ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Articles
  • Other Sources  (8,887)
  • Publication Database PIK  (8,887)
Collection
  • Articles
  • Other Sources  (8,887)
Language
Years
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2022-01-05
    Description: Modern food production is spatially concentrated in global “breadbaskets.” A major unresolved question is whether these peak production regions will shift poleward as the climate warms, allowing some recovery of potential climate-related losses. While agricultural impacts studies to date have focused on currently cultivated land, the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison Project (GGCMI) Phase 2 experiment allows us to assess changes in both yields and the location of peak productivity regions under warming. We examine crop responses under projected end of century warming using seven process-based models simulating five major crops (maize, rice, soybeans, and spring and winter wheat) with a variety of adaptation strategies. We find that in no-adaptation cases, when planting date and cultivar choices are held fixed, regions of peak production remain stationary and yield losses can be severe, since growing seasons contract strongly with warming. When adaptations in management practices are allowed (cultivars that retain growing season length under warming and modified planting dates), peak productivity zones shift poleward and yield losses are largely recovered. While most growing-zone shifts are ultimately limited by geography, breadbaskets studied here move poleward over 600 km on average by end of the century under RCP 8.5. These results suggest that agricultural impacts assessments can be strongly biased if restricted in spatial area or in the scope of adaptive behavior considered. Accurate evaluation of food security under climate change requires global modeling and careful treatment of adaptation strategies.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2022-01-05
    Description: PowerDynamics.jl is a Julia package for time-domain modeling of power grids that is specifically designed for the stability analysis of systems with high shares of renewable energies. It makes use of Julia’s state-of-the-art differential equation solvers and is highly performant even for systems with a large number of components. Further, it is compatible with Julia’s machine learning libraries and allows for the utilization of these methods for dynam- ical optimization and parameter fitting. The package comes with a number of predefined models for synchronous machines, transmission lines and in- verter systems. However, the strict open-source approach and a macro-based user-interface also allows for an easy implementation of custom-built mod- els which makes it especially interesting for the design and testing of new control strategies for distributed generation units. This paper presents how the modeling concept, implemented component models and fault scenarios have been experimentally tested against measurements in the microgrid lab of TECNALIA.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2022-01-05
    Description: The tightened climate mitigation targets of the EU green deal raise an important question: Which strategy should be used to achieve carbon emissions net neutrality? This study explores stakeholder-designed narratives of the future energy system development within the deep decarbonization context. European carbon net-neutrality goals are put under test in a model comparison exercise using state of the art Energy-Environment-Economy (E3) models: ETM-UCL, PRIMES and REMIND. Results show that while achieving the transition to carbon neutrality by mid-century is feasible under quite different future energy systems, some robust commonalities emerge. Electrification of end use sectors combined with large-scale expansion of renewable energy is a no-regret decision for all strategies; Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) plays an important role for achieving net-neutral targets under all scenarios, but is most relevant when demand-side changes are limited; hydrogen and synthetic fuels can be a relevant mitigation option for mid-century mitigation in hard-to-abate sectors; energy efficiency can reduce the supply system strain. Finally, high carbon prices (300–900€/tCO2) are needed under all strategies in order to achieve carbon net neutrality in 2050.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2022-01-05
    Description: Renewable energies, such as solar and wind energy, play a critical role in achieving rapid decarbonization to limit global warming by replacing fossil energy. However, lack of knowledge on renewable energy potentials in developing countries is a barrier in making adequate policies to promote these energies. Thus, we have carried out a spatial and economic analysis of solar and wind energy potential at the provincial level for the first time in Nepal. Our analysis is built upon the spatial energy modeling based on technical, geographical, and economic suitability criteria, utilizing open-source geographical information system platforms. A significant amount of renewable energy could be harnessed in Nepal, i.e., up to about 47,628 MW and 1,686 MW from solar and wind energy, respectively. Similarly, Nepal has a co-location potential of about 890 and 267 MW of solar and wind energy. Karnali and Gandaki provinces have the highest solar and wind energy potential due to a large share of suitable locations with good resource quality. We estimate the 10th percentile of Levelized cost of electricity generation of 91 USD/MWh for solar and 46 USD/MWh for wind. Our findings are helpful for the formulation of resource-specific policies of Nepal at a sub-national level.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2022-01-04
