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  • Afrikaans  (55)
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  • 1
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Guidelines for the implementation of an owner-driver scheme.The aim of this article is to supply guidelines for the implementation of an owner-driver scheme. Such implementation is the outsourcing of a firm's transport obligations to vehicle owner-drivers who are not employees of the firm. In most cases these individuals are ex-employees of the firm who are now acting as independent hauliers. The objectives of an owner-driver scheme and the different forms which such a scheme can adopt, are briefly outlined. Thereafter the criteria for implementation, and also the critical success factors of such a scheme. are discussed. It is pointed out that the firm will have to decide whose responsibility it is to initially manage the scheme. This decision, combined with the contract, the method of financing and the renumeration system, determine the nature of an owner-driver scheme. Firms wishing to implement an owner-driver scheme should approach it in a structured manner within a well-considered implementation programme. Implementation of the owner-driver scheme is discussed according to six phases, namely: (I) initiation, (2) evaluation, (3) planning, (4) contracting, (5) transition, and (6) management and review.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 2
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The need for the study originated mainly from the political reforms in South Africa, which have incited public insistence on community involvement in the planning, decision-making and execution of projects which people perceive are of concern in their everyday lives. Many project managers in South Africa are faced with hitherto unknown social forces and elements in the execution of their missions, which they are often not adequately trained for. The purpose of the study is to extend the 'conventional' project management processes to include community participation, because in the past, the social system(s) within which projects are situated and the social dynamics inevitably evoked by the implementation thereof, were too often ignored. The article considers an appropriate meaning of community participation, which inter alia means that the community be enabled to influence the direction and outcome of projects. That implies that managerial decisions will in future have to involve social besides economic choices. The overriding importance of the search for common interests is emphasized. A model for involving the community in project-concept forming is presented. The article concludes with a basic truth, namely that there are many projects which will simply not succeed without full consultation with the community from the earliest possible stage.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 3
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: In this study failure-prognosis models have been compiled for periods of high and low economical activity. Profitability, cash flow and activity ratio's have given better classification results during high economical activity than during low economical activity. Gearing and liquidity ratio's have given better classification results during low economical activity than during high economical activity. The failure-prognosis models were interchanged and it was found that models compiled to predict business failure during high economical activity did not fare well when applied during low economical activity and vice versa.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 4
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: In this article the de facto use of financial ratios is reported on. To identify meaningful financial ratios, information was obtained from 166 enterprises on the use of financial ratios. The Likert scale was used to establish the frequency of use of the following categories of financial ratios, namely return on assets, income margins, capital turnover, solvency and ratios derived from the cash flow statement. In total, 41 financial ratios were submitted to the respondents. The most important findings were: Income margins are by far the group ratios with the highest frequency of use along with the debtors collection period. Further, with the help of a multiple analysis of variance, it was established that the main activities and size of respondents had no influence on the use of specific categories of financial ratios. Finally, the findings of a factor analysis indicated noticeable similarities between theoretical groupings of financial ratios and the results of the empirical study.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 5
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The aim with this study was firstly to determine the degree of discrepancy between the work experiences and work preferences of staff, on the one hand, and the prediction of the farmer in this regard on the other; and secondly, to analyse farmers' perceptions on efficient and inefficient personnel management practices. A Likert-type personnel management audit (PMA) was implemented in eight types of farming with 234 workers and eight farmers. In general, the effectiveness of the motivation, communication, work performance, staff control and leadership systems leaves room for improvement. The knowledge of the farmers in the case-studies as regards efficient and inefficient staff management systems can be improved considerably, especially their perceptions on the role of training in worker productivity and work satisfaction. With the necessary knowledge of management, the farmers can manipulate the human relations practices effectively. It ought to be determined to what degree consultative management systems are used on farms, while the staff members prefer participative personnel management practices.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 6
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Seasonal patterns in the South African capital market In this article the seasonal patterns in daily price movements of the Post Office, Eskom 168 and the RSA bonds are examined and these are compared with three equity indices namely the Gold Index, Industrial Index and Overall Index of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Both the South African bond and share markets display significant seasonal patterns. In contrast with international findings, it is shown that seasonal similarities exist between the bond and share markets.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 7
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Inligting as 'n strategiese hulpbron word in 'n toenemende mate al hoe belangriker vir ondernemings wat professioneel - ooreenkomstig die wetenskaplike bestuursbeginsels - bestuur word. In die artikel word 'n onderneming wat wetenskaplike bestuur as hoofdoelwit aanvaar, ondersoek. As gevolg daarvan moes die bestuursinligtingstelsel so verbeter en ontwikkel word ten einde die verskillende vlakke van bestuur van akkurate en tydige besluitnemingsondersteunende inligting te voorsien. In hierdie navorsingsprojek is 'n konseptuele model ontwikkel om die ontwikkelaars van 'n verbeterde inligtingstelsel te voorsien sodat die regte inligting die verskillende vlakke van bestuur sal bereik, en ook om die eksterne inligtingsgebruikers se behoeftes te bevredig. Die model kyk na die inligtingsbehoeftes van die vier verskillende vlakke van gebruikers volgens die piramiedestruktuur asook na eksterne inligtingsbehoeftes en interne faktore wat in ag geneem moet word vir die suksesvolle implementering daarvan.
