedimentary Facies of the Nankai Deep Sea Channel / K. SHIMAMURA / pp. 529-556 --- Ancient Trench-Fill and Trench-Slope Basin Deposits: An Example from the Permian Nishiki Group, Southwest Japan / A. HARA and K. KIMINAMI / pp. 557-575 --- Tectono-Sedimentary Settings of Seep Biological Communities—A Synthesis from the Japanese Subduction Zones— / K. FUJIOKA and A. TAIRA / pp. 577-602 --- Chapter 5: VOLCANIC FACIES --- Sedimentary Facies of the Mio-Pliocene Volcanotectonic Depressions along the Volcanic Front in Northeast Honshu, Japan / M. UTADA and T. ITO / pp. 605-618 --- Submarine Depositional Processes for Volcaniclastic Sediments in the Mio- Pliocene Misaki Formation, Miura Group, Central Japan / W. SOH, A. TAIRA, Y. OGAWA, H. TANIGUCHI, K. T. PICKERING, and D. A. V. STOW / pp. 619-630 --- Chapter 6: TECTONICS AND SEDIMENTATION --- Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene Kuji Basin of Northeast Japan: Tectonic Controls on Strike-Slip Basin Sedimentation / K. MINOURA and H. YAMAUCHI / pp. 633-658 --- The Itsukaichimachi Group: A Middle Miocene Strike-Slip Basin-Fill in the Southeastern Margin of the Kanto Mountains, Central Honshu, Japan / M. ITO / pp. 659-673 --- Structural Control on Sedimentation of Coal-Bearing Formations in Japan / K. FUJII / pp. 675-688 --- Coarse-Grained Turbidite Sedimentation Resulting from the Miocene Collision Event in Central Hokkaido, Japan / K. HOYANAGI / pp. 689-709 --- Eocene Foreland Thrust-Fold Belt of the Central Ryukyu Island Arc: Deduced from Sedimentary Structures in the Kayo Formation / H. UJIIE / pp. 711-722 --- Rifting of the Gondwanaland and Uplifting of the Himalayas Recorded in Mesozoic and Tertiary Fluvial Sediments in the Nepal Himalayas / H. SAKAI / pp. 723-732
    Pages: Online-Ressource (IX, 732 Seiten)
    ISBN: 4887041012
    Language: English
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  • 28
    facet.materialart.
    Tokyo : TERRAPUB
    Keywords: shock compression ; shock waves
    Description / Table of Contents: SHOCK COMPRESSION OF MATERIALS AND NEW MATERIALS SYNTHESIS / Akira B. Sawaoka / pp. 1-6 --- EXPLOSIVE TECHNIQUE FOR GENERATION OF HIGH DYNAMIC PRESSURE / Shuzo Fujiwara / pp. 7-21 --- TWO-STAGE LIGHT GAS GUN AS A HIGH PRESSURE TOOL FOR MATERIALS SCIENCE STUDY / Akira B. Sawaoka / pp. 23-31 --- A LAUNCH OF A PROJECTILE BY A TWO-STAGE LIGHT GAS GUN AND ITS OPTICAL OBSERVATION / Kunio Soga and Masao Shirouzu / pp. 33-47 --- RAIL GUN DEVELOPNENT AT TOKYO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY / Shu Usuba, ken-ichi Kondo and Akira B. Sawaoka / pp. 49-66 --- POWER SOURCES AND DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM FOR RAILGUN / Yozo Kakudate, Shu Usuba, Masatake Yoshida, Katutoshi Aoki, Katsumi Tanaka, and Shyuzo Fujiwara / pp. 67-85 --- DIAMOND AND CUBIC BORON NITRIDE SYNTHESIS BY MEANS OF SHOCK-CONPRESSION / Nobuo Setaka and Tadao Sato / pp. 87-102 --- CHEMICAL EFFECTS OF SHOCK WAVES IN SOLIDS / Yasuhiko Syono / pp. 103-122
    Pages: Online-Ressource (V, 122 Seiten)
    ISBN: 487677106X
    Language: English
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  • 29
    facet.materialart.