    Description: Natural gas based hydrogen production with carbon capture and storage is referred to as blue hydrogen. If substantial amounts of CO2 from natural gas reforming are captured and permanently stored, such hydrogen could be a low-carbon energy carrier. However, recent research raises questions about the effective climate impacts of blue hydrogen from a life cycle perspective. Our analysis sheds light on the relevant issues and provides a balanced perspective on the impacts on climate change associated with blue hydrogen. We show that such impacts may indeed vary over large ranges and depend on only a few key parameters: the methane emission rate of the natural gas supply chain, the CO2 removal rate at the hydrogen production plant, and the global warming metric applied. State-of-the-art reforming with high CO2 capture rates combined with natural gas supply featuring low methane emissions does indeed allow for substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions compared to both conventional natural gas reforming and direct combustion of natural gas. Under such conditions, blue hydrogen is compatible with low-carbon economies and exhibits climate change impacts at the upper end of the range of those caused by hydrogen production from renewable-based electricity. However, neither current blue nor green hydrogen production pathways render fully “net-zero” hydrogen without additional CO2 removal.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science
    Publication Date: 2022-01-12
    Description: Urban growth can take different forms, such as infill, expansion, and leapfrog development. Here we focus on leapfrogging, which is characterised as new urban development bypassing vacant land. Analysing a sample of 100 global locations, we study the probability that land cover is converted from non-urban to urban as a function of the minimum distance to existing urban cells. The probability decreases with the distance but in many of the considered real-world samples it increases again just before the maximum possible distance. Comparing these empirical findings with numerical ones from a gravitational model, we discover that the characteristic increase can be found in both. Our results indicate that the conversion probability as a function of the distance to urban land cover includes three urban growth domains. (i) Expansion of existing settlements, (ii) discontinuous development of coincidental new settlements rather close to existing ones, and (iii) leapfrogging of new settlements far away from existing ones. We conclude that gravitational effects can explain discontinuous development but leapfrogging can be attributed to a scarcity of developable land at long distances to settlements.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2022-01-20
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2022-01-20
    Description: To date, most regional and global hydrological models either ignore the representation of cropland or consider crop cultivation in a simplistic way or in abstract terms without any management practices. Yet, the water balance of cultivated areas is strongly influenced by applied management practices (e.g. planting, irrigation, fertilization, harvesting). The SWAT+ model represents agricultural land by default in a generic way where the start of the cropping season is driven by accumulated heat units. However, this approach does not work for tropical and sub-tropical regions such as the sub-Saharan Africa where crop growth dynamics are mainly controlled by rainfall rather than temperature. In this study, we present an approach on how to incorporate crop phenology using decision tables and global datasets of rainfed and irrigated croplands with the associated cropping calendar and fertilizer applications in a regional SWAT+ model for Northeast Africa. We evaluate the influence of the crop phenology representation on simulations of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Evapotranspiration (ET) using LAI remote sensing data from Copernicus Global Land Service (CGLS) and WaPOR ET data respectively. Results show that a representation of crop phenology using global datasets leads to improved temporal patterns of LAI and ET simulations especially for regions with a single cropping cycle. However, for regions with multiple cropping seasons, global phenology datasets need to be complemented with local data or remote sensing data to capture additional cropping seasons. In addition, the improvement of the cropping season also helps to improve soil erosion estimates, as the timing of crop cover controls erosion rates in the model. With more realistic growing seasons, soil erosion is largely reduced for most agricultural Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) which can be considered as a move towards substantial improvements over previous estimates. We conclude that regional and global hydrological models can benefit from improved representations of crop phenology and the associated management practices. Future work regarding the incorporation of multiple cropping seasons in global phenology data is needed to better represent cropping cycles in regional to global hydrological models.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2022-01-20