    Description: A requirement determination methodology for designing a management information system for a professional research organization. Information as a strategic resource becomes increasingly more important for professionally managed organizations. The research was done in an organization where scientific management was seen as the main objective of the organization. As a result, the management information system had to be improved and developed in order to accommodate the different levels of management and to provide accurate and timely decision-making assisted information. A conceptual model was developed to assist the developers in improving the MIS in order to ensure that the correct information would reach the different levels of management, as well as to provide in the needs of external information users. Four levels of users were taken into account according to the pyramidial structure, as well as external and internal information needs for the successful implementation of the MIS.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 8
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Failure prognosis for companies with due allowance for time dimensions In the United States of America it was initially attempted to predict financial failure by means of compiling a failure-prognosis model consisting of a number of weighted ratios. The model developed was a general model which only examined one time dimension of failure, namely, differentiating between solvent and insolvent companies one year prior to financial failure. The model was applied, without any adjustments, in penultimate and prior years, without ascertaining whether the change in time dimension has an influence on the classification results of the model. A similar model was later developed for South African circumstances. This model had the same shortcomings. A possible problem, which was quite likely not taken into account in the compilation of the existing models, was whether a general failure-prognosis model provided the best classification results in all possible circumstances. In this I article endeavour to determine whether or not failure-prognosis models, which are compiled for specific circumstances, provide more accurate classification results than a general model. Failure-prognosis models were compiled separately for companies, for periods of one and four years preceding financial failure. The models were interchanged and it was found that results were unreliable when the incorrect model was applied. Models compiled to predict business failure within the first year, for example, did not fare well when applied to earlier years and vice versa.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 9
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The influence or information technology on the provision of employment in the South African financial sectorThe higher levels of productivity in the manufacturing sector, as a result of the automation and other significant changes in production functions, often lead to fears of higher levels of unemployment, as certain types of labour could become redundant. The application of information technology in the form of computers, data banks and telecommunication networks has, to a great extent, contributed to the automation of routine functions, as well as to the integration of various production functions. The danger exists that a great number of workers released from the manufacturing sector are not always trained and suitable for employment in the service sector. In addition, there may not be sufficient employment opportunities to accommodate these workers. The influence of information technology on employment should, however, be considered in terms of the net effect of the three distinguishing effects of information technology on an economy, namely the process, product and organization effects. In South Africa, employment and value added increased in the building society and banking fields during the period 1980-89. Those increases are attributed specifically to the product effect. Since the eighties, banks, building societies and insurance companies have all started to market new and more products that are directly linked to information technology.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 10
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: A strategical management approach towards security and control within a complex computerized information system environment In a dynamic technological computer environment it is essential for management to establish a logical and systematic process to protect, secure and safeguard the management information resources and assets in such a manner to minimize risks, threats and exposures to a satisfactory and acceptable level. To achieve the objectives of total security implementation it is essential to identify the problems and factors (for example risks, threats and exposures) that might have an impact on computer security and control. It is necessary to define and understand computer security and control and important to assess the current situation to provide an implementation methodology to cover and enhance areas for improvement. In this research project a strategic management process approach is suggested to enable management to formulate and implement a strategy for security and control in a complex computerized information system environment.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 11
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Application of a linear regression model to different information system facets Evaluation techniques with regard to the information system function in organizations could well be used to serve as a tool to identify problem areas and the corresponding corrective actions to be taken. In the past quite a number of computer-based application systems have failed in large as well as small organizations not because of inadequate technical quality but because some important non-technical factors of critical importance for the success of the system have not been diagnosed timely. In a previous research project (Bruwer: 1983) a restricted linear regression model method has been used to evaluate the success of the information system function in organizations. In this article the same model is applied on three different areas of the information system function. These areas are: Aspects of strategic planning of information systems; evaluation of the use of micro-computer systems and the evaluation of computer facilities in organizations.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 12
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The value added statement as component of financial reporting in the RSA The value added statement was developed due to a need for more understandable financial information for the uninformed user of financial statements. Although not required by the Companies Act, since 1977 numerous South African companies have included a value added statement in their financial reports. The question can, however, be asked whether the inclusion of a statement of value added in financial reports will not put financial information at the disposal of a larger group of existing and potential users of financial statements. In such a case the inclusion of the statement should be made compulsory and the contents be standardized. During a study of the reasons for the publication and the presentation of the information of this statement by South African companies, it was found that companies probably publish this statement for the annual competitions for financial statements. The information contents of the statement is therefore disregarded.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 13
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: 'n Merkbare revolusie het in die wyse waarop produkte geproduseer word, plaasgevind - hoofsaaklik weens verhoogde produktiwiteit wat nodig is vir groeiende welvaart en vooruitgang, die snelle verandering in tegnologie weens toenemende navorsing en ontwikkeling en die groeiende kompleksiteit van beide die produk en die tegniek om die produk te produseer. Dit bring mee dat meer klem op die deeglike industrialisasie van gevorderde tegnologieprodukte gele moet word. Probleme word egter tans tydens die oordragfase ten opsigte van kommunikasie, betrokkenheid tydens die verskillende projeklewensiklusfases, kultuurverskille tussen ontwikkeling en produksie, dokumentasiebestuur, komponentvervaardiging, gereedskap, mannekrag en lae volumes deur tegnologie-organisasies ondervind. In die artikel word op die projekbestuursbenadering gefokus as 'n moontlike meganisme om genoemde probleme aan te spreek in die bestuur van die vervaardiging van gevorderde tegnologieprodukte met 'n lae volume.