    Tokyo : TERRAPUB
    Keywords: nonlinear waves ; chaos ; space plasma
    Description / Table of Contents: A REVIEW OF NONLINEAR LOW FREQUENCY (LF) WAVE OBSERVATIONS IN SPACE PLASMAS: ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLASMA TURBULENCE / pp. 1-44 --- GENERATION AND NONLINEAR EVOLUTION OF COMETARY WAVES / pp. 45-76 --- ADVENTURES IN PARAMETER SPACE: A COMPARISON OF LOW-FREQUENCY PLASMA WAVES AT COMETS / pp. 77-119 --- SOLITON THEORY OF QUASI-PARALLEL MHD WAVES / pp. 121-169 --- NONLINEAR EVOLUTION OF MHD WAVES AT THE EARTH'S BOW SHOCK: OPINIONS ON THE CONFRONTATION BETWEEN THEORY, SIMULATIONS, AND MEASUREMENTS / pp. 171-224 --- RECENT ADVANCES IN THE THEORY OF NONLINEAR PLASMA MASER / pp. 225-269 --- CHARGING EFFECTS IN PROPAGATION OF WAVES IN DUSTY PLASMAS / pp. 271-291 --- PROPAGATION OF ALFVÉN WAVE PACKET IN AN ANOMALOUS DISPERSION PLASMA / pp. 293-318 --- CHAOTIC ACCELERATION OF ELECTRONS INTERACTING WITH ELECTRON CYCLOTRON WAVE / pp. 319-335 --- NONLINEAR ELF-VLF EFFECTS OBSERVED ON ACTIVNY SATELLITE / pp. 337-358 --- NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL STUDIES OF GLOBAL MAGNETOSPHERIC DYNAMICS / pp. 359-389
    Pages: Online-Ressource (VI, 389 Seiten)
    ISBN: 4887041217
    Language: English
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  • 30
    Keywords: global change ; global environmental change ; climatic change ; global warming prediction ; modeling of the atmosphere and oceans ; modeling of chemistry of the atmosphere ; modeling of land hydrology including snow and ice ; modeling of ecosystem and its global change ; carbon cycle modeling ; modeling of paleoenvironmental change including ice sheet modeling ; modeling of land use/cover change due to human activities ; integrated modeling
    Description / Table of Contents: Session 1. Global Warming Prediction—Current Status and Issues --- Global Warming Projection Studies at the Meteorological Research Institute/JMA / T. Tokioka and A. Noda / pp. 1-14 --- Projections of Future Climate Change in the 21st Century Simulated by the CCSR/NIES CGCM under the IPCC SRES Scenarios / T. Nozawa, S. Emori, A. Numaguti, Y. Tsushima, T. Takemura, T. Nakajima, A. Abe-Ouchi and M. Kimoto / pp. 15-28 --- Session 2. Modeling of the Atmosphere and Oceans --- Toward a Unified Highly Resolved Regional Climate Modeling System / Y. Wang and B. Wang / pp. 29-48 --- Studies of Climate Variability Using General Circulation Models / M. Kimoto / pp. 49-62 --- Session 3. Modeling of Chemistry of the Atmosphere --- Tropospheric Ozone and Climate: Past, Present and Future / G. P. Brasseur, J.-F. Müller, X-X. Tie and L. Horowitz / pp. 63-76 --- Effects of Man-Made Air Pollution on the Climate / T. Nakajima, A. Higurashi, K. Kawamoto and T. Takemura / pp. 77-88 --- Tropospheric Chemical Transport Modeling over East Asia / I. Uno / pp. 89-100 --- Session 4. Modeling of Land Hydrology Including Snow and Ice --- Effects of Soil Moisture of the Asian Continent upon the Baiu Front / F. Kimura and T. Yoshikane / pp. 101-110 --- Macroscale Hydrology: Challenges and Opportunities / D. P. Lettenmaier / pp. 111-136 --- Linking Ground Hydrology to Ecosystems and Carbon Cycle in a Climate Model / R. E. Dickinson / pp. 137-144 --- Session 5. Modeling of Ecosystem and Its Global Change --- Carbon Storage in the U.S. Caused by Land Use Change / S. W. Pacala, G. C. Hurtt, P. R. Moorcroft and J. P. Caspersen / pp. 145-172 --- A Multi-layered Integrated Numerical Model of Surface Physics—Growing Plants Interaction, MINoSGI / T. Hara, T. Watanabe, M. Yokozawa, S. Emori, K. Takata and A. Sumida / pp. 173-186 --- Session 6. Carbon Cycle Modeling --- Modeling Carbon-Climate Interactions / I. Fung / pp. 187-194 --- Development of Coupled Ocean Physical-Biogeochemical-Ecosystem Model / Y. Yamanaka / pp. 195-206 --- Modeling Carbon Dynamics of Terrestrial Ecosystems in Monsoon Asia / T. Oikawa and A. Ito / pp. 207-220 --- Session 7. Modeling of Paleoenvironmental Change Including Ice Sheet Modeling --- Ice