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  • German  (152)
  • Chinese  (2)
  • 2015-2019  (154)
  • 1945-1949
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  • 1
    Call number: AWI Bio-17-90819
    Description / Table of Contents: The authors completed collecting and arranging plates of photomicrographs for common pollen and spores in Quaternary strata. Given China's vast territory, complex vegetation types, a variety of plants, and polen grains with similar morphology probably produced by different plant species in different regions. We have organized this book's photomicrographs of pollen grains and spores in the division of China into five regions, i.e. northwest,northern, southeast, south and southwest China. Photomicrographs of pollen grains and spores in each region are arranged by plant classification system i.e. in order of algae, bryophyte, pteridophyte, gymnosperm, and angiosperm. All 409 plates of color photomicrographs for pollen grains and spores are finally illustrated and described.
    Description / Table of Contents: 本书整理编排了我国第四纪地层常见的孢粉类型显微照相图版,按照西北、北方、东南、华南和西南五个大区编排,并对这些区域的现代植被、第四纪植被史做了简要概述,还重点叙述了各地区第四纪主要孢粉类型、特点以及常见孢粉种类的鉴定形态特征。共分三章,第一章为我国各地区现代植被和第四纪植被概述,重点叙述了古植被与古气候的演变历史;第二章介绍本图鉴中所列出的各地区主要第四纪孢粉类型及其特点,并对不同地区常见孢粉种类
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 620 Seiten , zahlreiche Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9787030505682
    Language: Chinese , Latin
    Note: Contents: Preface. - Chapter 1: Overview of modern and Quaternary vegetation in China. - 1.1 Northwest region / Tang Lingyu and Shen Caiming. - 1.1.1 Overview of modern vegetation. - 1.1.1.1 Gobi desert and desert vegetation in eastern Xinjiang. - 1.1.1.2 Extremely arid desert and shrubland vegetation in the Qaidam Basin. - 1.1.1.3 Arid desert shrub and semi-shrub vegetation in the Hexi Corridor. - 1.1.1.4 Sylvosteppe or pine-oak forest in the transitional region between semi-humid and semi-arid monsoonal climate of temperate zone in the Loess Plateau. - 1.1.2 Overview of Quaternary vegetation. - 1.1.2.1 Vegetation and environment since the early Pleistocene in Qinghai. - 1.1.2.2 Holocene vegetation succession of steppe/meadow in north Xizang (Tibet). - 1.1.2.3 Vegetation and environment since the late Pleistocene in the Loess Plateau. - 1.1.2.4 Vegetation and environment since the early Pleistocene in Xinjiang. - 1.2 Northern region / Tang Lingyu and Li Chunhai. - 1.2.1 Overview of modern vegetation. - 1.2.1.1 Coniferous and broadleaved forest and meadow of temperate zone in Northeast China. - 1.2.1.2 Oak forest of river valley, Chinese pine forest, and shrub steppe in the lower valley of Liaohe River, North China plain, southern Shanxi, and central Shaanxi plain. - 1.2.2 Overview of Quaternary vegetation. - 1.2.2.1 Vegetation and environment since the early Pleistocene in North China. - 1.2.2.2 Vegetation and environment since the early Pleistocene in Northeast China. - 1.3 Southeast region / Shu Junwu and Tang Lingyu. - 1.3.1 Overview of modern vegetation. - 1.3.2 Overview of Quaternary vegetation. - 1.3.2.1 Vegetation succession since the mid-Pleistocene in Hubei. - 1.3.2.2 Vegetation and environment since the late Pleistocene in the lower valley of the Yangtze River. - 1.3 .2.3 Forest succession since the last glaciation in southeast coast of Fujian. - 1.3.2.4 Vegetation and environment since the late Pleistocene in the central Taiwan. - 1.4 South region / Mao Limi, Tang Lingyu and Shen Cairning. - 1.4.1 Overview of modern vegetation. - 1.4.1.1 Vegetation in the southern zone of middle subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest. - 1.4.1.2 Vegetation in the zone of south subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest. - 1.4.1.3 Tropical semi-evergreen monsoonal forest and tropical monsoonal forest. - 1.4.2 Overview of Quaternary vegetation. - 1.4.2.1 Vegetation in the Zhujiang delta and Chaozhou plain since the Pleistocene recorded by pollen and spores. - 1.4.2.2 Vegetation and climate since the late Pleistocene in Leizhou Peninsula and Holocene vegetation and climate in Hainan Island. - 1.4.2.3 Late Quaternary pollen and spores, vegetation and climate records in the South. - 1.4.2.4 Vegetation and climate since the late Pleistocene in Hong Kong. - 1.5 Southwest region / Shu Junwu, Tang Lingyu and Shen Caiming. - 1.5.1 Overview of modern vegetation. - 1.5.1.1 Vegetation of evergreen broadleaved forest in the Yunnan , Guizhou and western Sichuan Plateau. - 1.5.1.2 Vegetation of coniferous forest in southeast Xizang. - 1.5.2 Overview of Quaternary vegetation. - 1.5.2.1 Holocene vegetation in northwest Yunnan. - 1.5.2.2 Vegetation and monsoonal climate history since the late Pleistocene in western and south-central Yunnan. - 1.5.2.3 Holocene vegetation in western Sichuan. - 1.5.2.4 Vegetation and environment since the late Pleistocene in Guizhou. - 1.5.2.5 Vegetation and monsoonal climate history since the late Pleistocene in southeastern Xizang. - Chapter 2 Main types of Quaternary pollen and spores and their characteristics in different regions of China. - 2.1 Northwest region / Tang Lingyu and Mao Limi. - 2.1.1 Types of Quaternary pollen and spores in Northwest China. - 2.1.2 Identifiable features of major Quaternary pollen and spores in Northwest China. - 2.1.2.1 Identifiable features of main Compositae pollen types. - 2.1.2.2 Identifiable features of Artemisia, Tamarix, and Zygophyllum pollen. - 2.1.2.3 Identifiable features of Rhamnus, Hippophae, and Elaeagnus pollen. - 2.1.3 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary spores and pollen in Northwest China. - 2.1.3.1 Photomicrographs for major Quaternary pollen types in Northwest China. - 2.1.3.2 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen types in Northwest China. - 2.2 Northern region / Tang Lingyu. - 2.2.1 Types of Quaternary pollen and spores in Northern China. - 2.2.2 Identifiable features of major Quaternary pollen and spores in Northern China. - 2.2.2.1 Identification keys of pollen morphology for several saccate genera of Pinaceae. - 2.2.2.2 Identifiable features of pollen morphology for genera of Betulaceae. - 2.2.2.3 Identifiable features of tricolpate pollen from Salix and Cruciferae. - 2.2.2.4 Identifiable features of tricolpate pollen from Ranunculaceae and Labiatae. - 2.2.3 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary spores and pollen in Northern China. - 2.2.3.1 Photomicrographs for major Quaternary pollen types in Northern China. - 2.2.3.2 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen types in Northern China. - 2.3 Southeast region / Tang Lingyu and Shu Junwu. - 2.3.1 Types of Quaternary pollen and spores in Southeast China. - 2.3.2 Identifiable features of major Quaternary pollen and spores in Southeast China. - 2.3.2.1 Identifiable features of pollen morphology for Fagaceae. - 2.3.2.2 Identification keys of pollen morphology for several genera of Fagaceae. - 2.3.2.3 Identifiable features of pollen morphology for several genera of Fagaceae. - 2.3.2.4 Identifiable features of pollen morphology for several genera of tropical and subtropical. - 2.3.3 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen and spores in Southeast China. - 2.3.3.1 Photomicrographs for major Quaternary pollen types in Southeast China. - 2.3.3.2 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen types in Southeast China. - 2.4 South region / Mao Limi and Tang Lingyu. - 2.4.1 Types of Quaternary pollen and spores in South China. - 2.4.2 Identifiable features of main Quaternary pollen and spores in South China. - 2.4.2.1 Modern distribution and paleophytogeography of Sonneratia and its identifiable features of pollen morphology. - 2.4.2.2 