    Description: Industrialisation or advanced technology products with low volume. A noticeable revolution has occurred in the manner in which products are produced. Mainly due to an increase in productivity in order to achieve prosperity and progress, a rapid change in technology due to an increase in research and development, and the growing complexity of both the product and the technique to produce it. This requires that more emphasis is placed on the thorough industrialisation of high technology products. Problems are experienced with regard to communication, involvement during the different project life-cycle phases, cultural differences between development and production, documentation management, component manufacturing, instruments, manpower and low volumes during the transfer phase by high-technology companies. In this article the focus is on the project management approach as a possible mechanism to deal with the mentioned problems and to manage the production of high-technology products with a low volume.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 14
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The key to success for the information-system function in an organisation is an efficient planning system. According to Head (1967, 23) managers are classified in levels of strategic planning, management control and operational control. Managers on these levels are respectively responsible for long, medium and short term planning. The information-system function is compatable with other organizational functions. Like other organizational functions it also consists of managerial levels which has to plan for the effective and efficient utilization of scarce resources. In this research project data has been collected from top and middle managers of two large financial institutions in South Africa. Models were developed to assist management in their task of strategic long and medium term planning of the information-system function.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 15
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The importance of risk management in business has long been recognised. The importance, assumptions and limitations of the Capital Asset Pricing Model is generally accepted and an elaborate introduction is therefore not necessary. The stability of returns on investments is both a measure of risk and a cardinal determinant of the Capital Asset Pricing Model which deals with risk and reasonable return. The Capital Asset Pricing Model as prospective valuation instrument is subject to serious limitations. Certain determinants of the model can however be shown to be of great theoretical and practical importance in techniques of prospective value. To develop a theoretically sound practical return measure with predictive value to be applied in conjunction with the Capital Asset Pricing Model would constitute a meaningful contribution to investment management. This article is based on a study carried out on a small sample of companies quoted on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange during the period 1982 to 1990 with a view to illustrate the application in portfolio management of the Capital Asset Pricing Model and its short-term predictive value in respect of share price movements. In addition a number of techniques complementary to the Capital Asset Pricing Model were developed and illustrated.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 16
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The South African manager: Challenges and dilemma The South African working environment is typified by two extremes. On the one hand there is an over-supply of unskilled labour, whilst on the other hand there is a severe shortage of qualified persons which have the applicable experience. In addition white males are mainly used to fill managerial positions. This unavoidably leads to the over-utilization of white males within the management sphere. Not only do they try to cover the whole managerial spectrum, but they also execute the majority of specialist activities. The inevitable result is total work dedication mainly to compensate for the lack of the correct training and experience. This necessarily leads to the neglect of spouse and family and a superficializing of religion, culture, and personal life. To determine to what extend this negative situation actually exists in South Africa and what need to be done to rectify it, country-wide research was undertaken and the findings are recorded in this article.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 17
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Hierdie artikel analiseer eerstens die demografiese data en opleidingsomgewing van Suid-Afrikaanse graduandi in Ekonomie en Bedryfsekonomie op grond van inligting bekom vanuit die RGN se register van graduandi. Daarna analiseer die artikel die werksverspreiding, demografiese data en opleidingsomgewing van 3701 repondente, wat geantwoord het op 'n vraelys wat aan 8760 blanke manlike graduandi gedurende 1985 gestuur is. Spesiale aandag word geskenk aan sekere aspekte van die beroepsituasie van praktiserende ekonome en bedryfsekonome, byvoorbeeld, hulle bedryfsektore, beroepsfunksies, die gebruik van formele opleiding in beroepsverband, werksvelde en rekenaartoepassing.
    Description: This paper first analyses the demographic data and training environment of South African university graduates in Economics and/or Business Economics on the basis of information extracted from the HSRC register of graduates. Next, it analyses the vocational diffusion, demographic data, and training environment of 3701 respondents, who responded to a postal questionnaire which was sent to 8760 white male university graduates in Economics and/or Business Economics during 1985. Special attention is paid to certain aspects of the occupational situation of practising economists and business economists, for example their employer sectors, occupational functions, the utilization of formal training in the work situation, fields of work, and the use of computer systems.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 18
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Die rasionalisering van ondernemings in die Westerse wereld het amper 'n geintegreerde deel van moderne bestuurstrategie geword. Die verskralingsindroom, so blyk dit, is die gewildste keuse onder bestuur. Dit is deur baie studies bewys, dat verandering een of ander vorm van weerstand onder werknemers kweek. Verandering, soos dit deurleef word tydens verskraling en waar personeelvermindering inherent aan die proses is, skep sy eie unieke reeks vrese en verwagtings onder werknemers. Hierdie studie analiseer die ondervindinge van werknemers tydens fases van destruktiewe verandering. Die hipotese wat getoets is, is dat beduidend meer werknemers die proses as uiters negatief sal ervaar en dat die grootste faktor wat negatiwiteit beinvloed werksekuriteitbedreiging sal wees. Daar is bevind dat alhoewel 'n beduidende aantal van die werknemers aangedui het dat verandering in hul organisasies noodsaaklik was, was hulle terselfdertyd bitter ongelukkig oor die wyse waarop verandering in die organisasie toegepas is. Daar is ook bevind dat die hoofoorsaak vir ongelukkigheid werksekuriteitbedreiging was. Vervolgens is daar statisties beduidende bewys dat goedbeplande, goedgestruktureerde veranderingspogings met 'n duidelike begin en 'n einde baie minder stress en ongelukkigheid veroorsaak as pogings wat onbeplan, ad hoc en amper tydloos van aard is.