in the Climate System: Paleoclimatological Perspectives / W. R. Peltier and L. P. Solheim / pp. 221-242 --- Using Model Hierarchies to Better Understand Past Climate Chang / M. Kageyama / pp. 243-252 --- Abrupt Climate Change and Thermohaline Circulation / S. Manabe / pp. 253-254 --- Session 8. Modeling of Land Use/Cover Change due to Human Activities --- Backward Land-Cover Change Projections for the Sudano-Sahelian Countries of Africa with a Dynamic Simulation Model of Land-Use Change (SALU) / N. Stephenne and E. F. Lambin / pp. 255-270 --- Integrating Biophysical and Socioeconomic Factors in Modeling Impacts of Global Environmental Change / G. Fischer / pp. 271-292 --- Integration of Observational Data and Behavioral Models for Spatio-Temporal Interpolation—Application to Reconstructing Long-Term Land Use and Land Cover Changes / R. Shibasaki and S. Huang / pp. 293-310 --- Session 9. Integrated Modeling—Current Status --- Earth System Modeling—An Integrated Assessment Tool for Environmental Studies / R. A. Pielke, Sr. / pp. 311-338 --- Integrated Assessment Model of Climate Change: The AIM Approach / Y. Matsuoka, T. Morita and M. Kainuma / pp. 339-362 --- Session 10. Discussion on Strategy toward Modeling of the Integrated System / A. Sumi and T. Morita / pp. 363-372 --- Poster Session --- Effect of Cloud Condensation Nuclei on the Optical Properties of a Layer Cloud: Numerical Simulation with a Cloud-Microphysical Model / N. Kuba, H. Iwabuchi, K. Maruyama, T. Hayasaka and T. Takeda / pp. 373-374 --- Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation of Ozone and Its Precursors from East Asia / O. Wild and H. Akimoto / pp. 375-382 --- Development of CCSR/NIES Nudging CTM and Ozone Simulation / H. Akiyoshi, M. Takigawa, T. Nagashima, J. Kurokawa, S. Sugata, M. Takahashi and H. Nakane / pp. 383-390 --- Modeling Surface Hydrology for Global Water Cycle Simulations / T. Oki / pp. 391-404 --- A New Frozen Soil Parameterization in Land Surface Scheme / X. Li and T. Koike / pp. 405-414 --- Individual-Based Model of a Forest with Spatial Structure and Gene Flow / A. Takenaka / pp. 415-420 --- Global Potential of Carbon Sinks under the Kyoto Protocol / Y. Yamagata and G. A. Alexandrov / pp. 421-426 --- Effect of Orography on Land and Ocean Surface Temperature / A. Kitoh / pp. 427-432 --- Regional Warming Related with Land Use Change during Past 135 Years in Japan / T. Ichinose / pp. 433-440 --- Development of Land Use Model for IPCC New Emission Scenarios (SRES) / T. Masui, Y. Matsuoka, T. Morita, M. Kainuma and K. Takahashi / pp. 441-448 --- Numerical Simulation Study Using a Climate Model Includinga Sophisticated Land Surface Model / K. Mabuchi, Y. Sato and H. Kida / pp. 449-456
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XVI, 458 Seiten)
    ISBN: 4887041276
    Language: English
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  • 31
    Keywords: crustal evolution ; East Antarctic Shield ; transantarctic mountains and West Antarctica ; syn- and post-breakup of Gondwana ; tectonics of Antarctic peninsula and subantarctic regions ; terrestrial geophysics ; marine geology and geophysics ; cenozoic geology and geornorphology
    Description / Table of Contents: 1. Crustal Evolution: East Antarctic Shield --- Archacan Events in Antarctica / L. P. BLACK, J. W. SHERATON and P. D. KINNY / pp. 1-6 --- Metamorphic Evolution of the Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica / M. ASAMI, Y. OSANAI, K. SHIRAISHI and H. MAKIMOTO / pp. 7-16 --- Geochemical Characteristics of Metamorphic Rocks from the Central Sør Rondane Mountains., East Antarctica / Y. OSANAI, K. SHIRAISHI, Y. TAKAHASHI, H. ISHIZUKA, Y. TAINOSHO, N. TSUCHIYA, T. SAKIYAMA and S. KODAMA / pp. 17-28 --- Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr Ages of Metamorphic Rocks from the Sør Rondane Mountains., East Antarctica / K. SHIRAISHI and H. KAGAMI / pp. 29-36 --- Reconnaissance Geochronologic Data on Proterozoic Polymetamorphic Rocks of the