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  • 1
    Keywords: geomorphology ; landform modelling ; fluvial landform structure
    Description / Table of Contents: Part 1. Landform Modelling, General Considerations --- The Paradox of Equivalence of the Davisian End-Peneplain and Penckian Primary Peneplain / Hiroo Ohmori / Concepts and Modelling in Geomorphology: International Perspectives, / pp. 3-32 --- Geomorphology: Boundaries between Media / Robert W. Blair, Jr. / Concepts and Modelling in Geomorphology: International Perspectives, / pp. 33-42 --- Evolution of the Ocean Floor Morphostructure: Actualistic Model / Alexander V. Ilyin / Concepts and Modelling in Geomorphology: International Perspectives, / pp. 43-59 --- Scale-Specific Landforms and Aspects of the Land Surface / Ian S. Evans / Concepts and Modelling in Geomorphology: International Perspectives, / pp. 61-94 --- Part 2. Material Transport in Landform Modelling --- Simple Model for the Complex Dynamics of Dunes / Hiraku Nishimori and Hirohisa Tanaka / Concepts and Modelling in Geomorphology: International Perspectives, / pp. 87-100 --- Green's Function of Mass Transport and the Landform Equation / Masashige Hirano / Concepts and Modelling in Geomorphology: International Perspectives, / pp. 101-114 --- Towards Quantitative Modelling of Landform Evolution through Frequency and Magnitude of Processes: A Model Conception / Jochen Schmidt and Nicholas James Preston / Concepts and Modelling in Geomorphology: International Perspectives, / pp. 115-129 --- Part 3. Fluvial Landform Structure: Mathematical and Physical Laws --- Planar Organization of River Networks: A Hidden Gamma Law Structure / Christophe Cudennec, Youssef Fouad and Irianto Sumarjo-Gatot / Concepts and Modelling in Geomorphology: International Perspectives, / pp. 133-145 --- Tiling Properties of Drainage Basins and Their Physical Bases / Eiji Tokunaga / Concepts and Modelling in Geomorphology: International Perspectives, / pp. 147-166 --- Mathematical Modeling of Landforms: Optimality and Steady-State Solutions / Scott D. Peckham / Concepts and Modelling in Geomorphology: International Perspectives, / pp. 167-182 --- Part 4. DEMs, GIS and Modelling in Geomorphology --- A Simple GIS Model for Mapping Landslide Susceptibility / Richard J. Pike, Russell W. Graymer and Steven Sobieszczyk / Concepts and Modelling in Geomorphology: International Perspectives, / pp. 185-197 --- Eigenvector Analysis of Digital Elevation Models in a GIS: Geomorphometry and Quality Control / Peter L. Guth / Concepts and Modelling in Geomorphology: International Perspectives, / pp. 199-220 --- Multiresolution Spline Models and Their Applications in Geomorphology / Jan Rasmus Sulebak and Øyvind Hjelle / Concepts and Modelling in Geomorphology: International Perspectives, / pp. 221-237
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XIV, 254 Seiten)
    ISBN: 4887041322
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Description / Table of Contents: INTRODUCTION Ecometry concerns measurements and interpretation of ecological data and relationships between data. It deals with most matters involved in the scientific aspects of the representativity and information value of samples and does not, in fact, concern statistical methods. In particular, ecometry can be regarded as an approach to obtain so-called load models and load diagrammes (effect-dose-sensitivity diagrammes), which are one of the aims/final products in aquatic environmental consequence analysis (H~- kanson, 1990; all these terms will be explained later on). This publication is meant to demonstrate what can and cannot be done using ecometric approaches. It must be emphasized at the outset that the main intention here is not to provide new radioecological knowledge on how Cs-137 is dispersed in aquatic ecosystems after the Chernobyl accident and is taken up in fish, but to use Cs-137 as a type substance and pike as a biological indicator to go through methods which should also apply to other types of environmentally hazardous substances (it could just as well have been substance X in ecosystem Y). As a secondary effect, we may also learn something about Cs-137. Several terms and methods, which have not been used earlier in the aquatic environmental sciences, e.g., ecometric analysis and dynamic modelling using moderators, will be discussed and defined...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (158 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540539971
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE This volume presents results from members of the Project 216 "Global Biological Events in Earth History" of the International Geological Correlation Programme (IGCP). The project, initiated by the elder editor (O.H.W.) within the framework of the International Palaeontological Association (IPA) in the late 70s, was officially established in 1984. Subsequently, it led to the first three conferences on Global Bio-Events, and their respective symposia volumes: 1) In G6ttingen, West Germany in 1986 (WaUiser, O. H., Ed., 1986, Global Bio-Events, Springer-Verlag); in Bilbao, Spain in 1987 (Lamolda, M. A., Kauffrnan, E. G., and Walliser, O. H., Eds., 1988, Paleontology and Evolution: Extinction Events; Rev. Espafiola de Paleont., n. extraord.); and in Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A. in 1988 (this volume). The next meeting, on Innovations and Revolutions in the Biosphere, is planned in Oxford, England in 1990, to be hosted by Martin Brasier. During the history of this project, the focus of our research has shifted significantly. Initial focus was on specific global mass extinctions (e.g. the