    Description: Crop pests and diseases (CPDs) are emerging threats to global food security, but trends in the occurrence of pests and diseases remain largely unknown due to the lack of observations for major crop producers. Here, on the basis of a unique historical dataset with more than 5,500 statistical records, we found an increased occurrence of CPDs in every province of China, with the national average rate of CPD occurrence increasing by a factor of four (from 53% to 218%) during 1970–2016. Historical climate change is responsible for more than one-fifth of the observed increment of CPD occurrence (22% ± 17%), ranging from 2% to 79% in different provinces. Among the climatic factors considered, warmer nighttime temperatures contribute most to the increasing occurrence of CPDs (11% ± 9%). Projections of future CPDs show that at the end of this century, climate change will lead to an increase in CPD occurrence by 243% ± 110% under a low-emissions scenario (SSP126) and 460% ± 213% under a high-emissions scenario (SSP585), with the magnitude largely dependent on the impacts of warmer nighttime temperatures and decreasing frost days. This observation-based evidence highlights the urgent need to accurately account for the increasing risk of CPDs in mitigating the impacts of climate change on food production.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2022-01-20
    Description: Mitigation solutions are often evaluated in terms of costs and greenhouse gas reduction potentials, missing out on the consideration of direct effects on human well-being. Here, we systematically assess the mitigation potential of demand-side options categorized into avoid, shift and improve, and their human well-being links. We show that these options, bridging socio-behavioural, infrastructural and technological domains, can reduce counterfactual sectoral emissions by 40–80% in end-use sectors. Based on expert judgement and an extensive literature database, we evaluate 306 combinations of well-being outcomes and demand-side options, finding largely beneficial effects in improvement in well-being (79% positive, 18% neutral and 3% negative), even though we find low confidence on the social dimensions of well-being. Implementing such nuanced solutions is based axiomatically on an understanding of malleable rather than fixed preferences, and procedurally on changing infrastructures and choice architectures. Results demonstrate the high mitigation potential of demand-side mitigation options that are synergistic with well-being.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    Publication Date: 2022-01-21
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    Publication Date: 2022-01-21
    Description: Understanding the interactions (synergies and trade-offs) among the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is crucial for enhancing policy coherence between different sectors. However, spatial differences in the SDG interactions and their temporal variations at the sub-national scale are still critical gaps that need to be urgently filled. Here, we assess the spatial and temporal variation of the SDG interactions in China based on the systematic classification framework of SDGs. The framework groups the seventeen SDGs into three categories, namely “Essential Needs,” “Objectives,” and “Governance.” Spatially, we found that the SDGs in “Essential Needs” & “Objectives” and “Essential Needs” & “Governance” generally show trade-offs in the eastern provinces of China. Synergies among all three SDG categories are observed in some central and western China provinces, which implies that these regions conform to sustainable development patterns. In addition, temporally, the synergies of the three SDG categories have shown a weakening trend in the last decade, mainly due to the regional differences in the progress of SDG7 (Affordable and Clean Energy). Overall, our results identify the necessity for provinces to enhance the synergies between SDG12 (Responsible Production and Consumption) and other SDGs to tackle the trade-offs between the “Essential Needs” and “Objectives.” Meanwhile, promoting the progress of SDG7 will also contribute to balanced development across provinces.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    Publication Date: 2022-01-21
    Description: In this paper, the existence (invariance) and stability (locally and globally) of relay interlayer synchronisation (RIS) are investigated in a chain of multiplex networks. The local dynamics of the nodes in the symmetric positions layers on both sides of the non-identical middlemost layer(s) are identical. The local and global stability conditions for this synchronisation state are analytically derived based on the master stability function approach and by constructing a suitable Lyapunov function, respectively. We propose an appropriate demultiplexing process for the existence of the RIS state. Then the variational equation transverse to the RIS manifold for demultiplexed networks is derived. In numerical simulations, the impact of interlayer and intralayer coupling strengths, variations of the system parameter in the relay layers and demultiplexing on the emergence of RIS in triplex and pentaplex networks are explored. Interestingly, in this multiplex network, enhancement of RIS is observed when a type of impurity via parameter mismatch in the local dynamics of the nodes is introduced in the middlemost layer. A common time-lag with small amplitude shift between the symmetric positions and central layers plays an important role for the enhancing of relay interlayer synchrony. This analysis improves our understanding of synchronisation states in multiplex networks with nonidentical layers.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    Publication Date: 2022-01-21