Eastern Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica / E. S. GREW, W. I. MANTON, M. ASAMI and H. MAKIMOTO / pp. 37-44 --- Petrochemical Character and Rb-Sr Isotopic Investigation of the Granitic Rocks from the Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica / Y. TAINOSHO, Y. TAKAHASHI, Y. ARAKAWA, Y. OSANAI, N. TSUCHIYA, T. SAKIYAMA and M. OWADA / pp. 45-54 --- Carbon and Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Marbles from the Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica / N. TSUCHIYA, Y. OSANAI and H. WADA / pp. 55-60 --- 40Ar-39Ar Geochronological Studies on some Paleomagnetic Samples of East Antarctica / Y. TAKIGAMI, M. FUNAKI and K. TOKIEDA / pp. 61-66 --- The First Report of a Cambrian Orogenic Belt in East Antarctica—An Ion Microprobe Study of the Lützow-Holm Complex / K. SHIRAISHI, Y. HIROI, D. J. ELLIS, C. M. FANNING, Y. MOTOYOSHI and Y. NAKAI / pp. 67-74 --- A New Insight of Possible Correlation between the Lützow-Holm Bay Granulites (East Antarctica) and the Sri Lankan Granulites / Y. OGO, Y. HIROI, K. B. N. PRAME and Y. MOTOYOSHI / pp. 75-86 --- Osumilite-Producing Reactions in High Temperature Granulites from the Napier Complex, East Antarctica: Tectonic Implications / B. J. HENSEN and Y. MOTOYOSHI / pp. 87-92 --- Gneisses of the Porthos and Athos Ranges, Northern Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica: Constraints on the Prograde and Retrograde P-T Path / D. E. THOST and B. J. HENSEN / pp. 93-102 --- Mineral Reaction Textures in High-Grade Gneisses: Evidence for Contrasting Pressure-Temperature Paths in the Proterozoic Complex of East Antarctica / I. C. W. FITZSIMONS and S. L. HARLEY / pp. 103-112 --- Mode of Occurrence, Geochemistry and Mineral Textures of Mafic to Ultramafic Rocks from the Bolingen Islands, Prydz Bay., East Antarctica / D. E. THOST, Y. MOTOYOSHI and B. J. HENSEN / pp. 113-118 --- The Significance of Reworking, Fluids and Partial Melting in Granulite Metamorphism, East Prydz Bay, Antarctica / S. L. HARLEY, I. C. W. FITZSIMONS, I. S. BUICK and G. WATT / pp. 119-128 --- Stable Isotope Studies of Granulite Facies Metamorphism in the Rauer Group, East Antarctica / I. S. BUICK, S. L. HARLEY and D. MATTEY / pp. 129-136 --- A Late- Proterozoic Extensional-Compressional Tectonic Cycle in East Antarctica / J. D. HOEK, P. H. G. M. DIRKS and C. W. PASSCHIER / pp. 137-144 --- Re-Examination of the Metamorphic Evolution of the Larsemann Hills., East Antarctica / L. REN, Y. ZHAO, X. LIU and T. CHEN / pp. 145-154 --- Geochronology of the Late Granite in the Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica / Y. ZHAO, B. SONG, Y. WANG, L. REN, J. LI and T. CHEN / pp. 155-162 --- The First Study of Upper Mantle Inclusions from the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica / A. V. ANDRONIKOV / pp. 163-173 --- Mafic Igneous Suites in the Lambert Rift Zone / E. V. MIKHALSKY, A. V. ANDRONIKOV and B. V. BELIATSKY / pp. 173-178 --- Granitic Rocks of the Jetty Peninsula, Amery Ice Shelf Area, East Antarctica / W. I. MANTON, E. S. GREW, J. HOFMANN and J. W. SHERATON / pp. 179-190 --- Paleomagnetic and 40Arl/39Ar Dating Studies of the Mawson Charnockite and Some Rocks from the Christensen Coast / M. FUNAKI and K. SAITO / pp. 191-202 --- 2. Crustal Evolution: Transantarctic Mountains and West Antarctica --- Multiple Petrotectonic Events in High-Grade Metamorphic Rocks of the Nimrod Group, Central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica / J. W. GOODGE, V. L. HANSEN and S. M. PEACOCK / pp. 203-210 --- Metamorphic Facies of the Ross Orogeny in the Southern Wilson Terrane of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica / F. TALARICO, M. FRANCESCHELLI, B. LOMBARDO, R. PALMERI, P. C. PERTUSATI, N. RASTELLI and C. A. RICCI / pp. 211-218 --- Metasedimentary Rocks of Western Wilson Terrane (Victoria Land - Oates Land) and Gondwana Connections to Australia / D. N. B. SKININER / pp. 219-226 --- Compressional Causes for the Early Palcozoic Ross Orogen—Evidence from Victoria Land and the