    Description: The rationalization of companies: Renewer or destroyer of the work-force. The rationalization of companies in the Western world has become almost an integrated part of modern management strategies. The downsizing syndrome has proven to be the favourite choice of many. Change, so many studies have proven, enhances resistance among employees. Change as experienced during the downsizing process, where retrenchment forms an inherent part of the strategy creates its own range of fears and expectations amongst employees. This study analyses the experiences of employees during the phases of destructive change. The hypothesis the study tested was that significantly more employees will rate the experience as extremely negative and that the main Issue at stake is job security. It was found that although a significant proportion of the employees thought that drastic change was necessary, they were bitterly unhappy with the way management introduced the change. It was also found that at the centre of unhappiness, threats to job security caused the most damage. Furthermore, it was proven that during change, a well-planned, pre-programmed exercise, with a definite beginning and end time creates significantly lesser stress and fear amongst employees than during a unstructured almost open ended process.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 19
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: In the literature on forecasting, consensus has been reached about improved forecasting accuracy brought about by the combination of two or more forecasts for a given variable. No consensus, however, exists about the exact way in which the various forecasts in the combination should be weighed. The evidence points towards simple weighing schemes. The present study utilizes South African macro-economic forecasts published by seven forecasters on eight variables to evaluate the benefits to be gained from combining forecasts and to evaluate the relative accuracy of a number of combination schemes. The results confirm the current views on the combination of forecasts in so far as combining forecasts have led to increased accuracy in forecasting. It further confirms the viewpoint that a simple or weighted arithmetic average of individual forecasts seems to be acceptable as instruments for combining forecasts.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 20
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: This brief research note revisits a simple, but very useful clustering procedure developed by Kamen (1970), and illustrates its use in the clustering of attitudinal/perceptual data. For the purpose of illustrating the technique, perceptions of peer group participation in potentially corrupt situations in business were used as the data set. The mean responses, standard deviations and medians of 458 managers served as input for a correlation matrix from which the variables were clustered. The clusters formed by the analysis have been interpreted as 'The Insiders', 'Felons', 'Happy Holidays', 'The Fiddlers', 'A Bit on the Side', and 'The Innocents'. From the clusters identified it was evident that some situations were similar in nature. Quick clustering of the pilot study data is regarded as successful and could therefore lead to improved questionnaire design as well as the elimination of similar questions.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 21
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: This article covers a financial evaluation of 31 representative agricultural co-operatives. Although the ratio of the members' interest to the total assets remained reasonably constant during the study period, the share capital and reserves decreased relatively to the total assets. According to the financial evaluation, it is clear that there is a high gearing ratio, because about 75% of the total capital structure consists of loan capital. Although the asset structure showed no substantial change, the composition of current assets (which represented about 75% of the total assets) changed significantly. The debtors increased considerably whilst a decrease in the inventory cancelled this increase. Therefore it is apparent that the co-operatives fulfil the functions of financial institutions to a large extent. Looking at the liquidity position, the current assets increased relatively to the current liabilities, while a defensive financing policy was applied because the fixed assets, investments and intangible assets were financed by long-term capital. An analysis of the turnover ratios showed that the amounts of the total assets, debtors and current assets increased more rapidly than the sales volume, which may be the result of a more liberal credit policy towards members, the drought in certain parts of the country as well as an over-capitalization of the co-operatives. Although the average profitability was rather low, it must be seen against the background of a service rendered instead of a striving towards a profit. According to available information, it appears that the ability to meet their interest obligations deteriorated seriously since 1982.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: A number of studies revealed that the role of women both as influencer and independent decision-maker is becoming increasingly important in the buying decision involving the purchase of a passenger vehicle. In today's highly competitive South-African motor vehicle market it is becoming vital that motor manufacturers pay greater attention to market needs - specially with regard to important market segments. This study analyses certain aspects of the market segment consisting of women. The null-hypothesis this study tested was that there are no differences between male and female consumers pertaining to the relative importance of evaluation criteria, when purchasing a passenger vehicle. By means of analysis of variance it was established that there are significant differences (P 0,01) between men and women with regard to 15 of the 65 evaluation criteria. It was also found that there are 50 insignificant differences between the two groups. The hypothesis, as formulated is thus rejected, with regard to 15 of the evaluation criteria, in favour of the alternate hypothesis.
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    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 23
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Tegnologiese ontwikkeling, veral op die gebied van mikrorekenaarstelsels, het veroorsaak dat tradisionele beheertoerusting en beheermetodes sodanig verander het dat die hedendaagse prosesmodernisering veel meer om die lyf het as bloot die vervanging van ou toerusting met soortgelyke toerusting op 'n tydstip wanneer die ou toerusting uitgedien is. Groter effektiwiteit en produktiwiteit kan met die moderne toerusting en tegnieke verkry word. Dit noodsaak 'n vervaardigingsonderneming om sy moderniseringstrategie in heroorweging te neem om te besluit of dit steeds in pas is met die snelle ontwikkeling in tegnologie. Die navorsing is uitgevoer in 'n groot vervaardigingsonderneming in Suid-Afrika en daar is gepoog om antwooorde te verkry op vrae soos die volgende: Watter toerusting moet in ag geneem word tydens prosesmodernisering?; Watter invloed gaan die nuwe kragtige toerusting op die modernisasiestrategie van die onderneming he?; Hoe gaan dit die organisasiestruktuur beinvloed?; Hoe moet 'n organisasie in die RSA homself skool om die nuwe tegnologie te ontvang?; Watter aksies moet as teenvoeter teen sanksieveldtogte geneem word? Verder handel die navorsing oor daardie aspekte wat in ag geneem moet word tydens prosesmodernisering met behulp van rekenaargebaseerde beheertoerusting.
    Description: Technological development, especially in the area of microcomputer systems, has changed the traditional control equipment and methods of control to such an extent that today's process modernization is much more than the replacement of old equipment with equivalent new equipment at a time when the old equipment has to be replaced. Modern equipment and techniques enable the organization to operate much more effectively and achieve much higher productivity levels. This fact forces a manufacturing firm to carefully study its modernization strategy to decide whether it is still in pace with the rapidly changing technological environment. By means of research at a large manufacturing organization an attempt was made to find answers to questions such as the following: What kind of equipment should be considered in a specific stage of process modernizing?; What influence could new powerful equipment have on the modernization strategy?; How could the organizational structure be influenced?; How should organizations in South Africa school themselves to accept new technology?; What actions should be taken against sanctions?