    Description: Macro-economic assessments of climate impacts lack an analysis of the distribution of daily rainfall, which can resolve both complex societal impact channels and anthropogenically forced changes. Here, using a global panel of subnational economic output for 1,554 regions worldwide over the past 40 years, we show that economic growth rates are reduced by increases in the number of wet days and in extreme daily rainfall, in addition to responding nonlinearly to the total annual and to the standardized monthly deviations of rainfall. Furthermore, high-income nations and the services and manufacturing sectors are most strongly hindered by both measures of daily rainfall, complementing previous work that emphasized the beneficial effects of additional total annual rainfall in low-income, agriculturally dependent economies4,7. By assessing the distribution of rainfall at multiple timescales and the effects on different sectors, we uncover channels through which climatic conditions can affect the economy. These results suggest that anthropogenic intensification of daily rainfall extremes will have negative global economic consequences that require further assessment by those who wish to evaluate the costs of anthropogenic climate change.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    Publication Date: 2022-01-21
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    Publication Date: 2022-01-21
    Description: COVID-19 has revealed how challenging it is to manage global, systemic and compounding crises. Like COVID-19, climate change impacts, and maladaptive responses to them, have potential to disrupt societies at multiple scales via networks of trade, finance, mobility and communication, and to impact hardest on the most vulnerable. However, these complex systems can also facilitate resilience if managed effectively. This review aims to distil lessons related to the transboundary management of systemic risks from the COVID-19 experience, to inform climate change policy and resilience building. Evidence from diverse fields is synthesised to illustrate the nature of systemic risks and our evolving understanding of resilience. We describe research methods that aim to capture systemic complexity to inform better management practices and increase resilience to crises. Finally, we recommend specific, practical actions for improving transboundary climate risk management and resilience building. These include mapping the direct, cross-border and cross-sectoral impacts of potential climate extremes, adopting adaptive risk management strategies that embrace heterogenous decision-making and uncertainty, and taking a broader approach to resilience which elevates human wellbeing, including societal and ecological resilience.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    Publication Date: 2022-01-21
    Description: Societal transformations are necessary to address critical global challenges, such as mitigation of anthropogenic climate change and reaching UN sustainable development goals. Recently, social tipping processes have received increased attention, as they present a form of social change whereby a small change can shift a sensitive social system into a qualitatively different state due to strongly self-amplifying (mathematically positive) feedback mechanisms. Social tipping processes with respect to technological and energy systems, political mobilization, financial markets and sociocultural norms and behaviors have been suggested as potential key drivers towards climate action. Drawing from expert insights and comprehensive literature review, we develop a framework to identify and characterize social tipping processes critical to facilitating rapid social transformations. We find that social tipping processes are distinguishable from those of already more widely studied climate and ecological tipping dynamics. In particular, we identify human agency, social-institutional network structures, different spatial and temporal scales and increased complexity as key distinctive features underlying social tipping processes. Building on these characteristics, we propose a formal definition for social tipping processes and filtering criteria for those processes that could be decisive for future trajectories towards climate action. We illustrate this definition with the European political system as an example of potential social tipping processes, highlighting the prospective role of the FridaysForFuture movement. Accordingly, this conceptual framework for social tipping processes can be utilized to illuminate mechanisms for necessary transformative climate change mitigation policies and actions.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Humanities and Social Sciences Communications
    Publication Date: 2022-01-21
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    Publication Date: 2022-01-21