Modern distribution and paleoecology significance of Rhizophoraceae and its identifiable features of pollen morphology. - 2.4.3 Photomicrographs and descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen and spores in South China. - 2.4.3.1 Photomicrographs for major Quaternary pollen and spores in South China. - 2.4.3.2 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen and spores in South China. - 2.5 Southwest region / Tang Lingyu and Shu Junwu. - 2.5.1 Types of Quaternary pollen and spores in Southwest China. - 2.5.2 Identifiable feature of main Quaternary pollen and spores in Southwest China. - 2.5.2.1 Plant distribution and pollen features of Pinaceae in Southwest China. - 2.5.2.2 Identification keys of pollen morphology for Pinaceae. - 2.5.3 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen and spores in Southwest China. - 2.5.3.1 Photomicrographs for common pollen in Southwest China. - 2.5.3.2 Descriptions of morphological features for major Quaternary pollen and spores in Southwest China. - Chapter 3 Plates and descriptions of Quaternary pollen and spores in different region of China. - 3.1 Northwest region / Tang Lingyu and Mao Limi. - Spores of the pteridophyte Plates 1-3. - Gymnosperm pollen Plates 3-10. - Angiosperm pollen Plates 11-63. - 3.2 Northern region / Tang Lingyu and Li Chunhai. - Spores of the algae Plates 1-3. - Spores of the bryophyte Plate 4. - Spores of the pteridophyte Plates 5-9. - Gymnosperm pollen Plates 9-24. - Angiosperm pollen Plates 25-63. - 3.3 Southeast region / Tang Lingyu, Zhou Zhongze and
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  • 2
    Call number: IASS 16.89776
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 530 Seiten , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 9787010149363
    Language: English , Chinese
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: Das Jahr 2017 war auf dem Potsdamer Telegrafenberg, der langjährigen Heimat von Friedrich Robert Helmert, geprägt durch mehrere Jubiläen: der 125ste Jahrestag der Eröffnung der neuen Forschungsräumlichkeiten des Geodätischen Instituts wurde am 06. April 2017 unter Beteiligung von zahlreichen Gästen mit einem bunten Festprogramm gefeiert. Am darauf folgenden Tag haben mehrere Vortragende in einem gut besuchten Kolloquium an das 100ste Todesjahr von F.R. Helmert erinnert. Dies wurde ergänzt durch zahlreiche Vortragsveranstaltung und weitere Kolloquien zu Helmert, die im Jahr 2017 an mehreren Orten in Deutschland durchgeführt wurden, wie z.B. in Aachen, Dortmund und - an seinem exakten Todestag, dem 15. Juni – in Potsdam. Die faszinierende Ausstellung „Fokus Erde“ hat im Frühjahr 2017 im Haus der Brandenburgisch- Preußischen Geschichte in Potsdam die Entwicklung der Geodäsie als Wissenschaft in den letzten beiden Jahrhunderten mit beeindruckenden Exponaten einer breiten Öffentlichkeit präsentiert. Es war zu sehen, dass die Geschichte der Geodäsie – national wie auch international – im ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert wesentlich vom Potsdamer Telegrafenberg aus geprägt wurde und es muss nicht erstaunen, dass in der Ausstellung die Leistungen von Helmert, sowohl als Wissenschaftler, Hochschullehrer, geodätischer Beobachter wie auch als Organisator wissenschaftlicher Projekte eine besondere Rolle spielten. Bei den Feiern zum 25-jährigen Bestehen des Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam, Deutsches Geoforschungszentrum (GFZ), die ebenfalls im Jahr 2017 stattfanden, wurde immer auf die großartigen wissenschaftlichen Leistungen des langjährigen Institutsdirektors Helmert hingewiesen, die eine unverzichtbare Grundlage der heutigen Arbeiten am GFZ bedeuten und in deren Tradition sich das GFZ auch heute noch sieht. Der vorliegende Band soll insofern die unterschiedlichen Bereiche des Lebens und Wirkens von F.R. Helmert, die zum Teil im Jubiläumsjahr 2017 an verschiedenen Stellen zu Tage befördert wurden, zusammenführen und, ergänzt um weitere neu recherchierte Aspekte, den Bogen bis in die heutige Zeit der Satellitengeodäsie und des Einsatzes von Hochleistungsrechnern für geodätische Aufgaben spannen. Ohne die grundlegenden Arbeiten von Helmert wäre diese Entwicklung nicht möglich gewesen. In diesem Sinne nehmen wir seinen Geburtstag am 31. Juli 1843 zugleich zum Anlass, sein wissenschaftliches Wirken zu seinem 175. Ehrentag mit diesem Buch zu würdigen. Allen Beteiligten an den genannten Veranstaltungen wie auch den Autoren des vorliegenden Bandes sei hiermit ausdrücklich gedankt. Den Beiträgen vorangestellt ist eine Bildauswahl mit Portrait- und Gruppenaufnahmen, die Helmert zu verschiedenen Zeiten und in unterschiedlichen Positionen seines wissenschaftlichen Wirkens präsentieren.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-09-09
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-03-11
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-04-12
    Description: Der Schwerpunkt des Gutachtens soll darauf liegen, wie ORCID an wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen in Deutschland implementiert wird. Dabei werden die institutionellen Regularien sowie die deutschen und europäischen Normen, denen wissenschaftliche Einrichtungen in Deutschland unterliegen, die ORCID implementieren, betrachtet. Dabei soll auch der Tatsache Rechnung getragen werden, dass dabei Datenflüsse in die USA entstehen. Zentrale Anforderung ist, dass das Gutachten möglichst allgemein verständlich und allgemeingültig formuliert wird und somit einen Orientierungsrahmen für die rechtliche Prüfung vor Ort, also etwa an Hochschulen und außeruniversitäre Forschungseinrichtungen bietet. Anliegen des Gutachtens ist es, wissenschaftliche Einrichtungen bei der rechtskonformen Umsetzung der Autorenidentifikation mit ORCID zu unterstützen. Der Erstellung des Gutachtens ging ein Prozess voraus, der die Zusammenarbeit mit dem DFG-Projekt ORCID DE gewährleisten sollte. So wurden im November 2016 im Rahmen eines Workshops nach Darstellung grundsätzlicher Datenschutzprinzipien spezifische Fragestellungen erarbeitet (Annex I14); im Rahmen eines weiteren „Community Inputs“ (Annex II15), der über das Projekt ORCID DE gesammelt wurde, wurden weitere Aspekte adressiert. Eingeflossen in das Gutachten ist ebenfalls eine Korrespondenz mit den Betreibern von ORCID, in der zu einzelnen Fragen, die im Rahmen der Bearbeitung aufgetaucht sind, Stellung genommen wurde.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-09-05
    Description: Der vorliegende Report stellt die Ergebnisse einer Erhebung zu Open Access unter wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen in Deutschland vor. Von September bis November 2018 haben sich 403 wissenschaftliche Einrichtungen an dieser Erhebung beteiligt. Diese Erhebung ist die bisher umfangreichste Studie zu den Open-Access-Aktivitäten an Hochschulen, außeruniversitären Forschungseinrichtungen und Ressortforschungseinrichtungen in Deutschland. Die Ergebnisse der Erhebung geben u. a. einen Überblick über die Verbreitung von Leit- und Richtlinien zu Open Access und über den Stand der Open-Access-Infrastrukturen. Darüber hinaus bieten die Ergebnisse einen Einblick in den Umgang mit Open-Access- Publikationskosten und dem damit verbundenen Monitoring der Finanzmittel an wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen. Zudem beschreibt die Studie den Stand des Open-Access- Monitorings an wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen und beschäftigt sich mit der Implementierung von Transformationsstrategien zur Förderung von Open Access. Das Vorhaben wurde vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) im Rahmen des Projektes „Options4OA” gefördert (Förderkennzeichen: 16OA034).