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    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The acceptance of the marketing concept and the implementation of the principles on which it is based presupposes a thorough knowledge of market needs. If the marketing concept is applied at retail level in the South African motor industry, one should be able to assume that there is a high degree of agreement regarding the perceptions of consumers and sales personnel of what is important to a purchaser when buying a motor vehicle. The validity of this statement was tested by means of the following null-hypothesis: There is no difference with regard to the relative importance attached to different evaluation criteria between consumers and sales personnel, with the purchase of a passenger vehicle. Information provided by 902 consumers and 200 sales personnel revealed that significant differences (p 0,01) exist between the two groups with regard to 35 evaluation criteria and a further four criteria on the 0,05 level. The null-hypothesis is thus rejected with regard to 39 evaluation criteria in favour of the alternate hypothesis.
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    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 25
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: This article covers an analysis of capital formation of 31 representative agricultural cooperatives and follows on a previous article which covered their financial situation for the period 1975 - 1985. Concerning the capital formation, it appears that share capital did not play a major part as a source of permanent capital. Although reserves increased, it could not keep pace with the increase of the total assets. The main sources of capital formation were deferred bonuses and members' levy funds which increased more rapidly than the total assets. The total interest credited and paid on the deferred bonuses and members' levy funds were respectively 7% and 9% of the opening balances. The planned rotation of both kinds of funds was relatively small in comparison with the opening balances, while the unplanned payment of the members' levy funds was larger than the planned rotation. Although rotation did not take place to a large extent, it can be a matter of concern when the funds will have to be repaid in the foreseeable future.
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    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 26
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: 'n Omvangryke navorsingsprojek, waarop die responskoers 35% was, is in samewerking met ondernemings in Suid-Afrika gedoen. Die doel was om te bepaal wat die gesindheid van die werkgewer in die ope-arbeidsmark teenoor die gestremde as werknemer is. Die navorsers wou ook bepaal tot watter mate gestremdes in die ope-arbeidsmark in diens geneem word, die mate van hulle aanwending en wat hul werkprestasies is. Daar word gepoog om te bepaal wat die onderskeie gestremdhede en persone se vermoens, vaardighede, opleiding en bepaalde verwagtinge is. Die uitgangspunt van die navorsingsprojek is dat die gestremde in vandag se 'gelykegeleenthede-omgewing' nie in diens geneem wil word omdat hulle gestremd is nie, maar hulle wil ook nie 'n pos geweier word as gevolg van hul gestremdheid nie. Hulle wil eerder op dieselfde wyse as alle ander werknemers hanteer word. Hulle wit gelyke geleenthede he om hulle vermoens en vaardighede uit te leef en om hulle potensiaal ten voile te benut. Hulle wit gelyke geleenthede tot opvoeding, opleiding en indiensname he. Hulle wil bewys dat hulle wel die werk kan doen en hulle wil he dat ander moet ophou konsentreer op hul gestremdheid en dit wat hulle nie kan doen nie.
    Description: An extensive research project with a response rate of 35% was undertaken under various companies in South Africa. The purpose of the project was to determine the attitude of employers in the open labour market towards disableds as employees. The researchers also wanted to determine the extend whereto disableds are employed within the labour market, as well as what their application and work successes are. In addition the research will focus on the various disabilities, and persons' abilities, training and expectations. The viewpoint of the research project is that today in the era of self-determination handicapped people do not want to be hired because they are handicapped. Nor do they want to be denied a job because of their handicap. Rather, they want to be treated as any other person. They want an equal chance to demonstrate their abilities and to live up to their potential. They want equal access to education, training and employment. They want to prove that they are people who can do the work and they want others to stop thinking about their handicapping condition.
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    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 27
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: This article reports on a study conducted on several important parameters in a real-life problem of asset replacement. A study of the literature revealed the relevant parameters. A spreadsheet programme was created to find an optimum replacement strategy for fork-lift trucks. This same programme was then used for a sensitivity analysis on the most important parameters. The results of this analysis are discussed in this paper. A short user's manual as well as some notes on the working of the program is included.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 28
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Converting co-operatives to companies: A consideration The change in the Income Tax Act in 1977 resulted in co-operatives becoming tax liable from 1 April 1977. In addition, the Co-operatives Act of 1981 resulted in additional restrictions for co-operatives. Consequently certain important advantages of cooperatives ceased. The question therefore arose whether co-operatives can still be justified as a form of organization in comparison to companies. To solve this problem several determining factors should be investigated. Aspects which should be analysed are the tax liability of each form of organization, legal restrictions of co-operatives, financing possibilities of co-operatives, the function of co-operatives as agents of control boards, and the channelling of financial assistance to organized agriculture. Co-operatives as a form of organization have definite advantages compared to companies. The most important are the declaration of deferred bonuses and the redemption of loans, which are tax deductible under certain circumstances (the latter only until 1987). There are however also disadvantages. Approval is necessary to take over companies and members do not share in the growth of co-operatives. In this article it appears that it is undesirable for co-operatives to change their form of organization in present circumstances. It is however not a categorical conclusion and the development of the determining factors should be studied continuously.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 29
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The definition of personal savings: The South African situation 1965.1 to 1984.4 The personal savings definition and through that also the time series of personal savings in South Africa in common use, can be described as personal savings as published, amongst others, by the South African Reserve Bank. In the computation of the above time series there are certain deficiencies and the time series has been queried since the sixties. The objective of this study was to undertake an empirical study of the definition of personal savings in South Africa and through that also the time series of personal savings, and possibly to improve on these. It was indicated that the published personal savings cannot be regarded as a good definition of personal savings in South Africa. Various alternative personal savings definitions were studied critically and it was indicated that it would seem that long-term insurance premiums plus pension fund contributions (i.e. contractual personal savings) should constitute the personal savings definition for South Africa.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 30
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between the personality dimensions of consumers and the relative importance that they attach to evaluation criteria when buying a motor vehicle. The sample consisted of 181 white consumers mainly from metropolitan areas. The measuring instruments used in this study were a questionnaire relating to buyers of new and used cars, and the South African Personality Questionnaire. To establish the relationship between the relative importance consumers attach to evaluation criteria and their personality traits, Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient technique was used. Only 21 of the 325 correlations were significant at the 0,01 level.