    Description: Joint Forest Management (JFM) is a form of participatory forest governance that aims for protection, conservation and sustainable use of forest resources by involving local communities. The JFM reforms have been promoted to address forest and land degradation, as vital in reducing institutional uncertainty in complex environments and strengthening cooperation among resource users. We draw on theories of collective action and transaction costs assuming that the overharvesting problem can be reduced by efficient and effective rules that support cooperation between forest users in using common pool resources at the group level and explore how forest users respond to policies that aim to reduce overharvesting in Tajikistan. To this end, we used a framed field experiment involving actual forest resource users. We find a strong impact of rules and the associated transaction costs in dealing with environmental and institutional uncertainties. The experiment results indicate that the harvesting rate is likely to decrease when institutionalized mechanisms are introduced to coordinate the interdependence among resource users. The overall results suggest that the rule determining harvest on a rotational basis is effective in reducing harvesting under environmental uncertainty regardless of the existence of communication and under institutional uncertainty when communication is permitted.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    Publication Date: 2022-01-25
    Description: This article studies the fixed-time tracking consensus of second-order nonlinear multi-agent systems with disturbance. To make the fixed-time tracking consensus, a consensus protocol based on the integral sliding mode surface is proposed, which can ensure the adjacent agents remain within a limited communication range in the communication process. By adopting Lyapunov stability theory and matrix theory, sufficient conditions for the fixed-time tracking consensus are given, and a bound of the settling time is obtained. Finally, a simulation example is presented to verify the potential correctness of the obtained results.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Climate Change and Water Security | Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering
    Publication Date: 2022-01-25
    Description: During the past decades, convective rainfall in the Echaz catchment, which is characterized by steep topography and a high degree of urbanization, led to recurring flash floods. The high spatial and temporal variability of precipitation, in combination with the small drainage basin, contribute to low predictability and to the considerable damage potential of such events. The aim of this study is the development of a simple model to predict flood severity in the Echaz catchment. This model is based on open-access precipitation data from a personal weather station (PWS) network and water level measurements from a low-cost ultrasonic sensor. Machine learning classification methods (logistic regression and decision tree) are trained with observational data to determine maximum rainfall thresholds for different accumulation periods, ranging from 5 to 60 min. Hence, the proposed model uses multiple triggers to predict the exceedance of critical water levels. As a result, severe floods can be recognized earlier and with higher reliability, providing more response time for local authorities. Although the limited data availability increases the risk of overfitting and lower performance for the first upcoming events, the model quality will increase with the incorporation of new measurement data in the future. The reduced complexity and high interpretability of the model allow for a fast decision-making process. Additionally, the model has high potential and can easily be adapted to similar small catchments.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/bookPart
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    Publication Date: 2022-01-25
    Description: In industrial control systems, industrial infrastructure is often attacked by hackers. Due to the serious sample imbalance in industrial control data, the traditional machine learning method has poor performance in anomaly detection. In this paper, TrAdaboost algorithm is applied to industrial control anomaly detection. The samples that are easy to classify are taken as the source domain data, and the samples with poor classification effect are taken as the target domain. The source domain data is used to guide the target domain data training. Then, we improve the traditional TrAdaboost algorithm from two aspects of initial weight and final classifier, and apply it to industrial control anomaly detection. Finally, the performance of the algorithm on two different industrial control data sets is verified. And the improved algorithm is compared with other traditional algorithms. The experimental results show that the improved TrAdaboost algorithm has a significant advantage in predicting categories with a small sample size. This algorithm can accurately identify a few abnormal samples. Moreover, the F1 value, recall and precision value of the improved TrAdaboost algorithm on the two data sets have been significantly improved. This indicates that the improved TrAdaboost algorithm greatly improves the overall prediction accuracy of the model.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    Publication Date: 2022-01-25
    Description: Avoiding catastrophic climate change requires rapid decarbonization and improved ecosystem stewardship at a planetary scale. The carbon released through the burning of fossil fuels would take millennia to regenerate on Earth. Though the timeframe of carbon recovery for ecosystems such as peatlands, mangroves and old-growth forests is shorter (centuries), this timeframe still exceeds the time we have remaining to avoid the worst impacts of global warming. There are some natural places that we cannot afford to lose due to their irreplaceable carbon reserves. Here we map ‘irrecoverable carbon’ globally to identify ecosystem carbon that remains within human purview to manage and, if lost, could not be recovered by mid-century, by when we need to reach net-zero emissions to avoid the worst climate impacts. Since 2010, agriculture, logging and wildfire have caused emissions of at least 4.0 Gt of irrecoverable carbon. The world’s remaining 139.1 ± 443.6 Gt of irrecoverable carbon faces risks from land-use conversion and climate change. These risks can be reduced through proactive protection and adaptive management. Currently, 23.0% of irrecoverable carbon is within protected areas and 33.6% is managed by Indigenous peoples and local communities. Half of Earth’s irrecoverable carbon is concentrated on just 3.3% of its land, highlighting opportunities for targeted efforts to increase global climate security.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    Publication Date: 2021-02-25