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Report
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  • 8
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    Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum
    In:  GFZ Lectures ; Year: 2015 ; Volume: 2
    Publication Date: 2015-05-27
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Book
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-08-02
    Description: Energiewende ist Daseinsvorsorge. Eine erfolgreiche Energiewende benötigt eine Wärmewende! Innovationen, Demonstration und gesellschaftliche Akzeptanz spielen dabei eine Schlüsselrolle. Das „Zwanzig20- Forum Wärmewende“ entwickelt Strategien für den zukünftigen Einsatz von innovativen Technologien zur Realisierung der Wärmewende. Wir sind davon überzeugt, dass eine effiziente Wärmeversorgung urbaner Räume aus heimischen, regenerativen Energiequellen nicht nur möglich, sondern auch umsetzbar ist. Die Wärmewende kan gelingen, wenn die Energieeffizienz und der Anteil erneuerbarer Wärme gesteigert werden und der Sektor Strom geschickt in die Wärmeerzeugng eingebunden wird. Effizienzmaßnahmen haben Vorrang, stoßen aber an Grenzen. Erneuerbare Energien besitzen im Wärmesektor ein hohes Entwicklungspotential. Es gibt kein Patentrezept, die Wärmewende muss technologieoffen gestaltet werden. Im Transformationsprozess spielen Akzeptanz, Demografie und strukturierte Stadtentwicklung eine Schlüsselrolle. Deshalb sind die technologischen Lösungsansätze in eine holistische Sichtweise zu integrieren. Für eine Wärmewende sollten Lösungen ab der Dimension „Quartier“ vorrangig umgesetzt werden. Städte sind stark verdichtete Lebensräume des Menschen. Wärme-, Kälte- und Gasnetze bringen erneuerbare Energien in diese Lebensräume. Daher werden diese Netze in Städten erhalten und ausgebaut. In Großstädten gibt es auch künftig einen substanziellen Bedarf für eine zentrale Fernwärmeversorgung. Hierfür ist zukünftig die Nutzung von Erdwärme unverzichtbar. Die Netze sind die Energieversorgungsinfrastrukturen, die eine Integration der Innovationen von morgen ermöglichen, also von Lösungen, die wir heute noch nicht kennen. Bei vielen technologischen Prozessen fällt Abwärme an, die ungenutzt an die Umwelt abgegeben wird. Die Stadt der Zukunft heizt und kühlt mit dieser Abwärme. Dafür sind Speicher notwendig, auch saisonale Großspeicher. Demonstration ist wichtig für den Erfolg der Wärmewende. Demonstration adressiert die vorhandenen Zielkonflikte, hilft den Veränderungsprozess lösungsorientiert zu gestalten und fördert die Akzeptanz. Benötigt werden mehr Demonstrationsprojekte. Ausgehend von technologischen Lösungen bauen sichtbare und erfolgreiche Demonstrationsprojekte Vorbehalte und Unsicherheiten ab und schaffen Blaupausen für erfolgreiches Handeln und Wirtschaften. Dabei vernetzten sie an einem konkreten Standort die relevanten Akteure und verhelfen Innovationen zum Markteinstieg. Der Entwicklung von regenerativen Demonstrationsvorhaben stehen deutliche Hemmnisse gegenüber, daher ist sie für alle Beteiligten zeit- und ressourcenintensiv. Eine regenerative Wärmeversorgung erfordert zusätzliche Investitionen und muss sich als neuer Teilnehmer in einem etablierten und gedeckten Wärmemarkt behaupten. Kostendruck und Konkurrenzstellung liefern dabei wenig Anreize für Versorger und Verbraucher, regenerative Technologien zu implementieren. Die Anwendung innovativer Technologien stellt vielfach die etablierten Rollen zwischen Erzeuger und Verbraucher sowie dem Produkt der Wertschöpfung in Frage. Neue Geschäftsmodelle haben es schwer sich durchzusetzen, da die etablierten Modelle gut funktionieren. Demonstrationsvorhaben müssen daher durch staatliche Förderprogramme stimuliert werden. Integrierte Verbundprojekte zwischen der Wärmewirtschaft und öffentlichen Forschungsinstitutionen liefern gute Voraussetzungen für eine Förderfähigkeit.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Book
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  • 10
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    In:  Praxishandbuch Bibliotheksmanagement ; Year: 2015 ; Pages: 639-651
    Publication Date: 2016-01-27
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2015-11-20
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • 12
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    In:  Warnsignal Klima : Extremereignisse ; Year: 2018 ; Pages: 250-254
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/BookItem
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  • 13
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    Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
    In:  Scientific Technical Report STR ; ISSN: 1610-0956 ; Year: 2016 ; Volume: 16/06 ; Pages: 1-150
    Publication Date: 2016-07-18
    Description: Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is one of the fundamental space geodetic techniques. Important goals for the next generation of VLBI technology are continuous operations as well as automated data processing. For this reason, it is necessary to introduce real time capable parameter estimation algorithms, such as Kalman filters, to VLBI data analysis. In this study, such a filter was implemented in the VLBI software VieVS@GFZ, and several aspects related to VLBI data processing were investigated. Within the corresponding module VIE_KAL it is possible, for example, to estimate all parameters important in VLBI analysis, adapt their stochastic models, flexibly define the datum, integrate external data, as well as extract datum free normal equations. The foci of the investigations were on the effects of the troposphere, the most important error source in VLBI analysis, and on the determination of station positions, which are of great importance in geodesy. For the stochastic model of the tropospheric delays, station- and timedependent differences were considered. In comparisons with tropospheric parameters from GNSS, water vapor radiometers and numerical weather models, the Kalman filter solution yielded 5 to 15% smaller differences than a least squares solution based on the same models and VLBI data. Also in the case of estimated station coordinates, the Kalman filter solution exhibited better baseline length and station coordinate repeatabilities. The application of station-based process noise led to additional improvements. Furthermore, the Kalman filter was used to estimate subdaily station coordinate variations caused by tidal and loading effects. Finally, the findings were used to determine Kalman-filter-based global terrestrial reference frames (TRFs). For the stochastic model of the coordinate variations of particular stations, loading deformation time series were utilized. The non-deterministic approach of the Kalman filter allowed the consideration of non-linear station movement, for example, due to irregular seasonal effects or post-seismic deformations. In comparisons with a VLBI TRF solution from a classical adjustment and ITRF2008, a good agreement in terms of transformation parameters and station velocities was achieved. The findings from testing different options related to the parameterization and to the stochastic model will help to improve future reference frames.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Thesis
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-06-08
    Description: Gashydrate sind natürlich vorkommende feste Verbindungen aus Wasser und Gas, deren Erschließung als zukünftige Energiequelle von Interesse ist. Für die bohrtechnische Erschließung mariner Gashydratlagerstätten ist eine leistungsfähige Bohrspülung notwendig. Das vom Bohrmeißel gelockerte Sediment und darin enthaltenes Gashydrat werden durch die Bohrspülung nach übertage transportiert. Die Gashydratpartikel verlassen beim Aufsteigen im Ringraum in ca. 300 m Wassertiefe ihren Stabilitätsbereich und dissoziieren in Wasser und Gas. Um eine Verdünnung und eine Dichteerniedrigung der Bohrspülung zu verhindern, soll das Gashydratbohrklein stabilisiert werden. Gleichzeitig darf sich in der Bohrspülung bei Anwesenheit von freiem Gas in der Lagerstätte kein neues Gashydrat bilden. Die Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Suche nach Additiven, welche die Gashydratneubildung und -dissoziation gleichzeitig hemmen. Es wurde ein Schüttelautoklav genutzt, um die Dissoziationstemperatur von Methanhydrat bei ca. 85 bar zu ermitteln und die Verzögerung des Hydratzerfalls bei Anwesenheit verschiedener Additive zu vergleichen. Es konnte ein Additiv gefunden werden, das diese Anforderungen erfüllt. Des Weiteren wurden neue rheologische Untersuchungsprogramme für verschiedene Spülungstypen erarbeitet, die eine detaillierte Charakterisierung der Fließfähigkeit, Thixotropie und Geleigenschaften von Bohrspülungen erlauben.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Thesis