Precambrian/Cambrian, Frasnian/Fammenian, Cretaceous/Tertiary, and Eocene/Oligocene events) to a broader treatment of Phanerozoic mass extinctions, their differences or unifying factors, and their causal mechanisms. Subsequent meetings have attempted to focus attention on a fuller spectrum of global bio-events in Earth history. The Boulder Conference, and this volume, although still strongly influenced by the excitement of mass extinction research, expresses these new trends in bioevent studies. The Boulder conference, held on May 16-23, 1988, focused on a broad spectrum of Abrupt Changes in the Global Biota. Over 100 participants from 13 nations attended this meeting, representing diverse disciplines of palaeobiology, palaeoclimatology, palaeoceanography, sedimentology, geochemistry, and a broad spectrum of the stratigraphic and geological sciences. Four days of talks were supplemented by field trips to the continental Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in the Raton Basin, New Mexico, and to the Cenomanian/Turonian mass extinction interval exposed near Pueblo, Colorado. The Conference itself was characterized by a great diversity of approaches to bio-event research, and the phenomenon of mass extinction. In particular, interactive causes involving both extraterrestrial and earthbound (tectonic, oceanographic, climatic) forces were discussed, and each major Phanerozoic mass extinction was treated by specialists in the field. In addition, many presentations focused on the causal mechanism and patterns of bio-event development that were not restricted to mass extinction intervals, but which could cause regional to global biotic response at any time in Earth history. Thus, both the conference, and this volume, focus attention on climatic and oceanic perturbations from anoxia, advection, rapid thermal change, toxic chemical enrichment, and energy shock from impacts and giant tsunamis as forcing mechanism for regional to global bio-events. The delicate balance of perched ocean/ctimate~fe systems under typical warm equable non-glacial Phanerozoic conditions, and their susceptibility to shock from even small perturbations, was a philosophical theme that ran throughout the meeting. The case for extraterrestrial forcing of tectonic, volcanic, and biological events was greatly strengthened by new data presented at this conference, with special concern for the effects of small comet/meteorite impacts in the oceans, and their chemical/physical/biological signature which might be used, in the absence of shocked minerals, microspheres or trace metals, to identify extraterrestrial events associated with global and regional bio-events. The conference benefitted from the introduction of much new data at high levels of resolution, especially from poorly studied mass extinction intervals. Interactive discussions, and many new ideas characterized the meeting. The new scientific results of this meeting are exciting; they are reviewed in the Conference Report published in Episodes (1988, v. 11, n. 4, p. 289-292). Most of the key papers presented at the Boulder meeting appear in this volume. What lies ahead in bio-event research? Clearly, a great deal of excitement and an age of discovery. We have only touched the surface of this new and dynamic field. We are starting to comprehend the dynamics of global mass extinctions, integrating detailed geochemical, physical and biological data into scenarios of cause and effect. But in the years ahead lies the job of understanding the whole spectrum of regional bioevents preserved in the ancient record, and especially the application of this research to solutions of the critical problems inherent in global change and the modern biotic crisis. Future directions for research at this conference include the investigation and modeling of abrupt chemical and thermal shifts in the ocean, the effects of impacts at deep ocean sites, the documentation of successful survival strategies and repopulation patterns following biotic crises, the deep ocean record of bio-events, and focus on alternative forces other than impacting to account for mass extinction events. This volume introduces some of these new pathways in bio-event research.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (432 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540526056
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE Through the last few decades inversion concepts have become an integral past of experimental data interpretation in several branches of science. In numerous cases similar inversion-like techniques were developed independently in separate disciplines, sometimes based on different lines of reasoning, and sometimes not to the same level of sophistication. This fact was realized early in inversion history. In the seventies and eighties "generalized inversion" and "total inversion" became buzz words in Earth Science, and some even saw inversion as the panacea that would eventually raise all experimental science into a common optimal frame. It is true that a broad awareness of the generality of inversion methods is established by now. On the other hand, the volume of experimental data varies greatly among disciplines, as does the degree of nonlinearity and numerical load of forward calculations, the amount and accuracy of a priori information, and the criticality of correct error propagation analysis. Thus, some clear differences in terminology, philosophy and numerical implementation remain, some of them for good reasons, but some of them simply due to tradition and lack of interdisciplinary communication. In a sense the development of inversion methods could be viewed as an evolution process where it is important that "species" can arise and adapt through isolation, but where it is equally important that they compete and mate afterwards through interdisciplinary exchange of ideas. This book was actually initiated as a proceedings volume of the "Interdisciplinary Inversion Conference 1995", held at the University of Aarhus, Denmark. The aim of this conference was to further the competition and mating part of above-mentioned evolution process, and we decided to extend the effect through this publication of 35 selected contributions. The point of departure is a story about geophysics and astronomy, in which the classical methods of Backus and Gilbert from around 1970 have been picked up by helioseismology. Professor Douglas Gough, who is a pioneer in this field, is the right person to tell this success story of interdisciplinary exchange of research experience and techniques [1-31] (numbers refer to pages in this book). Practitioners of helioseismology like to stress the fact that the seismological coverage on the Sun in a sense is much more complete and accurate than it is on Earth. Indeed we witness vigorous developments in the Backus & Gilbert methods (termed MOLA/SOLA in the helioseismology literature) [32-59] driven by this fortunate data situation. Time may have come for geophysicists to look into helioseismology for new ideas. Seismic methods play a key role in the study of the Earth's lithosphere. The contributions in [79 - 130,139 - 150] relate to reflection seismic oil exploration, while methods for exploration of the whole crust and the underlying mantle axe presented in [131 - 138, 151 - 166]. Two contributions [167 - 185] present the application of inversion for the understanding of the origin of petroleum and the prediction of its migration in sedimentary basins. Inversion is applied to hydrogeophysical and environmental problems [186 - 222], where again developments are driven by the advent of new, mainly electromagnetic, experimental techniques. The role of inversion in electromagnetic investigations of the lithosphere/astenosphere system as well as the ionosphere axe exemplified in [223 - 238]. Geodesy has a fine tradition of sophisticated linear inversion of large, accurate sets of potential field data. This leads naturally to the fundamental study of continuous versus discrete inverse formulations found in [262-275]. Applications of inversion to geodetic satellite data are found in [239 - 261]. General mathematical and computational aspects are mainly found in [262 - 336]. Nonlinearity in weakly nonlinear problems may be coped with by careful modification of lineaxized methods [295 - 302]. Strongly nonlinear problems call for Monte Carlo methods, where the cooling scedule in simulated annealing [303 - 311,139 - 150] is critical for convergence to a useful (local) minimum, and the set of consistent models is explored through importance sampling [89 - 90]. The use of prior information, directly or indirectly, is a key issue in most contributions, ranging from Bayesian formulations based a priori covariances e.g. [98 - 112,122 - 130, 254 - 261], over more general but also less tractable prior probability densities [79 - 97], to inclusion of specific prior knowledge of shape [284 - 294, 312 - 319]. Given the differences and similarities in approach, can we benefit from exchange of ideas and experience? In practice ideas and experience seldom jump across discipline boundaries by themselves. Normally one must go and get them the hard way, for instance by reading and understanding papers from disciplines far from the home ground. Look at the journey into the interdisciplinary cross-field of inversion techniques as a demanding safari into an enormous hunting ground. This book is meant to provide a convenient starting point.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (341 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540616931
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE During the last decades, remarkable progress in heat flow studies has been made and a rough picture of the global surface heat flow density distribution can now be drawn. Simultaneously, the question of over which time period the surface heat flow is constant arose. There is a big field of model calculations, based on the changes in radioactive heat generation of the Earth, on plate motions, on stretching hypotheses or on other ideas, which result in geotherms in the geological past. Although these speculative paleogeotherms seem to be realistic especially in oceanic areas they do not belong to the scope of this book. In continental areas however, it is not possible to find a simple time dependence of the surface heat flow density. However, petroleum research and tectogenetic studies are very interested in the geothermal history of sedimentary basins and other continental areas. To obtain satisfactory results, a more or less direct determination of paleo heat flow density or geothermal gradient would be necessary to give more certain boundary conditions for calculating oil generation, and for controlling tectogenetic hypotheses. There are many methods available in the geosciences to determine temperatures in the geological past. Most of these models are able to estimate temperatures at which a mineral or a mineral assemblage was formed. These methods, however, are mostly unsuitable to reach the main goal of paleogeothermics in general, which is to determine the (regional) heat flow density variations during the geological past for bigger geological units, such as sedimentary basins. The methods applied most in sedimentary basins have been deduced from the degree of coalification of organic matter. Although much effort has been made