Shackleton Range / G. KLEINSCHEMIDT, W. BUGGISCH and T. FLOETTMANN / pp. 227-234 --- Pre-Beacon Tectonic Development of the Transantarctic Mountains / E. STUMP / pp. 235-240 --- Statistical Analysis of Geochemical Patterns in Fine-Grained Permian Mudrocks from the Beardmore Glacier Region, Antarctica / T. C. HORNER and L. A. KRISSEK / pp. 241-248 --- Stratigraphy and Sedimentology of Vertebrate Bone-Bearing Beds in the Triassic (and Jurassic?) Fremouw and Falla Formations, Beardmore Glacier Region., Antarctica / L. A. KRISSEK, T. C. HORNER, D. H. ELLIOT and J. W. COLLINSON / pp. 249-256 --- Early Palcozoic Lamprophyre Dikes of Southern Victoria Land: Geology, Petrology and Geochemistry / B. WU and J. H. BERG / pp. 257-264 --- Crustal Xenoliths from Cape McCormick Crater, Northern Victoria Land / J. H. BERG and B. WU / pp. 265-272 --- Xenoliths from the Volcanic Province of West Antarctica and Implications for Lithospheric Structure and Processes / R. J. WYSOCZANSKI and J. A. GAMBLE / pp. 273-278 --- Geological and Geophysical Exploration in the Northern Ford Ranges, Maric Byrd Land, West Antarctica / B. P. LUYENDYK, S. M. RICHARD, C. H. SMITH and D. L. KIMBROUGH / pp. 279-288 --- Structure and Cooling History of the Fosdick Metamorphic Complex, Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica / S. M. RICHARD / pp. 289-294 --- Metapelites and Migmatites at the Granulite Facies Transition, Fosdick Metamorphic Complex, Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica / C. H. SMITH / pp. 295-302 --- 3. Syn- and Post-Breakup of Gondwana --- Mesozoic and Cenozoic Kinematic Evolution of the Transantarctic Mountains / T. J. WILSON / pp. 303-314 --- The West Antarctic Rift System—A Propagating Rift "Captured" by a Mantle Plume? / J. C. BEHRENDT, W. LEMASURIER and A. K. COOPER / pp. 315-322 --- Apatite Fission Track Evidence for Contrasting Thermal and Uplift Histories of Metamorphic Basement Blocks in Western Dronning Maud Land / J. JACOBS, E. HEJL, G. A. WAGNER and K. WEBER / pp. 323-330 --- Early Cretaceous Uplift of the Southern Sentinel. Range, Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica / P. G. FITZGERALD and E. STUMP / pp. 331-340 --- Petrologic Comparison of Palcozoic Rocks from the English Coast, Eastern Ellsworth Land, and the Ellsworth Mountains / T. S. LAUDON and C. CRADDOCK / pp. 341-346 --- Provenance of Paleocene Strata, Seymour Island / D. H. ELLIOT, S. M. HOFFMAN and D. E. RIESKE / pp. 347-356 --- Sedimentology of the Miers Bluff Formation, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands / A. ARCHE, J. LOPEZ-MARTINEZ and E. MARTINEZ DE PISON / pp. 357-362 --- Late Cretaceous and Eocene Palynofloras from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island (South Shetland Islands), Antarctica / L. CAO / pp. 363-370 --- Early Tertiary Palaeoclimate of King George Island, Antarctica—Evidence from the Fossil Hill Flora / H. M. LI / pp. 371-376 --- Modes of Formation and Accretion of Oceanic Material in the Mesozoic Fore-Arc of Central and Southern Alexander Island, Antarctica: A Summary / P. A. DOUBLEDAY and T. H. TRANTER / pp. 377-382 --- The Magmatic Complexes of the Rouen Mountains and Elgar Uplands from Alexander Island, Antarctic Peninsula: Geochemical Constraints / B. K. KAMENOV and C. T. PIMPIREV / pp. 383-394 --- Transverse Variations in the Gerlache Strait Plutonic Rocks: Effects of the Aluk Ridge-Trench Collision in the Northern Antarctic Peninsula / M. A. PARADA, J.-B. ORSINI and R. ARDILA / pp. 395-404 --- 4. Recent Tectonics of Antarctic Peninsula and Subantarctic Regions --- Evolution of the Bransfield Basin and Rift, West Antarctica / K. BIRKENMAJER / pp. 405-410 --- Uplift Movements King George Island Associated Bransfield Rift Activity / M. ARANEDA and O. GONZÁLEZ-FERRÁN / pp. 411-416 --- Geotransect Drake Passage - Weddell Sea, Antarctica / R. A. J. TROUW and L. A, P. GAMBÔA / pp. 417-422 --- Long-Range Sidescan Sonar (GLORIA) Survey of the Antarctic Peninsula Pacific Margin / J. S. TOMLINSON, C. J. PUDSEY, R. A. LIVERMORE, R. D. LARTER and P. F. BARKER / pp. 423-430 --- Marine Magnetic Anomalies in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica / Y. KIM, T. W. CHUNG and S. H. NAM / pp. 431-438 --- Geochronology and Geochemistry of the Igneous Rocks from Barton and Fildes Peninsulas, King George Island: A Review / Y.