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2017-03-03
    Description: Vorliegender Datensatz gibt auf Basis einer Analyse im Dezember 2015 im re3data.org - Registry of Research Data Repositories1 einen Überblick über Forschungsdaten-Repositorien die unter Beteiligung deutscher Institutionen betrieben werden.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/other
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2017-05-30
    Description: Vortrag beim Workshop „Der Kerndatensatz Forschung - und nun? - Nutzen, Grenzen und Umsetzungsstrategien des Kerndatensatz Forschung und von Forschungsinformationssystemen“
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/other
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2017-10-18
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/other
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  • 18
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    In:  Stratigraphische Tabelle von Deutschland ; Year: 2016
    Publication Date: 2017-10-18
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/other
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2017-12-15
    Description: Angesichts der anhaltend dynamischen Veränderungen, welche die Digitalisierung für alle Wissenschaftsbereiche mit sich bringt, erscheint der Bedarf an einer Vernetzungs-, Abstimmungs- und Handlungsstruktur wie der Allianz-Initiative ungebrochen hoch. Die erfolgreiche Zusammenarbeit der deutschen Wissenschaftsorganisationen in der Allianz-Initiative wird daher für die Jahre 2018 bis 2022 fortgesetzt. Die Grundlagen der Zusammenarbeit werden im vorliegenden Leitbild Den digitalen Wandel in der Wissenschaft gestalten. Die Schwerpunktinitiative „Digitale Information“ der Allianz der deutschen Wissenschaftsorganisationen 2018 – 2022 dargelegt. Das Leitbild beschreibt Grundsätze und Anspruch der Allianz-Initiative (Kapitel 1), umreißt die Ausgangslage und das thematische Umfeld, in das sich die Initiative in ihrer dritten Periode der Zusammenarbeit einfügt (Kapitel 2) und benennt die Handlungsfelder des digitalen Wandels in der Wissenschaft sowie die sich daraus ergebenden potentiellen Arbeitsschwerpunkte für die Allianz-Initiative „Digitale Information“ (Kapitel 3).
    Language: German
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Language: German
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2018-05-23
    Description: Diese Handreichung soll als Einstieg für Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler, die mit digitalen Daten arbeiten, sowie für alle an dieser Thematik Interessierten dienen und bietet darüber hinaus Hinweise zu weiterführender Information. Sie wurde von der Arbeitsgruppe „Forschungsdaten“ der Schwerpunktinitiative „Digitale Information“ der Allianz der deutschen Wissenschaftsorganisationen1 verfasst.
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2018-02-08
    Language: German
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  • 23
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    Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
    Publication Date: 2018-03-19
    Language: German
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2017-08-03
    Language: German
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2015-08-12
    Language: German
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  • 26
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    Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
    Publication Date: 2016-06-08
    Language: German
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  • 27
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    Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
    Publication Date: 2016-06-08
    Language: German
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  • 28
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    Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
    Publication Date: 2016-06-08
    Language: German
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2017-04-28
    Description: Diese Ausgabe des GFZ-Journals „System Erde“ wurde im Dezember 2016 produziert und erscheint im Januar 2017. Das ist der Monat, in dem das Deutsche GeoForschungsZentrum seinen 25. Geburtstag feiert. Der Schwerpunkt Südamerika ist dabei durchaus passend, denn die Forscherinnen und Forscher des GFZ arbeiten dort seit der Gründung des Zentrums. Die Südpazifikküste mit den großen Subduktionsbeben, die Anden mit ihren Vulkanen und all die geologischen Prozesse, die in der Region sichtbar werden, sind wie die Seiten eines Lehrbuchs der Geologie – wenn man sie denn zu entziffern weiß. Selbst die so genannten passiven Kontinentalränder an den Küsten des Südatlantiks bieten uns tiefe Einblicke in die Erdgeschichte; sie sind Geoarchive erster Ordnung. Hinzu kommt, dass sie Lagerstätten für Rohstoffe bergen.
    Language: German
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  • 30
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    Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Language: German
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  • 31
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    Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
    Publication Date: 2019-04-24
    Language: German
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2019-06-17
    Description: Mit dem Journal "System Erde" berichtet das Deutsche GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ über die unterschiedlichen Facetten seiner Forschungsarbeiten. Die Reihe richtet sich vor allem an Entscheidungsträger in Wissenschaft, Gesellschaft und Politik, an interessierte Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler sowie an die fachinteressierte Öffentlichkeit.
    Language: German
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2015-11-20
    Language: German
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  • 34
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    In:  Berichte ; Year: 2016
    Publication Date: 2017-05-30
    Language: German
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2016-05-24
    Description: The nucleation of earthquakes and their seismic waves cannot be predicted in a deterministic sense. However probabilistic hazard and risk estimations can be conducted which help to increase the preparedness and reduce the vulnerability of societies. Those estimations are based on the rapidly growing number of empirical earthquake data recorded by seismic networks or known from historical or geological studies, which show that earthquakes are not randomly occurring. They typically occur clustered in space and time with specific characteristics such as the Gutenberg-Richter law for the frequency-magnitude distribution. Seismicity models have to account for earthquake interactions to avoid erroneous estimations of the activity level and spatial distribution of future activity. Additionally, the vulnerability of societies is changing with with time, because of the dynamic reconstruction and growth of cities in earthquake-prone regions. Thus new sophisticated models, strategies, and methods have to be developed and tested for all components of the earthquake risk chain to improve our probabilistic hazard and risk estimations.
    Language: German
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2016-05-24
    Description: The Earth’s surface is constantly changing as material is redistributed by processes like slope failures, debris flows and floods. Although this is a natural part of landscape evolution, we perceive many of these processes as hazards. Especially during their extreme manifestations, they can cause significant damage and even injury and loss of life. The process understanding that is necessary for the safe keeping of the environment that we live in can be obtained by acute observation. Seismic measurements provide distinct advantages over traditional methods. Within a sensor network, many important processes at the Earth’s surface can be observed and identified, along with their meteorological drivers. Further, seismic networks make it possible to monitor the entire landscape without the need of a prior choice of location. In this way, nearly complete event catalogues can be obtained and the interaction of different processes can be studied. The potential of seismic observations of Earth surface processes is illustrated with an example from the Illgraben, Switzerland. There, a two-way interaction between rock slope failures and debris flows was observed during a summer thunderstorm.