to explain analytically the organic metamorphism, the results found up to now have been insufficient . However, the widespread application of this thermometer to estimate ancient thermal conditions is also reflected in the contents of this very volume where the interpretation of the degree of coalification of organic matter plays an important role. As well as this geothermometers, other methods are reviewed from a geophysical viewpoint which favours methods suitable to determine a paleothermal state of the upper crust. Further contributions of this book deal with - the history of the earth's surface temperature whose change provides an essential correction factor in heat flow density determinations, - isotope geothermometers and their application to various environments to evaluate thermal conditions in the past geological history, - an application of the radiometric dating method to retrace the paleothermal condition of the Central Alps. Most of the contributions were presented at the symposium "Paleogeothermics" which was held at the 18. General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, August 15-27, 1983 in Hamburg/FRG. It has been the first time that such a symposium has been organized by the International Heat Flow Commission, and this book presents an attempt to define paleogeothermics under the auspices of the International Heat Flow Commission.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (234 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540166450
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: INTRODUCTION Theoretical modelling and the use of mathematical methods are presently gaining in importance since progress in both geology and mathematics offers new possibilities to combine both fields. Most geological problems are inherently geometrical and morphological, and, therefore, amenable to a classification of forms from a "Gestalt point of view". Geometrical objects have to possess an inherent stability in order to preserve their essential quality under slight deformations. Otherwise, we could hardly conceive of them or describe them, and today's observation would not reproduce yesterday's result (DANGELMAYR & GÜTTINGER, 1982). This principle has become known as "structural stability" (THOM, 1975), i.e. the persistence of a phenomenon under all allowed perturbations. Stability is also, of course, an assumption of classical Newtonian physics, which is essentially the theory of various kinds of smooth behavior (POSTON &STEWART, 1978). However, things sometimes "jump". A new species with a different morphology appears suddenly in the paleontological record (EI.DREDGE & GOULD, 1972), a fault develops, a landslide moves, a computer program becomes unstable with a certain data configuration, etc. It is, surprisingly, the topological approach which permits the study of a broad range of such phenomena in a coherent manner (POSTON & STEWART, 1978; LU, 1976; STEWART, 1982). The universal singularities and bifurcation processes derived from the concept of structural stabiIity determine the spontaneous formation of qualitatively similar spatio-temporal structures in systems of various geneses exhibiting critical behavior (DANGELMAYR & GÜTTINGER, 1982; THOM, 1975; POSTON & STEWART, 1978; GÜTTINGER & EIKEMEIER, t979; STEWART, 1981). In addition, this return to a "geometrization of phenomena"-- after decades of algorithmization-- comes much closer to the geologist's intuitive geometric reasoning. It is the aim of this study to elucidate, by examples, how the qualitative geometrical approach allows one to classify forms and to control the behavior of complex computer algorithms...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (229 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540139836
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Description / Table of Contents: INTRODUCTION - WHY THIS BOOK? Why study Numerical Geology? Although geologists have dabbled in numbers since the time of Hutton and Playfair, 200 years ago (Merriam 1981e), geology until recently lagged behind other sciences in both the teaching and geological application of mathematics, statistics and computers. Geology Departments incorporating these disciplines in their undergraduate courses are still few (particularly outside the USA). Only two international geomathematical/computing journals are published (Computers & Geosciences; Mathematical Geology), compared with dozens covering, say, petrology or mineralogy. It also remains common practice for years (and $1000s) to be spent setting up computerized machines to produce large volumes of data in machine-readable form, and then for geologists to plot these by hand on a sheet of graph paper! Despite this, the use of numerical methods in geology has now begun to increase at a rate which implies a revolution of no less importance than the plate tectonic revolution of the 1960's -- one whose impact is beginning to be felt throughout the academic, commercial, governmental and private consultative geological communities (Merriam 1969, 1981c). Although a few pioneers have been publishing benchmark papers for some years, the routine usage of machine-based analytical techniques, and the advent of low-priced desk-top microcomputers, have successively enabled and now at last persuaded many more geologists to become both numerate and computerate. Merriam (1980) estimated that two decades of increasing awareness had seen the percentage of geomathematical papers (sensu lato) rise to some 15% of all geological literature; meanwhile, mineralogy-petrology and geochemistry had both fallen to a mere 5% each! In these Notes, geomathematics and numerical geology are used interchangeably, to cover applications of mathematics, statistics and computing to processing real geological data. However, as applications which primarily store or retrieve numbers (e.g. databases) are included, as well as those involving actual mathematical calculations, 'Numerical Geology' is preferred in the title. 