    Description: This paper studies the delay-dependent consensus problem of heterogeneous multi-agent systems over directed topology. The heterogeneous dynamics consisting of both first-order and second-order agents with random time delay are considered. New distributed control protocols based on the probability distribution of time delay are proposed for the leader-following and leaderless systems. By adopting matrix theory, Lyapunov-Krasovskii function and stochastic analysis, some less conservative conditions for the mean-square consensus are established over directed fixed topology and switching topologies. Moreover, the larger upper bounds of time delay are obtained. Finally, several simulations are presented to illustrate the obtained results.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Capitol Hill Publishing Group
    In:  The Hill | Opinion : Energy & Evironment
    Publication Date: 2021-03-03
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/other
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    Publication Date: 2021-03-16
    Description: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to strongly affect global energy systems. Global power sector CO2 emissions have shown a substantial decline, thanks to (a) the COVID-19-induced economic downturn and resulting reduction of electricity demand and (b) a decrease of carbon intensity of power generation as coal generation is decreased most strongly. These effects illustrate the opportunity for different policies to support a structural and accelerating decline of power sector emissions.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  American Economic Journal: Economic Policy
    Publication Date: 2021-03-16
    Description: Climate change not only impacts production and market consumption but also the relative scarcity of nonmarket goods, such as environmen-tal amenities. We study fundamental drivers of the resulting relative price changes, their potential magnitude, and their implications for climate policy in Nordhaus’s Dynamic Integrated Climate-Economy (DICE) model, thereby addressing one of its key criticisms. We pro-pose plausible ranges for these relative prices changes based on best available evidence. Our central calibration reveals that accounting for relative prices is equivalent to decreasing pure time preference by 0.6 percentage points and leads to a more than 50 percent higher social cost of carbon.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    Publication Date: 2021-05-03
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/report
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    Publication Date: 2021-03-23
    Description: We develop a model of optimal carbon taxation and redistribution taking into account horizontal equity concerns by considering heterogeneous energy efficiencies. By deriving first- and second-best rules for policy instruments including carbon taxes, transfers and energy subsidies, we then investigate analytically how horizontal equity is considered in the social welfare maximizing tax structure. We calibrate the model to German household data and a 30 percent emission reduction goal. Our results show that energy-intensive households should receive more redistributive resources than energy-efficient households if and only if social inequality aversion is sufficiently high. We further find that redistribution of carbon tax revenue via household-specific transfers is the first-best policy. Equal per-capita transfers do not suffer from informational problems, but increase mitigation costs by around 15 percent compared to the first-best for unity inequality aversion. Adding renewable energy subsidies or non-linear energy subsidies, reduces mitigation costs further without relying on observability of households’ energy efficiency.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/report
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Description: Terrestrial water storage (TWS) modulates the hydrological cycle and is a key determinant of water availability and an indicator of drought. While historical TWS variations have been increasingly studied, future changes in TWS and the linkages to droughts remain unexamined. Here, using ensemble hydrological simulations, we show that climate change could reduce TWS in many regions, especially those in the Southern Hemisphere. Strong inter-ensemble agreement indicates high confidence in the projected changes that are driven primarily by climate forcing rather than land and water management activities. Declines in TWS translate to increases in future droughts. By the late twenty-first century, the global land area and population in extreme-to-exceptional TWS drought could more than double, each increasing from 3% during 1976–2005 to 7% and 8%, respectively. Our findings highlight the importance of climate change mitigation to avoid adverse TWS impacts and increased droughts, and the need for improved water resource management and adaptation.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Energy Economics