    Language: German
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  • 37
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    In:  System Erde ; Year: 2016 ; Volume: 6 ; Issue: 2 ; Pages: 16-21
    Publication Date: 2018-12-20
    Description: To this date, the question of why and how a plateau-type orogen formed with massive crustal thickening at the leading edge of western South America remains one of the hotly debated issues in geodynamics. During the Cenozoic, the Altiplano and Puna plateau of the Central Andes developed during continuous subduction of the oceanic Nazca plate in a convergent continental margin setting – a situation that is unique along the 60 000 km of convergent margins around the globe. The key challenge is to understand why a first-order mechanical instability of the later plateau extent developed along the central portion of the leading edge of South America only, as well as why and how this feature developed only during the Cenozoic, although the cycle of Andean subduction had been ongoing since at least the Jurassic. Although the widespread presence of partial melts or metamorphic fluids at mid-crustal level has been suggested to indicate upper plate weakening from heating and partial melting, it is recently found that upper plate strain weakening at lithospheric scale plays a significantly larger role. This first order control is tuned by factors affecting the strength balance between the upper plate lithosphere and the plate interface of the Nazca and South American plates such as variations in trenchward sediment flux affecting plate interface coupling and slab rollback or the role of inherited structures. Late initiation of orogeny in the Eocene, however, and its sustained action over tens of million years is now found to be related to the penetration of the slab into the lower mantle around 50 Ma ago, producing a slowdown of the lateral slab migration (‚slab anchoring’), and dragging the upper plate against the subduction zone by large-scale return flow. The combination of these parameters was highly uncommon during the Phanerozoic leading to very few plateau style orogens at convergent margins like the Cenozoic Central Andes in South America or the Laramide North American Cordillera.
    Language: German
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-12-20
    Description: The Atacama Fault System (AFS) is an active trench-parallel fault system, located in the forearc of N-Chile directly above the subduction zone interface. Due to its well-exposed position in the hyper arid forearc of N-Chile it is the perfect target to investigate the interaction between the deformation cycle in the overriding forearc and the subduction zone seismic cycle of the underlying megathrust. Although the AFS and large parts of the upper crust are devoid of any noteworthy seismicity or historically documented earthquakes, at least three M=7 earthquakes in the past 10 ky have been documented in the paleoseismological record, demonstrating the potential of large events in the future. We apply a two-fold approach to explore fault activation and reactivation patterns through time and to investigate the triggering potential of upper crustal faults. 1) A new methodology using high-resolution topographic data allows us to investigate the number of past earthquakes for any given segment of the fault system as well as the amount of vertical displacement of the last increment. This provides us with a detailed dataset of past earthquake rupture of upper plate faults which is potentially linked to large subduction zone earthquakes. 2) The IPOC Creepmeter array provides us with high-resolution time series of fault displacement accumulation for eleven stations along the four most active branches of the AFS.
    Language: German
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-12-20
    Description: The Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) in northern Chile has been monitoring the largest seismic gap along the South American subduction zone for 10 years. When IPOC was initiated, it has been 130 years the last great earthquake in the region had occurred. And since then the Iquique gap had been accumulating a slip deficit along a 〉500 km segment of the plate boundary. Since IPOC’s inception two large events, the 2007 M 7.7 Tocopilla and the M 8.1 2014 Iquique earthquakes, have broken parts of the gap. Both events were well recorded by IPOC, produce valuable data and advance our understanding of the subduction megathrust earthquake cycle. Last year, the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (GEOMAR) has been extending IPOC with the GeoSEA ocean bottom observatory. In this ambitious project deformation will be measured where it cannot be picked up by land-based instruments, i. e. far offshore near the subduction trench. This will open the crucial updip section of the subduction plate boundary to research. IPOC has thus demonstrated the necessity of long-term monitoring to observe slow or rare events, but also that tenacity and patience pay off.
    Language: German
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-12-20
    Description: In news reports we are accustomed to see earthquakes symbolised with a dot or star on a map and associated with a magnitude, the bigger the scarier. For at least moderately sized earthquakes seismologists additionally have been routinely determining the type of rupture just from observing the pattern of radiated seismic energy. In reality earthquakes do not occur as a point but rupture a fault plane. For small earthquakes this distinction can be neglected but for the largest earthquakes the rupture plane can extend for hundreds of kilometres, and the actual rupture propagation begins to have a strong influence on the hazard that the earthquake presents – whether the rupture proceeds to the north or the south and how deep and shallow it reaches determines which cities will be hit the hardest, whether shaking is moderate or intense, and whether a sizeable tsunami is triggered. The explosion of the availability of ground-, ocean- and space-based observation technologies in the last decade has allowed seismologists to map the rupture process in unprecedented detail even for challenging subduction zone earthquakes. The same technology can be used to observe potential precursory processes and the postseismic relaxation by which the earth regains its equilibrium following the disturbance that a great earthquake represents. Focussing on the Mw 8.1 Iquique earthquake in northern Chile on April 1, 2014, we will discuss the state-of-the-art in monitoring great earthquakes and their aftermath.
    Language: German
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  • 41
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    In:  System Erde ; Year: 2017 ; Volume: 7 ; Issue: 1 ; Pages: 50-55
    Publication Date: 2017-05-10
    Description: The use of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in hydrocarbon exploration and active magmatic and/or hydrothermal systems (e. g. black smoker, volcanic and geothermal fields) is widely applied and provides important information about the sources and isotopic compositions of natural gases. However, no information about the composition, origin and fate of migrated gases can be obtained in unexplored hydrocarbon provinces or commercially dry fields due to the lack of gas tests during drilling. The same holds true for fossil magmatic and hydrothermal ore-forming systems. In such frontier areas gas-bearing fluid inclusions hosted in minerals can provide pointers to past gas migration and the origin of gases. A new analytical method for simultaneous measurements of stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (N2), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in natural gas mixtures released by crushing of fluid inclusions in minerals was developed at the GFZ. Isotopic studies of fluid inclusion gases using this on-line method have been performed so far with regard to the origin of gases in hydrocarbon- and ore-forming systems. These studies have demonstrated the applicability and importance of the developed method in the field of Geo Resources research.
    Language: German
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  • 42
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    In:  System Erde ; Year: 2017 ; Volume: 7 ; Issue: 1 ; Pages: 66-71
    Publication Date: 2017-05-10
    Description: One of the major goals of the Geosciences is to identify and comprehend material cycling in our planet in order to understand mantle geodynamic processes. These processes are fundamental to the formation of the continental crust and the atmosphere, mantle-crustatmosphere interactions, and planetary formation as a whole. With our systematic, integrated studies of He, Ne, Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes of globally distributed mid-ocean ridge basalts and ocean island basalts we have contributed significantly to refining existing models on the behaviour of He and Ne during melt formation and evolution as well as models of the geochemical structure of the entire mantle. We have e.g. shown that He and Ne are more compatible during melt formation than their mother isotopes 235U, 238U and 232Th. Therefore, it is no longer necessary to postulate the existence of a virtually non-degassed, isolated lower mantle reservoir. We have also shown that the upper mantle is chemically heterogeneous at different spatial and temporal scales, indicating that the mixing efficiency of the upper mantle is not as good as previously thought. In addition, based on He, Ne and Ar isotope and trace-element data from the Foundation hotspot we have shown that the associated near ridge seamounts erupt lavas with a trace-element signature characteristic of oceanic gabbro, which indicates the existence of recycled, virtually unchanged oceanic lithosphere in the plume source.