'Geomathematics' in this sense should not be confused with 'geostatistics', now usually restricted to a specialised branch of geomathematics dealing with ore body estimation (§20). Reasons for studying Numerical Geology can be summarised as follows: (1) Volumes of new and existing numerical data: The British Geological Survey, the world's oldest, recently celebrated its 150th anniversary by establishing a National Geoscience data-centre, in which it is hoped to store all accumulated records on a computer (Lumsden & Flowarth 1986). Information already existing in the Survey's archives is believed to amount to tens or hundreds of Gb (i.e. = 1010-11 characters) and to be increasing by a few percent annually. The volumes of valuable data existing in the worM's geological archives, over perhaps 250 years of geological endeavour, must therefore be almost immeasurably greater. It is now routine even for students to produce hundreds or thousands of multi-element analyses for a single thesis, while national programs of geochemical sampling easily produce a million individual dement values. Such volumes of data simply cannot be processed realistically by manual means; they require mathematical and statistical manipulation on computers -- in some cases large computers. (2) Better use of coded/digitised data: In addition to intrinsically numerical (e.g. chemical) data, geology produces much information which can be more effectively used if numerically coded. For example, relatively little can be done with records of, say, 'limestone' and 'sandstone' in a borehole log, but very much more can be done if these records are numerically coded as 'limestone = 1' and 'sandstone = 2'. Via encoding, enormous volumes of data are opened to computer processing which would otherwise have lain dormant. More importantly, geological maps - perhaps the most important tool of the entire science - can themselves be digitised (turned into large sets of numbers), opening up vast new possibilities for manipulation, revision, scale-change and other improvements. (3) Intelligent data use: It is absurd to acquire large volumes of data and then not to interpret them fully. Field geologists observing an outcrop commonly split into two (or more) groups, arguing perhaps over the presence or absence of a preferred orientation in kyanite crystals on a schist foliation surface. The possibility of actually measuring these orientations and analyzing them statistically (§17) is rarely aired-- at last in this author's experience! Petrologists are equally culpable when they rely on X-Y or, at maximum 'sophistication', X-Y-Z (triangular) variation diagrams, in representing the evolution of igneous rocks which have commonly been analyzed for up to 50 elements! Whereas some geological controversies (especially those based on interpretation of essentially subjective field observations) cannot be resolved numerically, many others can and should be. This is not to say (as Lord Kelvin did) that quantitative science is the only good science, but qualitative treatment of quantitative data is rarely anything but bad science. (4) Literature search and data retrieval: Most research projects must begin with reviews of the literature and, frequently, with exhaustive compilations of existing data. These are essential if informed views on the topic are to be reached, existing work is not merely to be duplicated, and optimum use is to be made of available funding, The ever-expanding geological literature, however, makes such reviews and compilations increasingly time-consuming and expensive via traditional manual means. Use of the increasing number of both bibliographical and analytical databases (§3) is therefore becoming a prequisite for well-informed, high-quality research. (5) Unification of interests: In these days of inexorably increasing specialisation in ever narrower topics, brought about by the need to keep abreast of the exploding literature, numerical geology forms a rare bridge between different branches not only of geology but of diverse other sciences. The techniques covered in this book are equally applicable (and in many cases have been in routine use for far longer) in biology, botany, geography, medicine, psychology, sociology, zoology, etc. Within geology itself, most topics covered here are as valuable to the stratigrapher as to the petrologist. 'Numerical geologists' are thus in the unique (and paradoxical) position of being both specialists and non-specialists; they may have their own interests, but their numerical and computing knowledge can often help all of their colleagues. (6) Employment prospects: There is a clear and increasing demand for computerate/numerate geologists in nearly all employment fields. In Australia, whose economy is dominated by geology-related activities (principally mining), a comprehensive national survey (AMIRA 1985) estimated that A$40M per annum could be saved by more effective use of computers in geology. Professional computer scientists are also of course in demand, but the inability of some of their number to communicate with 'laymen' is legendary! Consequently, many finns have perpetual need for those rare animals who combine knowledge of computing and mathematics with practical geological experience. Their unique bridging role also means that numerical geologists are less likely to be affected by the vaguaries of the