-J. JWA, B.-K. PARK and Y. KIM / pp. 439-442 --- Geophysical Features of Deception Island / R. ORTIZ, J. VILA, A. GARCIA, A. G. CAMACHO, J. L. DIEZ, A. APARICIO, R. SOTO, J. G. VIRAMONTE, C. RISSO, N. MENEGATTI and I. PETRINOVIC / pp. 443-448 --- Seismic Activity on Deception Island / J. VILA, R. ORTIZ, A. M. CORREIG, and A. GARCIA / pp. 449-456 --- The Zeolitisation Model of Kerguelen Islands, Southern Indian Ocean / A. GIRET, O. VERDIER and P. NATIVEL / pp. 457-464 --- 5. Terrestrial Geophysics --- Regional Geophysical Imaging of the Antarctic Lithosphere / R. R. B. VON FRESE, D. E. ALSDORF, J-H. KIM, T. M. STEPP, D. R. H. O'CONNELL, K. J. HAYDEN and W-S. LI / pp. 465-474 --- Present Status of Seismic Network in Antarctica / K. KAMINUMA / pp. 475-482 --- Phase Velocity Distribution Beneath Antarctica and Surrounding Oceans / D. ROULAND and G. ROULT / pp. 483-488 --- Determination of the Gravity Field around Antarctica Using Satellite Altimeter Data and Surface Gravity Data —A Review of the Recent Studies— / Y. FUKUDA, J. SEGAWA and K. KAMINUMA / pp. 489-492 --- Intermittent Micro-Seismic Activity in the Vicinity of Syowa Station, East Antarctica / K. KAMINUMA and J. AKAMATSU / pp. 493-498 --- An Approach to the Seismicity of Mt. Melbourne Volcano (Northern Victoria Land—Antarctica) / E. PRIVITERA, L. VILLARI and S. GAMBINO / pp. 499-506 --- The Crustal Structure beneath Ice Stream C and Ridge BC, West Antarctica from Seismic Refraction and Gravity Measurements / C. G. MUNSON and C. R. BENTLEY / pp. 507-514 --- Numerical Modelling of Uplift and Subsidence Adjacent to the Transantarctic Mountain Front / T. A. STERN, U. S. TEN BRINK and M. H. P. BOTT / pp. 515-522 --- Gravity Study of the Mt. Melbourne Quadrangle and the Lower Rennick Glacier Area in North Victoria Land., Antarctica, and the Relation of the Rennick Graben Structure to Rifting Processes in the Ross Sea / J. KIENLE, T. F. REDFIELD and A. M. GOODLIFFE / pp. 523-534 --- Gravity Modeling Across the Transantarctic Mountains, Northern Victoria Land / T. F. REDFIELD and J. C. BEHRENDT / pp. 535-544 --- A Preliminary Aeromagnetic Anomaly Compilation Map for the Weddell Province of Antarctica / A. C. JOHNSON, N. D. ALESHKOVA, P. F. BARKER, A. V. GOLYNSKY, V. N. MASOLOV and A. M. SMITH / pp. 545-554 --- New Aeromagnetic Map of West Antarctica (Weddell Sea Sector): Introduction to Important Features / A. C. JOHNSON and A. M. SMITH / pp. 555-562 --- Ground Magnetics in North Victoria Land (East Antarctica) / E. BOZZO, A. COLLA and A. MELONI / pp. 563-570 --- Airborne Gravity from a Light Aircraft: CASERTZ 1990-1991 / R. E. BELL, B. J. COAKLEY, D. D. BLANKENSHIP, S. M. HODGE, J. M. BROZENA and J. JARVIS / pp. 571-578 --- Thinning Rate of Ice Sheet on Mizuho Plateau, East Antarctica, Determined by GPS Differential Positioning / H. TOH and K. SHIBUYA / pp. 579-584 --- The Geophysical Observatory at Terra Nova Bay / A. MELONI, A. DE SANTIS, A. MORELLI, P. PALANGIO, G. ROMEO, E. BOZZO and G. CANEVA / pp. 585-588 --- The Absolute Gravity Station and the Mt. Melbourne Gravity Network in Terra Nova Bay, North Victoria Land, East Antarctica / G. CERUTTI, F. ALASIA, A. GERMAK, E. BOZZO, G. CANEVA, R. LANZA and I. MARSON / pp. 589-564 --- Seismological Observations by a Three-Component Broadband Digital Seismograph at Syowa Station, Antarctica / K. NAGASAKA, K. KAMINUMA and K. SHIBUYA / pp. 595-602 --- 6. Marine Geology and Geophysics --- Preliminary Seismic Stratigraphy of the Northwestern Weddell Sea Continental Shelf / J. B. ANDERSON, S. S. SHIPP and F. P. SIRINGAN / pp. 603-612 --- Sequence Stratigraphy of the Crary Fan, Southeastern Weddell Sea / A. MOONS, M. DE BATIST, J. P. HENRIET