    Language: German
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: Satellite remote sensing offers the possibility to continuously, globally collect information about Earth’s surface properties, and thus possesses an enormous scientific and economic potential. The spatio-temporal recording of information opens up a wide range of possibilities for large-scale monitoring of changes and influencing factors, e.g. in atmospheric research, agriculture and forestry, geology, urban areas and the analysis of natural hazards. The European Union‘s Copernicus programme marks the beginning of a new era in satellite-based Earth observation by designing and launching the Sentinel series, an operational fleet of high-continuity, multi-combinable observation systems. This enables completely new objects of investigation, but also requires a new level of automated data processing in order to make the huge amounts of data available for analysis. This article provides an insight into current remote sensing research at the GFZ. First, it presents the activities related to the creation of preprocessing standards and interfaces for data evaluation, geo-data management and visualization. In the following, examples for multi-sensor analysis of land use potentials and natural hazards are shown, in order to finally discuss the role of the GFZ in the development of hyperspectral satellite missions and related data analysis.
    Language: German
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  • 44
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    In:  Protokoll über das 27. Schmucker-Weidelt-Kolloquium für Elektromagnetische Tiefenforschung : Breklum, 25.-29. September 2017 ; ISSN: 2190-7021 ; Year: 2018 ; Volume: 27 ; Pages: 108-108
    Publication Date: 2018-05-09
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/ConferencePaper
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2017-03-07
    Description: Der Report des Helmholtz Open Science Workshops „Zugang zu und Nachnutzung von wissenschaftlicher Software“ #hgfos16 behandelt die Themen Standards und Qualitätssicherung; Reproduzierbarkeit; Lizenzierung und weitere rechtliche Aspekte; Zitation und Anerkennung; Sichtbarkeit und Modularität; Geschäftsmodelle; Personal, Ausbildung, Karrierewege. Diese Themen sind eng miteinander verzahnt. Für jeden Themenbereich werden jeweils die Relevanz, Fragestellungen, Herausforderungen, mögliche Lösungsansätze und Handlungsempfehlungen betrachtet.
    Language: German
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  • 46
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    Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
    In:  Wege zur Kunst ; Year: 2017
    Publication Date: 2018-10-02
    Language: German
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  • 47
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    Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
    In:  Scientific Technical Report STR ; ISSN: 2190-7110 ; Year: 2018 ; Volume: 18/01
    Publication Date: 2019-03-18
    Description: A new calibration facility was developed, tested, and installed at the premises of the Geomagnetic observatory in Niemegk to test induction coil magnetometers (search coils) in the frequency range 100Hz to 1 MHz. The new calibration facility is based on a Braunbeck coil, which extends existing installations based on a three-dimensional Helmholtz coil and a cylindrical coil which cover only the frequency range from a few mHz to 100 kHz. The new calibration coil is primarily needed to test magnetic field sensors used by the Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam for the so-called Radio Magnetotelluric (RMT) method. The RMT method uses electromagnetic fields transmitted by radio stations to infer the electrical conductivity distribution of the shallow subsurface (~1 m to 50 m). We present theoretical calculations to determine the parameters of the new calibration coil, which could be confirmed with measurements using an OMICRON BODE 100 spectrum analyser. The new coil system was also tested by calibrating two existing magnetic field sensors (METRONIX) MFS07 and SHFT-02e) with known response functions. We infer an overall accuracy of the new system of 〈0.05nT in amplitude and 〈0.5° in phase for frequencies 〈700kHz and ≤0.05nT and ≤3° degrees for frequencies 〉 700kHz. We also developed, tested and calibrated a new magnetic field sensor, using a set of three orthogonal toroidal coils (based on the antenna AN 200). The initial results look promising. The overall noise figures surpass those of the Metronix SHFT-02e sensor. The amplitude characteristic is slightly non-linear though, varying between 5 and 75 mV/nT over the frequency range 10 kHz to 1 MHz.
    Language: German
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2016-06-01
    Description: In der Arbeit wird ein kombiniertes hochaufgelöstes globales Schwerefeldmodell bis Grad und Ordnung 720 mit zugehöriger voller Varianz-Kovarianz Matrix berechnet. Als Datenbasis dienen Messungen der Schwerefeldsatellitenmissionen GRACE und GOCE, sowie terrestrische und altimetrische Schwereanomalien. Die Schätzung erfolgt durch kleinsten-Quadrate Ausgleichung, im Rahmen derer eine optimale relative Gewichtung der Einzeldatensätze und der einzelnen Beobachtungen erzielt wird. Die rechentechnische Umsetzung erfolgt mit Hilfe von Hochleistungsrechensystemen.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/Thesis
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2017-08-21
    Language: German
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2016-06-08
    Description: Die Allianz der deutschen Wissenschaftsorganisationen empfiehlt wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen, Informationen zu gezahlten Open-Access-Publikationsgebühren offenzulegen, damit die Kostenstrukturen des Open-Access-Publikationsmarkts klar erkennbar werden.
    Language: German
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  • 51
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    Publication Date: 2017-03-03
    Language: German
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2015-11-11
    Language: German
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  • 53
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    Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
    In:  Geologische Speicherung von CO2 ; Year: 2016 ; Volume: 07d
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: Film 7: "Die Stilllegung eines CO2-Speichers – Pilotstandort Ketzin" (Länge 10:39) Produktionsjahr: 2015
    Language: German
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2018-02-01
    Language: German
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2017-03-03
    Language: German
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2017-11-17
    Description: Länge: 15 Min.
    Language: German
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Der Film dokumentiert den Kurs für Grundschulkinder „Geochemische Schatzsuche“. Ziel des Kurses ist es, Grundschulkinder für Naturwissenschaften zu begeistern. Länge: 6:37 min
    Language: German
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Language: German
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2018-05-17
    Language: German
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019-02-15
    Description: Ende Mai 2018 hat das Hochschulforum Digitalisierung eine „Machbarkeitsstudie für eine (inter-)nationale Plattform der Hochschullehre“ veröffentlicht. Zwischen Dezember 2017 und Mai 2018 hat das mmb-Institut gemeinsam mit der Neocosmo GmbH auf Basis von Schreibtischrecherche, 14 Expterteninterviews und vier Stakeholder-Workshops untersucht, inwiefern und mit welchem Aufwand eine hochschulübergreifende Plattform für die digitale Lehre in Deutschland sinnvoll realisierbar ist. Mit Blick auf die Ergebnisse der Machbarkeitsstudie möchte die Allianz-AG darüber hinaus zur Diskussion der in diesem Papier vorgestellten Thesen anregen.
    Language: German
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2015-11-23
    Language: German
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  • 62
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    Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
    Publication Date: 2017-03-29
    Language: German
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2017-04-28
    Description: Die vorliegende Ausgabe des GFZ-Journals „System Erde“ soll einen Einblick in die am GFZ betriebene Forschung zur Seismologie geben.