employment market than are more specialised experts. Rationale and aims of this book This is a highly experimental book, constituting the interim text for new (1988) courses in 'Numerical Geology' at the University of Western Australia. It is published in the Springer Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences series precisely because, as the rubric for this series has it, "the timeIiness of a manuscript is more important than its form, which may be unfinished or tentative." Readers are more than welcome to send constructive comments to the author, such that a more seasoned, comprehensive version can be created in due course. Readers' indulgence is meanwhile craved for the number of mistakes which must inevitably remain in a work involving so many citations and cross-references. Emphasis is particularly placed on the word Notes in the series rifle: this book is not a statistical or mathematical treatise. It is not intended to stand on its own, but rather to complement and target the existing literature. It is most emphatically not a substitute for sound statistical knowledge, and indeed, descriptions of each technique are deliberately minimized such that readers shouM never be tempted to rely on this book alone, but should rather read around the subject in the wealth of more authoritative statistical and geomathematical texts cited. In other words, this is a synoptic work, principally about 'how to do', 'when not to do', 'what are the alternatives' and 'where to find out more'. It aims specifically: (1) to introduce geologists to the widest possible range of numerical methods which have already appeared in the literature; and thus (2) to infuse geologists with just sufficient background knowledge that they can: (a) locate more detailed sources of information; (b) understand the broad principles behind interpreting most common geological problems quantitatively; (c) appreciate how to take best advantage of computers; and thereby (d) cope with the "information overload" (Griffiths 1974) which they increasingly face. Even these aims require the reader to become to some extent geologist, computer scientist, mathematician and statistician rolled into one, and a practical balance has therefore been attempted, in which just enough information is hopefully given to expedite correct interpretation and avoidance of pitfalls, but not too much to confuse or deter the reader. Despite the vast literature in mathematics, statistics and computing, and that growing in geomathematics, no previous book was found to fulfill these alms on its own. The range of methods covered here is deliberately much wider than in previous geomathematical textbooks, to provide at least an introduction to most methods geologists may encounter, but other books are consequently relied on for the detail which space here precludes. These Notes adopt a practical approach similar to that in language guidebooks -- at the risk of emulating the 'recipe book' abhorred in some quarters. Every Topic provides a minimum of highly condensed sketch-notes (fuller descriptions are included only where topics are not well covered in existing textbooks), complemented by worked examples using real data from as many fields of geology as space permits. Specialists should thereby be able to locate at least one example close to their problems of the moment. In the earlier (easier) topics, simple worked examples are calculated in full, and equations are given wherever practicable (despite their sometimes forbidding appearance), to enable readers not only to familiarise themselves with the calculations but also to experiment with their own data. In the later (multivariate) topics (where few but the sado-masochistic would wish to try the calculations by hand!), the worked examples comprise simplified output from actual software, to familiarise readers with the types of computer output they may have to interpret in practice. Topics were arranged in previous geomathematical textbooks by statistical subject: 'analysis of variance', 'correlation', 'regression', etc., while nonparametric (rank) methods were usually dealt with separately from classical methods (if at all). Here, topics are arranged by operation (what is to be done), and both classical and rank techniques are covered together, with similar emphasis. When readers know what they want to do, therefore, they need only look in one Topic for all appropriate techniques. The main difficulty of this work is the near impossibility of its goal-- though other books with similarly ambitious goals have been well enough received (e.g.J.Math.Geol. 18(5), 511-512). Some constraints have necessarily been imposed to keep the Notes of manageable size. Geophysics, for example, is sketchily covered, because (i) numerical methods are already far more integrated into most geophysics courses than geology courses; (ii) several recent textbooks (e.g. Cantina & Janecek 1984) cover the corresponding ground for geophysicists. Structural geology is less comprehensively covered or cited than, say, stratigraphy, because (a) it commands many applications of statistics and computing unto itself alone (e.g. 3-D modelling, 'unravelling' of folds), whereas these Notes aim at techniques equally applicable to most branches of geology; (b) excellent comprehensive reviews of structural applications are already available (e.g. Whitten 1969,1981). Remote sensing is also barely covered, since comprehensive source guides similar in purpose to the present one already exist (Carter 1986). For the sake of brevity, phrases throughout this book which refer to males are, with apologies to any whose sensitivities are thereby offended, taken to include females!