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    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 31
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: In this study an attempt is made to establish underlying dimensions from the various evaluation criteria a consumer considers when buying a motor vehicle. The sample consists of 902 consumers of all race groups in mainly metropolitan areas in South Africa who bought a new or used car for private use during the period December 1985 - May 1986. With the aid of principal-factor analysis 12 underlying dimensions out of 65 evaluation criteria were identified, namely: dealer orientation, maintenance, space convenience, driving comfort, mechanical performance, appearance, social influence, manufacturing, choice reinforcement, technical priority, discount and reputation. These factors may serve as a guideline for marketing managers to develop strategies regarding benefit segmentation, promotion and positioning.
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    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 32
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The managerial function of the modern manager has undergone a shift of focus mainly due to the epidemic rate of technological innovations. Less emphasis is placed on the recurring whilst more time and greater involvement is spent on one-off activities. The modern trend to move from heavy industry to the service sector and high technology has caused a larger and varied need for high level manpower. The manager of today and tomorrow thus has to be equipped with applicable knowledge and skills. However, the following questions need to be answered: what these knowledge and skills are?, in what sense does these differ from the present?, what remains applicable?, the extent of the knowledge on the 'new' requirements?. The aim of this research is therefore to determine the spectrum and facets, the level of research in South Africa and to identify aspects on which research can be undertaken within the fields of management of technology and high level manpower. The total spectrum of management of technology can be divided into three strata namely the macro-, intermediatory- and micro strata, and discussions will centre within this framework. The micro strata is a compilation of the technology process and its elements and other factors which might have an influence thereon or be dependent thereupon. The various elements of the technology process are discussed separately while each element is defined precisely. The present state of knowledge on this specific subject is outlined and areas for future research are identified. Identical aspects are discussed under the headings of the various other elements that function within the framework of management of technology but external to the technology process. The prime objective of the preliminary investigation on management of high level manpower was to identify the elements of management that will possibly change or expand during the management of high level manpower. Thereby a structure could be developed whereby information and techniques could be gathered and developed for the management of these activities.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 33
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The objective of this study was to determine whether differences and/or similarities exist in the relative importance of evaluation criteria between the various race groups in South Africa when purchasing a motor vehicle. The sample consisted of 577 whites, 114 coloureds, 102 Asians and 109 blacks mainly from metropolitan areas. Variance analysis was applied to establish that there were 52 significant differences out of a total of 65 evaluation criteria with respect to the various race groups. Results showed that the biggest significant differences occurred between whites and blacks (66% of the evaluation criteria) and between whites and Asians (43% of the evaluation criteria).
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    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 34
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: South African listed companies (Johannesburg Stock Exchange, Industrial) have been following the example of British Companies since 1977 in the inclusion of a value-added statement in the annual report. An analysis of the statement of value added in the annual reports of 47 South African companies has shown that in respect of items like the title of the statement, the format, non-trading debits and credits, payroll costs, interest and dividends, taxation and retentions, a variety of practices are followed. The mere fact that information made available in the statement of value added is not standardized, complicates the task of interest groups such as shareholders, creditors, employees, financial analysts and others. This matter should receive the urgent attention of the Accounting Practices Board of the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants.
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    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 35
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Motor-cycle industry: Opportunities for market development The South African motor-cycle industry has experienced a constant decline in sales since 1981, that is, a drop from 84 000 units sold during 1981 to a sales figure of 24 509 units for 1985. This decline in sales poses a threat to the profitability and survival of the motor-cycle industry in South Africa. Up to this point in time the marketing efforts of the motor-cycle industry were mainly directed towards the white consumer market. In order to bring about an upturn in motor-cycle sales, this study looked into the feasibility of a marketing effort by the motor-cycle industry aimed at the black consumer market. The findings of the study revealed that blacks currently view motor-cycles as a dangerous means of transport, used mainly by high speeding dare-devils. However, by the compilation of an optimum marketing strategy, the motor-cycle industry should be able to overcome the above-mentioned objection of blacks against motor-cycles. The marketing mix strategy should reveal the following characteristics: (i) A marketing communication strategy which centres on the re-education of blacks, so that they perceive motor-cycles as an economical means of transport, requiring little parking space, instead of as 'heavy metal terrorists' with a horrifying accident record. (ii) A product offered to the black market which reveals its economical characteristics and, as preferred by blacks, is in the commuter class (200 cm3 - 500 cm3). (iii) A price that does not exceed R4000. (iv) The establishment of distribution outlets in white industrial areas with predominantly white sales personnel.
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    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 36
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: An investigation into the use of microcomputer systems in small businesses in South Africa The relatively low cost and great advantages, i.e. accuracy, time and cost savings, better decision making, more professional service to clients, etc. make a microcomputer system an attractive aid for any business and particularly for the small business. This is why microcomputers will, today and in future, play an ever-increasing role in the business world. The implementation of a microcomputer system, however, implies major changes for the business and these changes may create major problems for the management of the small business. The objectives of this research project are to determine the extent to which microcomputer systems are used in small businesses in South Africa, what problems they experience with these systems, and to suggest possible solutions to these problems. Furthermore, the major contributing factors to the successful application of microcomputer systems in small businesses are identified by using regression techniques.