    Language: German
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  • 64
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    Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
    Publication Date: 2017-04-28
    Description: Mit dem Journal „System Erde“ berichtet das Deutsche GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ über die unterschiedlichen Facetten seiner Forschungsarbeiten. Die Reihe richtet sich vor allem an Entscheidungsträger in Wissenschaft, Gesellschaft und Politik, an interessierte Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler sowie an die fachinteressierte Öffentlichkeit.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/journal
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  • 65
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    Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
    Publication Date: 2017-07-03
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/journal
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: Mit dem Journal „System Erde“ berichtet das Deutsche GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ über die unterschiedlichen Facetten seiner Forschungsarbeiten. Die Reihe richtet sich vor allem an Entscheidungsträger in Wissenschaft, Gesellschaft und Politik, an interessierte Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler sowie an die fachinteressierte Öffentlichkeit.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/journal
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  • 67
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    Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
    Publication Date: 2019-04-18
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/journal
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  • 68
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    Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
    Publication Date: 2019-06-12
    Description: Mit dem Journal „System Erde“ berichtet das Deutsche GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ über die unterschiedlichen Facetten seiner Forschungsarbeiten. Die Reihe richtet sich vor allem an Entscheidungsträger in Wissenschaft, Gesellschaft und Politik, an interessierte Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler sowie an die fachinteressierte Öffentlichkeit.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/journal
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  • 69
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    In:  System Erde ; Year: 2015 ; Volume: 5 ; Issue: 1 ; Pages: 18-21
    Publication Date: 2015-09-08
    Description: The water cycle is of paramount importance to human society: shortage of water and intensive droughts have been linked to the downfall of ancient civilizations. At the same time water is an important agent of change on the Earth’s surface, removing and transporting vast amounts of sediments from their source to marine sinks. As such, water is the basis of life as well as a pacemaker of the biogeochemical cycles, such as the carbon cycle. Short-term, abrupt changes (101 to 103 years) in the water cycle have the potential to threaten human societies directly, while long-term changes can affect the global biogeochemical cycles, in particular the carbon cycle. In the Organic Surface Geochemistry Lab (Section Geomorphology) of GFZ we are using biomarker based molecular methods a) to understand the drivers of change in the short-term water cycle during past, abrupt climatic changes; and b) to investigate processes that determine the erosion, transport and burial of organic carbon into long-term geological sinks – processes which are responsible for the relatively stable climatic conditions which have allowed the sustainment of life on Earth. By combining paleoclimatic, geomorphological and organic-geochemical approaches we gain new insights into the stabilizing and destabilizing factors, that control the water and the carbon cycles over various geological timescales.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 70
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    In:  System Erde ; Year: 2015 ; Volume: 5 ; Issue: 1 ; Pages: 40-47
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: This article provides first insights into some of the fascinating aspects of astrobiology. The central focus of this research theme is directed towards questions which have interested humans for millennia: How has life developed? Where do we come from? Are we alone in the Universe? In order to approach these questions, astrobiology brings together a variety of disciplines such as astronomy, astrophysics, biology, biochemistry, chemistry, geology, mineralogy, and cosmology. In particular, scientists are more and more interested into the biological aspects and the interactions of (micro)-organisms with their geological environment. This interest is further fueled by numerous NASA and ESA missions to Mars that have spawned new insights into Mars as a potential habitat for life. Earth analog environments, which are characterized by conditions that occur in other parts of our solar system in even more extreme forms play an important role for astrobiological research. Examples include habitats that are characterized by extreme dryness and/or coldness such as the Atacama Desert in Chile, liquid asphalt lakes in Trinidad or the permafrost areas in Siberia. Extremophilic microorganisms such as cyanobacteria and methanogenic archaea or higher organisms such as lichens and bryophytes are used as model organisms to study the limits of life under simulated extreme conditions. In recent years, an active research network has been established in the Berlin-Brandenburg region that carried out joint astrobiology and habitability studies and which among other projects is currently conducting an ESA experiment onboard the International Space Station ISS.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 71
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    In:  System Erde ; Year: 2016 ; Volume: 6 ; Issue: 1 ; Pages: 18-23
    Publication Date: 2016-05-24
    Description: Seismic interferometry is a methodology to recover the signals of waves propagating between seismic stations from records of random wavefields such as the ambient seismic noise or the coda of an earthquake. Teleseismic body waves excited by a very deep earthquake close to Kamchatka are investigated to unveil the composition of the teleseismic wavefield at long propagation times which is key to understand how teleseismic waves can be reconstructed by seismic interferometry. Waves at high frequencies around 1s period are shown to be scattered strongly in the Earth crust where they are quickly attenuated. At low periods, seismic waves circle the Earth for many hours as surface waves with clear arrivals of the different orders. At intermediate periods around 40s waves still propagate for several hours but individual arrivals cannot be identified in the data any more – indicating a randomization process. It is shown here that to a large extent this randomization is due to the interaction with the Earth’s 1D structure that does not alter the azimuthal distribution of the wavefield. Even after 8 h the seismic energy propagates dominantly along the great circle and the mean free time of the azimuthal randomization is estimated to 10 h. This means that the recovery of the teleseismic wavefield by seismic interferometry is strongly dependent on the distribution of ambient sources. For a successful application of seismic interferometry sources need to be present at suitable distances on the great circle connecting the stations.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 72
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    In:  System Erde ; Year: 2016 ; Volume: 6 ; Issue: 1 ; Pages: 74-93
    Publication Date: 2016-05-23
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 73
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    In:  System Erde ; Year: 2016 ; Volume: 6 ; Issue: 1 ; Pages: 44-49
    Publication Date: 2016-06-13
    Description: Seismic hazard assessments can only be as good as the historical past is known. Therefore, reliable seismicity records have to be extended back into history as far as possible. Hence, historical seismological investigation is of utmost importance in order to achieve long-term earthquake catalogue data of high quality. This basic research has been performed at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences as a multidisciplinary approach of seismologists and historians for many years. Seismic activity before the installation of the first seismographs in the beginning of the 20th century can only be reconstructed based on written sources For Central Europe, these documents date back up to the middle of the 8th century. The historical information for each earthquake has to be source-critically analyzed and transferred into parameterized information, which is then catalogued. During the long tradition of collecting past seismic information starting more than a century ago, many mistakes were made, like duplications of events, misinterpreted strength, location and wrong dating of earthquakes, which could be identified by our investigation. We show exemplarily how these uncertainties can be mitigated. Historical passing on of information is transferred to modern seismicity parameters by applying historic-critical methods. Thus, we are able to acquire better and more reliable long-term data for historical earthquake catalogues and for trustworthy long-term seismic hazard assessments.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 74
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    In:  System Erde ; Year: 2016 ; Volume: 6 ; Issue: 1 ; Pages: 50-55
    Publication Date: 2016-05-24
    Description: Rupture processes show strong similarities on broad spatial scales suggesting that in parts the governing physics for microcrack formation in the laboratory or a large earthquake along a tectonic plate boundary are the same. We discuss examples ranging from rock deformation experiments in the laboratory under controlled boundary conditions, induced seismicity in mines and geological reservoirs to natural earthquakes posing tremendous seismic hazard to population centers. We describe fundamental relations for the entire bandwidth of rupture processes involving fractures, faults and shear zones and their seismic characteristics such as b-value or seismic source properties. Laboratory tests on small-scale rock samples allow studying aspects of processes that control earthquake nucleation and rupture propagation. However, up-scaling of laboratory results to the field scale requires that dominant deformation processes remain the same on vastly different scales, and that potential effects of changing kinematic boundary conditions may successfully be accounted for by appropriate constitutive equations. Our approach shows that constitutive models capturing fundamental physical processes on the laboratory scale may be successfully applied to improve process understanding of deformation on the field scale with the potential to improve seismic hazard estimation.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 75