    Pages: Online-Ressource (427 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540500704
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE The papers contained in the present volume were prepared from the contributions presented during an international Advanced Workshop held in Santander, Cantabria, Spain between 1-5 November 1989. The workshop was a joint activity of the Working Group on Geology and Land-Use Planning (program "Geology and Environment", UNESCO), the Commission on Applied Quaternary Research (INQUA), the Sub-Commission on Maps of Environmental Geology (Commission of the Geological Map of the World) and the Grupo Españiol de Geología Ambiental y Ordenación del Territorio (Spanish Association for Environmental Geology and Land-Use Planning). The aims of the meeting were to discuss a series of topics in which the four participating scientific bodies share an interest, to analyze the existing problems and trends and to identify certain lines along which work and/or actions will be particularly necessary in the near future. It was expected that the discussions and the conclusions of the meeting would provide useful guidelines for earth scientists working on environmental problems and for other professionals and officials who deal with environmental analysis, planning and management, either on a scientific basis or in a decision-making capacity...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (556 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540553533
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer
    Description / Table of Contents: Pages 1-13 / Maars of the Westeifel, Germany / G. Büchel --- Pages 15-60 / Syn- and post-eruptive mechanism of the Alaskan Ukinrek Maars in 1977 / G. Büchel, V. Lorenz --- Pages 61-80 / Maars and maar lakes of the Westeifel Volcanic Field / Jörg F. W. Negendank, Bernd Zolitschka --- Pages 81-94 / Maars of northern Auvergne (Massif Central, France): State of knowledge / E. Juvigné, G. Camus, A. de Goër de Herve --- Pages 95-107 / Palaeoenvironmental investigations on long sediment cores from volcanic lakes of Lazio (central Italy)—An overview / Maria Follieri, Donatella Magri, Biancamaria Narcisi --- Pages 109-116 / Geophysical mapping of organic sediments / Stefan Wende, Reinhard Kirsch --- Pages 117-118 / Preliminary uniboom survey of the Monticchio Lakes (southern Italy) / A. Stefanon --- Pages 119-128 / Sonar investigations in the Laghi di Monticchio (Mt. Vúlture, Italy) / Ralph B. Hansen --- Pages 129-148 / Climatic and tectonic effects on sedimentation in central Italian volcano lakes (Latium)—Implications from high resolution seismic profiles / F. Niessen, A. Lami, P. Guilizzoni --- Pages 149-161 / Sediments and basin analysis of Lake Schalkenmehrener Maar / T. Heinz, B. Rein, J. F. W. Negendank --- Pages 163-171 / Organic carbon contents of sediments from Lake Schalkenmehrener Maar: A paleoclimate indicator / B. Rein, J. F. W. Negendank --- Pages 173-194 / Basin analysis for selected time-frames using sedimentation rates in Lake Meerfelder Maar (Westeifel FRG) / F. Wegner, J. F. W. Negendank --- Pages 195-208 / Turbidites in the sediments of Lake Meerfelder Maar (Germany) and the explanation of suspension sediments / D. Drohmann, J. F. W. Negendank --- Pages 209-222 / Paleoclimate reconstruction at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition—A varve dated microstratigraphic record from Lake Meerfelder Maar (Westeifel, Germany) / D. Poth, J. F. W. Negendank --- Pages 223-235 / Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Late- and Postglacial sedimentary record of Lake Weinfelder Maar / A. Brauer, J. F. W. Negendank --- Pages 237-275 / Sedimentology and paleoenvironment from the Maar Lac du Bouchet for the last climatic cycle, 0-120,000 years (Massif Central, France) / Elisabeth Truze, Kerry Kelts --- Pages 277-288 / Lago Grande di Monticchio (southern Italy) a high resolution sedimentary record of the last 70,000 years / Bernd Zolitschka, Jörg F. W. Negendank --- Pages 289-304 / A multidisciplinary study of the Vico Maar sequence (Latium, Italy): Part of the last cycle in the Mediterranean area. Preliminary results / P. Francus, S. Leroy, I. Mergeai, G. Seret, G. Wansard --- Pages 305-316 / Environmental geology and geochemistry of lake sediments (Holzmaar, Eifwl, Germany) / B. G. Lottermoser, R. Oberhänsli, B. Zolitschka, J. F. W. Negendank, U. Schütz… --- Pages 317-332 / Geochemistry of Lago Grande di Monticchio, S. Italy / C. Robinson, G. B. Shimmield, K. M. Creer --- Pages 333-348 / Tephrochronology of core C from Lago Grande di Monticchio / Anthony J. Newton, Andrew J. Dugmore --- Pages 349-365 / A palaeomagnetic study of maar-lake sediments from the Westeifel / B. Haverkamp, Th. Beuker --- Pages 367-376 / Preliminary 50m palaeomagnetic records from Lac du Bouchet, Haute Loire, France / T. Williams, K. M. Creer, N. Thouveny --- Pages 377-392 / Palaeomagnetic investigations of Lago Grande di Monticchio, southern Italy / Ian Turton --- Pages 393-420 / Late-Glacial/Holocene changes of the climatic and trophic conditions in three Eifel maar lakes, as indicated by faunal remains. I. Cladocera / Wolfgang Hofmann --- Pages 421-433 / Late-glacial/Holocene changes of the climatic and trophic conditions in three Eifel maar lakes, as indicated by faunal remains. II. Chironomidae (Diptera) / Wolfgang Hofmann --- Pages 435-439 / Ostracoda (Crustacea) and trichoptera (Insecta) from Late-and Postglacial sediments of some European maar lakes / Burkhard W. Scharf --- Pages 441-446 / Oligocence dinoflagellate-cysts in Quaternary freshwater sediments of Eifel maars / H. Weiler --- Pages 447-465 / Tertiary maars of the Hocheifel Volcanic Field, Germany / G. Büchel, M. Pirrung --- Pages 467-476 / Some aspects of Cenozoic maar sediments in Europe: the source-rock potential and their exceptionally good fossil preservation / W. Zimmerle --- Pages 477-484 / Palaeoecological implications from the sedimentary record of a subtropical maar lake (Eocene Eckfelder Maar; Germany) / Bernd Zolitschka --- Pages 485-489 / Arthropods from the Eocene Eckfelder Maar (Eifel, Germany) as a source for paleoecological information / H. Lutz --- Pages 491-497 / Flowers from the Middle Eocene of Eckfeld (Eifel, Germany)— First results / H. Frankenhäuser, V. Wilde --- Pages 499-503 / Initial results on the importance of a flora from the Middle Eocene of Eckfeld (Eifel, W.-Germany) / V. Wilde, H. Frankenhäuser --- Pages 505-509 / International Maar Deep Drilling Project (MDDP) a challenge for earth sciences? / Jörg F. W. Negendank, Bernd Zolitschka
    Pages: Online-Ressource (513 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540565703
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Description / Table of Contents: PREFACE In the geologic record, vertical crustal uplift has often resulted in erosional removal of huge thicknesses of sedimentary strata. If the uplift is of a broad regional nature or the uplifted strata remain relatively undeformed and sediments deposited after the uplift are not preserved, the magnitude of uplift and subsequent erosion may be difficult to quantify. This may lead to misinterpretation or omission of chapters of geologic history of a region. Fortunately, a number of indirect methods can be used to infer the thicknesses of missing strata and reconstruct the geologic history. Our book titled "Thick Post-Devonian Sediment Cover Over New York State: Evidence from Fluid-Inclusion, Organic Maturation, Clay Diagenesis and Stable Isotope Studies" uses four techniques of paleotemperature measurements in sedimentary rocks in order to determine burial depths of the existing Paleozoic strata in New York State. Since every technique has its own analytical and interpretative uncertainties, the use of four techniques allowed us to place a better constraint on our results. We show how regionally extensive paleotemperature data can be used to estimate the thicknesses of strata lost from an uplifted sedimentary basin. We also provide a tentative tectonic-, paleogeographic- and depositional history of New York State after the Devonian when the missing strata were deposited...
    Pages: Online-Ressource (113 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9783540594581
    Language: English
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