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    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 37
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: An optimal income appropriation policy for a co-operativeThe income (after interest payable, except on deferred bonuses and before taxation) can be appropriated in three different ways (different combinations are possible), i.e. the payment of cash bonuses, the declaration of deferred bonuses, and the conversion of deferred bonuses in shares. Each of these methods has different cash flow and tax consequences for a co-operative and its shareholders. Each of the above-mentioned methods results in a tax deduction for a co-operative and an increase in taxable income for the member even if there is no cash inflow. Interest and dividends as compensation also have different tax consequences for both the co-operative and its members. To determine the optimal income appropriation policy a long term cash flow model is developed to establish the effect of a specific policy on the cash position of both the co-operative and the member. The co-operative also has to watch its solvency carefully. The marginal tax rate of the member also plays an important role.
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    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The relative importance of evaluation criteria as observed by bank managers in consumer banking This study has the following objectives: (i) To determine the relative importance of various evaluation criteria (as observed by bank managers) in considering the granting of credit to individuals in consumer banking; and (ii) to compare the relative importance of evaluation criteria (as observed by bank managers) with regard to the various race groups (coloureds, Indians, whites, and blacks). The sample consists of 510 managers from the consumer division of general and commercial banks. It was found that significant differences exist regarding the relative importance of the evaluation criteria (according to the perception of bank managers) with respect to the various race groups.
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    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 39
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Factors in considering the granting of credit in consumer banking In this study the authors attempt to identify underlying factors from various evaluation criteria (as observed by bank managers) in considering the granting of credit in consumer banking with regard to the various race groups of the Republic of South Africa. The sample consists of 510 managers from the consumer division of general and commercial banks. With the aid of principal factor analysis six underlying factors are identified with respect to Indians, whereas five underlying factors are identified with regard to coloureds, whites and blacks.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 40
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Choice of a forecasting technique Business forecasting has developed rapidly over the past few years as a result of the increasing complexity of the environment of the firm. Some researchers assert that businesses apparently experience three problems with reference to forecasting: a preference for the application of certain techniques is built up so that more suitable techniques are not utilized; not all relevant factors are taken into consideration in the choice of the most suitable technique; and managers often do forecasting themselves even though they possess little knowledge thereof. To handle the increasing variety and complexity of managerial forecasting problems, many forecasting techniques have been developed in recent years. Each has its special use, and care must be taken to select the correct technique for a particular application. The manager as well as the forecaster has a role to play in technique selection and the better the manager understands the range of forecasting possibilities, the more likely it is that a company's forecasting efforts will bear fruit.
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    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: A structure-analysis of Black business enterprise in the Republic of South Africa The present situation in South Africa is such that a sophisticated and developed economy and a totally unsophisticated and undeveloped economy exist side by side. In this context the role of entrepreneurs or employers is mainly fulfilled by Whites and the role of employees by Blacks. Reasons for this are, among others, the political historical development in South Africa and the fact that the independent entrepreneur was not part of the Black man's traditional structure. In this context the position of the Black entrepreneur in the Republic of South Africa (excluding independent and national states) is referred to. In particular, attention is given to the development of Black business enterprise in Black residential areas, the physical structure of Black residential areas, the structure of formal Black business enterprise, the informal sector as an important part of the small business sector in Black residential areas, purchasing behaviour of Black consumers, existing purchasing facilities in Black residential areas and the need for certain other purchasing facilities in Black residential areas.
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    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 42
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The application of increasing price-level changes to capital investment decisions Inflation (the decreasing purchasing power of money) has become a reality with which one has to live, and for which one has to plan. As a result of the decrease in the purchasing power of money, the prices of production means are going up considerably, and more so where long-term capital projects are involved. The initial investment in respect of a capital project involves the least risk in accuracy, as it has to be known at the moment of decision-making and cannot be changed significantly until the decision has been realized. The other factors essential for decision-making and which will be realized in the future throughout the lifespan of the asset are subject to change in the value of money and it is important that the influence of this change be taken into account. The impact of price-level changes can be taken into account through the use of general or specific price-level changes. The application of this has led to the fact that only general price-level changes, or only specific price-level changes, or general and specific price-level changes can be used for the adjustment of items. The last includes the advantages of using both price-level changes. In each of these applications different methods have been developed which agree in principle, while there may be differences with regard to details of the applications.
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    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 43
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Guideline 4.003 for income determination: A theoretical evaluation During the last few years the distribution and realization principles began to play an increasingly important role in literature. The income of an organization is increasingly viewed as the cash amount that can be withdrawn without hampering the continuity of ongoing action. The purpose of an income system, like the South African guideline 4.003, is to render an index of the income which can be utilized for expansion and/or distribution. There is always a reasonably large optimism and trust in the reliability of guideline 4.003 to accomplish this. The present article highlights some weaknesses of guideline 4.003 which cannot be ignored. These weaknesses are related to the assumption regarding the realization of purchasing income on loans, the calculation of net monetary assets and liabilities, the calculation of loss of purchasing power on distributable income and depreciation and the revaluation of equity capital of the balance sheet. A complete distribution of income according to guideline 4.003 is therefore not always without problems for continuity and is also not necessarily a reliable point of departure for a divided policy during inflation.
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    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 44
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Factors which influence computer-based information systems The design and implementation of computer-based information systems have for a long time (and in some organizations are still being) accepted as primarily technical activities. As a result of this attitude about technology, the fact that practically all computer-based systems exist within the context of an organization has been largely ignored. From the literature it has emerged that many computer-based information systems have failed, not necessarily as a result of poor technical quality, but because certain other important aspects, which determine the success or the failure of a computer-based system have been left out of account. As a result of a research project, it will be shown in this paper which factors are the most important in their contribution to the success of computer-based systems.