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    In:  Beiträge ; Year: 2016
    Publication Date: 2017-07-12
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/ConferencePaper
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  • 76
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    In:  System Erde ; Year: 2016 ; Volume: 6 ; Issue: 1 ; Pages: 3-3
    Publication Date: 2016-05-23
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 77
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    In:  System Erde ; Year: 2016 ; Volume: 6 ; Issue: 1 ; Pages: 12-17
    Publication Date: 2016-10-05
    Description: Deep seismic sounding provides important information on the seismic structure of the crust. Seismic experiments make use of controlled sources (explosions, Vibroseis) or natural sources (earthquakes, ambient noise), or combinations of both types. Seismic velocities are derived from modelling or tomographic inversion of diving waves and refractions. Particularly the combined interpretation of compressional and shear velocities allows for insight into the lithological structure of the crust. Seismic reflectivity is derived from imaging of waves reflected at geological boundaries. Typical patterns of crustal reflectivity are observed for specific tectonic settings. Case studies are shown from two studies at plate boundary systems. (1) The old plate boundary at the Namibian margin was formed by Cretaceous continental rifting and its interplay with the activities of the Tristan da Cunha mantle plume. Traces of intensive magmatic overprinting of the crust at the landfall region of Walvis Ridge can be seen in the derived velocity model and also in the reflectivity image. (2) The Dead Sea transform marks the active boundary between the African and Arabian plates. The Dead Sea basin was formed by pull-apart in response to step-over of the fault system. Results from tomography reveal a deep asymmetric basin structure. An anomalous body was found under the basin, between 13 and 18 km depth, which is interpreted as pre-basin sediments. Our results are supported by the distribution of earthquakes. The results provide new constraints for the modeling of plate boundary processes.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 78
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    In:  System Erde ; Year: 2016 ; Volume: 6 ; Issue: 2 ; Pages: 2-2
    Publication Date: 2016-12-21
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 79
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    In:  System Erde ; Year: 2016 ; Volume: 6 ; Issue: 2 ; Pages: 42-66
    Publication Date: 2016-12-21
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2017-01-11
    Description: The South American continent as we know it formed during the break-up of West Gondwana between 150 and 110 million years ago, when the South Atlantic Rift system evolved into the South Atlantic ocean. Using state-of-the-art global tectonic reconstructions in conjunction with numerical and analytical modelling, we investigate the geodynamics of rift systems as they evolve into an ocean basin. We find that rifts initially stretch very slowly along the future splitting zone, but then move apart very quickly before the onset of rupture. In case of the split between South America and Africa, the divergence rate increased from initially 5 to 7 millimetres per year to over 40 millimetres per year within few million years. Intriguingly, abrupt rift acceleration did not only occur during the splitting of West Gondwana, but also during the separation of Australia and Antarctica, North America and Greenland, Africa and South America, in the North Atlantic or the South China Sea. We elucidate the underlying process by reproducing the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The mechanical models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength–velocity feedback similar to a rope that snaps when pulled apart. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2017-02-22
    Description: Volcanic activity involves different processes on different scales at depth and at the surface. Many of them generate seismic signals, ranging from tiny, earthquake-like signals to increased continuous vibrations to significant ground motion events before and during volcanic eruptions. A range of modern tools of volcano seismology is nowadays used to monitor changes in the volcanic activity and volcanic unrest. Additionally, advanced seismology is able to image the deep volcanic structures at high resolution and to map the depth and size of magmatic reservoirs beneath volcanoes. Although seismology is a key technology for volcano research and the assessment of volcanic hazard, novel concepts of volcano monitoring combine seismology with different types of multi-parameter sensors to characterize the processes accompanying volcanic unrest. GFZ is developing advanced approaches for volcano monitoring and volcano modeling involving a broad scale of instruments and disciplines. The article focuses mainly on two examples from volcanoes in South America and Iceland showing how large magmatic reservoirs are slowly filled over periods of decades and abruptly depleted over periods of months during volcanic eruptions.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: Subduction earthquakes are the most powerful naturally occurring terrestrial processes often resulting in catastrophic fatality counts and decimation of human infrastructure. Over the past decades, great efforts have been undertaken to improve the understanding of the subduction earthquake physics. The Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory in Chile (IPOC) is a multi-instrument network installed in 2007 in the Northern Chile Seismic Gap, where a large magnitude earthquake was expected soon. On April 1st 2014, a portion of the IPOC-monitored region broke, producing the Mw 8.1 Iquique earthquake. In the year leading up to this event, IPOC’s instruments captured some unusual transient seismic and geodetic signals, resulting in a unique dataset recording the preparatory phase of a large earthquake. We combined IPOC data with satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) data to analyze not only the earthquake itself but also the interseismic phase and a detailed foreshock series before the main event. We found that the earthquake ruptured a zone on the plate interface that was highly locked before the earthquake. Additionally, we were able to characterize the aseismic (silent) slip that occurred in the two weeks leading up to the event by combining seismic and geodetic data. Application of these analyses in real-time might enable geoscientists to identify runaway processes that can precede large subduction earthquakes.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 83
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    In:  System Erde ; Year: 2017 ; Volume: 7 ; Issue: 1 ; Pages: 3-3
    Publication Date: 2017-05-03
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 84
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    In:  System Erde ; Year: 2017 ; Volume: 7 ; Issue: 1 ; Pages: 72-87
    Publication Date: 2017-05-08
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 85
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    In:  System Erde ; Year: 2017 ; Volume: 7 ; Issue: 1 ; Pages: 32-37
    Publication Date: 2017-05-10
    Description: The element carbon forms the basic building block of all organic biomass on Earth. It consists of two stable isotopes with a mass of 12u (atomic mass unit) and 13u. Biological formation, degradation and alteration processes fractionate the carbon isotopes. Biological systems typically prefer the incorporation of 12C into their biomass and discriminate with regard to 13C. Thus, the compound-specific carbon isotope analysis on characteristic biomolecules for specific precursor organisms allows to assess biological sources and processes being involved in the biological cycling of carbon and to conclude on environmental and climatic conditions affecting these processes. Here two examples from the ongoing work at GFZ are presented showing the influence of geogenic processes on biological systems. This Geo-Bio-coupling is revealed by analyzing the carbon isotope composition of specific key components in the respective biological carbon system. Carbon sources and biological processes were discovered and the obtained results provide deep insights into the feedback of biological ecosystems to increased levels of greenhouse gas concentration in natural systems.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 86
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    In:  System Erde ; Year: 2017 ; Volume: 7 ; Issue: 1 ; Pages: 20-25
    Publication Date: 2017-05-10
    Description: The Earth’s surface is constantly changing. Sometimes these changes are very fast. When glaciers shrink or when natural disasters such as landslides or volcanic eruptions occur, their impact on landscapes can directly be observed. Other changes are too slow to be observed by the human eye. Such slow changes still form lofty mountain ranges like the Himalaya, because tectonic forcing has uplifted them persistently by a few millimeters each year over many millions of years. Such mountain ranges affect wind and rain patterns and thus the water cycle, and, by the process of erosion, they deliver sediment to valleys and floodplains where fertile soils form. Rare radioactive or stable cosmogenic nuclides have become the state-of-the-art clocks to time these rates of change in all kinds of landscapes. Produced by cosmic ray bombardment in the atmosphere or in minerals at the Earth’s surface, they are used to date landforms and to measure the erosion rate of landscapes. For example, we apply them to constrain the ages of glacial surfaces over hundreds to thousands of years. In river sediments they tell us how fast a mountain range is eroding and how much sediment is exported from a catchment. When buried in the sedimentary record, they inform us on erosion rates in the geologic past. Because of their power to infer landscape-forming forces, cosmogenic nuclides allow to predict the impact of changes of the human habitat induced by man.
    Language: German
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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