H. MILLER / pp. 613-618 --- Modeling of Cenozoic Stratigraphy in the Ross Sea Using Sonobuoy Seismic-Refraction Data / G. R. COCHRANE and A. K. COOPER / pp. 619-626 --- Heat Flow and Tectonics of the Western Ross Sea / B. DELLA VEDOVA, G. PELLLS, L. A. LAWVER and G. BRANCOLINI / pp. 627-638 --- Tectonic Development of Graben over the Astrid Ridge off Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica / D. GOPALA RAO, M. V. RAMANA and K. V. L. N. S. SARMA / pp. 639-648 --- The Directions of Magnetic Anomaly Lineations in Enderby Basin, off Antarctica / Y. NOGI, N. SEAMA and N. ISEZAKI / pp. 649-654 --- International Offshore Studies on Antarctic Cenozoic History, Glaciation, and Sea-Level Change: The ANTOSTRAT Project / A. K. COOPER and P. N. WEBB / pp. 655-660 --- 7. Cenozoic Geology and Geornorphology --- Late Cenozoic Glacial History in the Sør -Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica / K. MORIWAKI, K. HIRAKAWA, M. HAYASHI and S. IWATA / pp. 661-668 --- Glaciation of the Central Part of the Sør Rondane, Antarctica: Glaciological Evidence / F. PATTYN, H. DECLEIR and P. HUYBRECHTS / pp. 669-678 --- Observations of Clayey Till and Underlying Glacier Ice in the Central Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica / H. HASEGAWA, S. IWATA and N. MATSUOKA / pp. 679-682 --- Late Quaternary Ice-Surface Fluctuations of the Lambert Glacier / M. C. G. MABIN / pp. 683-688 --- Late Quaternary History of the Bunger Hills, East Antarctica / E. A. COLHOUN and D. A. ADAMSON / pp. 689-698 --- Late Neogene Sediments of Coastal East Antarctica —An Overview / P. G. QUILTY / pp. 699-706 --- Cenozoic Glacial Geology and Mountain Uplift in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica / F. M. VAN DER WATEREN and A. L. L. M. VERBERS / pp. 707-714 --- A Glacio-Geological Reconnaissance of the Southern Prince Albert Mountains, Victoria Land, Antarctica / A. L. L. M. VERBERS and F. M. VAN DER WATEREN / pp. 715-720 --- Geomorphology of the Priestley Glacier to Campbell Glacier Transect Mapped by Aerial Photographs (Victoria Land - Antarctica) / A. BIASINI, O. FANUCCI and M. C. SALVATORE / pp. 721-726 --- Satellite Data Processing of Victoria Land / R. CASACCHIA, A. CAPRARO, M. POSCOLIERI, R. SALVATORI, R. BIANCHI and A. PICCHIOTTI / pp. 727-732 --- Fluctuations of Ice Tongues and Ice Shelves Derived from Satellite Images in Terra Nova Bay Area, Victoria Land, Antarctica / M. FREZZOTTI / pp. 733-740 --- The Last Major Deglaciation in the Antarctic Peninsula Region—A Review of Recent Swedish Quaternary Research— / C. HJORT, Ó. INGÓLFSSON and S. BJÖRCK / pp. 741-744 --- Permafrost Occurrence of Seymour Island and James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula Region / M. FUKUDA, J. STRELIN, K. SHIMOKAWA, N. TAKAHASHI, T. SONE and D. TROMBOTT / pp. 745-750 --- Geomorphology of Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands / J. LOPEZ-MARTINEZ, E. MARTINEZ DE PISON and A. ARCHE / pp. 751-756 --- Mechanical Weathering on Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica / K. J. HALL / pp. 757-762 --- Modeling the Bathymetry of the Antarctic Continental Shelf / U. S. TEN BRINK and A. K. COOPER / pp. 763-772 --- Cenozoic Glacial History of Antarctica—A Correlative Synthesis / K. MORIWAKI, Y. YOSHIDA and D. M. HARWOOD / pp. 773-780 --- Late Quaternary Environmental Changes in the Antarctic and their Correlation with Global Change / Q. S. ZHANG / pp. 781-786
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XII, 796 Seiten)
    ISBN: 4887041098
    Language: English
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    Keywords: mitochondrion-rich cell ; chloride cell ; euryhalinity ; stenohalinity ; diadromous migration ; Mozambique tilapia ; killifish ; chum salmon ; Japanese eel ; fugu ; Japanese dace ; ion transport