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The functions of the board of directors: Theory and practice A major difference seems to occur in practice between what the normally accepted functions of the board of directors are and what they actually do. As the ultimate body responsible for managing an organization, one would normatively expect them to set amongst other functions the strategy of the organization. Lack of detailed involvement, time and sometimes knowledge prevent them from actually doing so and it is argued that as far as strategy formulation is concerned, the board should perform an audit function to ensure that strategies are rationally set.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Can the Black man make a success of business? An empirical analysis of the managerial problems of black dealers in Lebowa The success rate with training black entrepreneurs leaves much room for improvement. In this article the problems with training Blacks in general are discussed. The conclusion is that training needs are not correctly identified, and tutors are not always sufficiently educated and motivated. By means of research done in Lebowa, it is indicated which aspects should receive more attention when training the black businessman. The following aspects were researched specifically to identify the needs: background problems such as cultural aspects and overpopulation; location and problems with shop design layout and atmosphere; the organizational structure and personnel management. Limited knowledge of personnel needs and the absence of good delegation of authority are identified as important problems; purchasing management, the typical buyer and purchasing problems are identified; marketing management with special reference to pricing and promotion, and financial management were also investigated and the findings are that the security problem and the weak record keeping of respondents limits them in exercising sound financial management. On the basis of this information, guidelines for a training programme are proposed in conclusion.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The prediction of credit risk by means of biographic variables: Is this the answer? The objective of this study is to identify specific biographical variables, to quantity them and to investigate their relative importance in the prediction of credit risk. A representative sample of 250 bad credit risk clients and 250 good credit risk clients is used in the study. A multiple stepwise regression analysis and multiple stepwise discriminant analysis were carried out. Nine biographical variables were identified which explain approximately 16% of the variance of credit risk.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Effective management at the lower level It is essential that the productivity performance of the South African worker be improved considerably. It is believed that lower management, being in the position of direct supervisors of the low level workforce, can make an important contribution in this direction. Effective management at the lower level, however, requires thorough training in order to make the supervisor aware of the technical and especially the human requirements of his difficult task. A recent survey has revealed that South African companies are not using motivation theories and teaching methods to a large extent in respect of lower management. It appears, therefore, that effective management at the lower level is not receiving sufficient attention.The difficult task of the supervisor is elucidated and several suggestions given for furthering effective management at the lower level.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Private and public decision-making The interaction between the private and public sectors is important in South Africa. Much criticism is expressed by the one sector against the other. This can be partly attributed to an incomplete understanding of the processes of decision-making in the two sectors, and of the differences between them. A comparison is drawn between the most important elements of the decision-making processes in the two sectors. Public decision-making deals mostly with matters concerning the community and the economy as a whole, whereas private decision-making is concerned mostly with parts of the whole. The aims at which decision-making in the two sectors are directed, differ accordingly, as do the perceptions of the respective decision-makers of the environment in which they make decisions. As a consequence, the criteria for the success of a decision also differ substantially between the two sectors. The implications of these differences between private and public decision-making for the approach to inflation and the financing of housing, are dealt with as examples. Finally, differences between the ways in which decisions are implemented in the two sectors, also appear to be an important cause of much of the criticism from the private sector about decision-making in the public sector.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The allocation of the demand for electricity using mixed integer programmingIn this paper the authors have investigated the use of mixed integer programming to solve an allocation problem that exists in the Electricity Department of the Pretoria Municipality. In the Pretoria supply area the demand for electricity is provided for by using the municipal power stations Rooiwal and Pretoria West and by obtaining power from Escom. Every year the Electricity Department must decide how the monthly demand (12 months ahead) for electricity must be allocated between their own power stations and the supply from Escom.The allocation must be done in such a way that certain requirements are met. These requirements refer to the demand for electricity, the availability of the municipality's own generators, the capacity of the two power stations and a so called supply requirement laid down by Escom. A mixed integer programming model was developed in which these requirements were catered for and in which the running costs were minimized. Results obtained thus far from the model indicate that it can provide the Electricity Department with a useful tool in solving a complicated allocation problem.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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  • 52
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: Management by objectives: A pragmatic approach This article has a dual purpose. Firstly, the advantages associated with management by objectives (MBO) are outlined and the problems commonly experienced with implementation are highlighted. This part of the article is concluded by listing the eight key points that must be considered before any organization implements MBO. Secondly, 10 steps in the MBO process are discussed. These steps are considered within the context of the planning and control systems of the company or organization. This means that the MBO process is integrated with the planning and control systems of the organization.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: The methodology and applicability of a method to determine the market price of non-durable consumer products Proper pricing should be done in three phases. Firstly, the determination of the market price, namely that price which the consumers are prepared to pay for the amount of need-satisfaction they perceive from using the product. Secondly, the determination of the target price, namely that price which will give a satisfactory rate of return on investment for the firm. Thirdly, the determination of the final price, by achieving a match between the market price and the target price. The present methods to determine the market price were analysed and with this information a new method to determine the market price of non-durable consumer products was developed. The objectives of this article are to report on an empirical investigation undertaken to test the feasibility of this method and the seven steps to follow in using the method; and to outline the results obtained and conclusions which may be reached; the implications and use of the empirical data; and the method to determine the market price.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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    Cape Town: African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-23
    Description: A comparison of the results of four computer search-models for production planning Many production managers are faced with the problem of planning production, inventory and workforce under the constraint of limited resources to meet a seasonal demand. Considerable research has been done on this planning problem and various models have been proposed. The linear decision rule (LDR), especially as applied to the well-known Paint Shop, represents a milestone in the development of such models and serves as a standard against which the performances of many other models are measured. In this paper a comparison is made between the LDR results and that of three computer search models, SDR, CONMIN and SUMT for the Paint Shop. Two different cost structures are used for the Paint Shop - the original structure developed by Holt et al. (a quadratic approximation to the costs of the Shop) and a ficticious fourth-order cost structure published by Goodman. The results of this study indicate that in cases where the cost structure is non-linear, the computer search techniques can be of some help to the production planner.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Afrikaans
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