    Description / Table of Contents: 1. Introduction --- 2. Mitochondrion-rich (MR) cells --- 2-1. General characteristics of MR cells --- 2-2. Molecular mechanisms of ion-transporting functions of MR cells --- 3. Euryhalinity and stenohalinity of teleosts --- 4. Mozambique tilapia --- 4-1. MR cells in the yolk-sac membrane of tilapia embryos and larvae --- 4-2. FW- and SW-type MR cells in tilapia embryos and larvae --- 4-3. Functions of multicellular complexes of SW-type MR cells --- 4-4. Functional differentiation of MR cells in the yolk-sac membrane --- 4-5. Functional classification of MR cells in the yolk-sac membrane --- 4-6. "Yolk ball" incubation system --- 4-7. Salinity tolerance of adult tilapia --- 4-8. Possible osmoreception by MR cells --- 5. Killifish --- 5-1. Transitional processes of MR-cell distribution during early life stages --- 5-2. Distinct FW- and SW-type MR cells --- 5-3. Functional alteration and replacement of MR cells --- 5-4. Ion-absorbing mechanisms of MR cells --- 6. Chum salmon --- 6.1. Hypoosmoregulatory ability of chum salmon embryo --- 6-2. Seawater adaptability in chum salmon fry --- 6-3. MR-cell turnover in the gills of chum salmon fry --- 6-4. Loss of hypoosmoregulatory ability in mature chum salmon --- 7. Japanese eel --- 7-1. Epidermal MR cells in embryos and larvae --- 7-2. Ontogenic changes in MR cells during leptocephalus and glass eel stages --- 7-3. MR cells in glass eel acclimated to FW --- 7-4. Gill MR cells in eel cultured in FW and those acclimated to SW --- 7-5. MR cells in yellow and silver eel --- 8. Fugu --- 8-1. Low-salinity tolerance of fugu --- 8-2. Gill MR cells in fugu --- 8-3. Functional significance of prolactin in a marine teleost of fugu --- 8-4. Comparison of growth in fugu reared in 25 and 100% SW. --- 9. Japanese dace --- 9-1. Acid tolerance of Osorezan dace --- 9-2. Molecular mechanisms of acid adaptation --- 10. Conclusions and future perspectives
    Pages: Online-Ressource (62 Seiten)
    ISBN: 1882322X
    Language: English
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    Dordrecht : Springer
    Keywords: climate change ; paleoceanography ; paleoclimates ; pre-quaternary climates ; quaternary climates
    Description / Table of Contents: Concern exists over human-generated increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases and their potential consequences to society. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007 finds that global temperatures have increased by 0.8ºC since 1850 and that climate warming is now ’unequivocal’. While the human imprint is becoming increasingly apparent, Earth’s climate has shifted dramatically and frequently during the last few million years, alternating between ice ages, when vast glaciers covered Northern Europe and much of North America, and interglacials—warm periods much like today. Farther back in geologic time, climates have differed even more from the present. Thus, to fully understand the unusual changes of the 20th century and possible future trends, these must be placed in a longer-term context extending beyond the period of instrumental records. The Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments, a companion volume to the recently-published Encyclopedia of World Climatology, provides the reader with an entry point to the rapidly expanding field of paleoclimatology—the study of climates of the past. Highly interdisciplinary in nature, paleoclimatology integrates information from a broad array of disciplines in the geosciences, ranging from stratigraphy, geomorphology, glaciology, paleoecology, paleobotany to geochemistry and geophysics, among others. The encyclopedia offers 230 informative articles written by over 200 well known international experts on numerous subjects, ranging from classical geological evidence to the latest research. The volume is abundantly illustrated with line-drawings, black-white and color photographs. Articles are arranged alphabetically, with extensive bibliographies and cross-references.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (1047 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781402044113
    Language: English
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