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Description: Well-intended preannounced carbon mitigation policies can lead to adverse impacts such as the green paradox. This paper examines conditions impacting the prevalence of this phenomenon, when suppliers of carbon-free energy, similarly to carbon suppliers, can anticipate the implementation of preannounced carbon regulation. Neglecting the interim build-up of carbon-free capacity that responds to preannounced climate policies over-estimates the green paradox. For EU-2020 and US-2022 calibrated biofuel mandating targets, simulations point to a robust 0.4–0.6% decline in premandate global crude oil supply, suggesting that concerns over the green paradox may have been overstated. Mandate designs to mitigate the green paradox are also examined. Initially mild targets that are complemented by increasingly stringent ones are more effective at curbing the green paradox than ambitious but delayed targets.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    Publication Date: 2021-05-25
    Description: The destruction of natural habitat for cropland and pasture represents a major threat to global biodiversity. Despite widespread societal concern about biodiversity loss associated with food production, consumer access to quantitative estimates of the impact of crop production on the world's species has been very limited compared to assessments of other environmental variables such as greenhouse gas emissions or water use. Here, we present a consistent dataset of the biodiversity footprints of pasture and 175 crops at the global and national level. The data were generated by combining maps of the global distribution of agricultural areas in the year 2000 with spatially explicit estimates of the biodiversity loss associated with the conversion of natural habitat to farmland. Estimates were derived for three common alternative measures of biodiversity – species richness, threatened species richness, and range rarity – of the world's mammals, birds, and amphibians. Our dataset provides important quantitative information for food consumers and policy makers, allowing them to take evidence-based decisions to reduce the biodiversity footprint of global food production.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    Publication Date: 2021-04-23
    Description: Elevated annual average temperature has been found to impact macro-economic growth. However, various fundamental elements of the economy are affected by deviations of daily temperature from seasonal expectations which are not well reflected in annual averages. Here we show that increases in seasonally adjusted day-to-day temperature variability reduce macro-economic growth independent of and in addition to changes in annual average temperature. Combining observed day-to-day temperature variability with subnational economic data for 1,537 regions worldwide over 40 years in fixed-effects panel models, we find that an extra degree of variability results in a five percentage-point reduction in regional growth rates on average. The impact of day-to-day variability is modulated by seasonal temperature difference and income, resulting in highest vulnerability in low-latitude, low-income regions (12 percentage-point reduction). These findings illuminate a new, global-impact channel in the climate–economy relationship that demands a more comprehensive assessment in both climate and integrated assessment models.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    Publication Date: 2021-04-01
    Description: In this paper, synchronization of coupled memristive competitive bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with different time scales is discussed. Two kinds of feedback controllers are designed such that the response system and the drive system can reach synchronization. By using the differential inclusions theory, and constructing a proper Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional, novel sufficient conditions are obtained to achieve asymptotical synchronization of competitive BAM neural networks. The proposed synchronization can be easily realized. An illustrative example is given to show the feasibility of our theoretical results.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    Publication Date: 2021-05-25
    Description: The semi-arid Sahel is a global hotspot for poverty and malnutrition. Rainfed agriculture is the main source of food and income, making the well-being of rural population highly sensitive to rainfall variability. Studies have reported an upward trend in annual precipitation in the Sahel since the drought of the 1970s and early '80s, yet farmers have questioned improvements in conditions for agriculture, suggesting that intraseasonal dynamics play a crucial role. Using high-resolution daily precipitation data spanning 1981–2017 and focusing on agriculturally-relevant areas of the Sahel, we re-examined the extent of rainfall increase and investigated whether the increases have been accompanied by changes in two aspects of intraseasonal variability that have relevance for agriculture: rainy season duration and occurrence of prolonged dry spells during vulnerable crop growth stages. We found that annual rainfall increased across 56% of the region, but remained largely the same elsewhere. Rainy season duration increased almost exclusively in areas with upward trends in annual precipitation (23% of them). Association between annual rain and dry spell occurrence was less clear: increasing and decreasing frequencies of false starts (dry spells after first rains) and post-floral dry spells (towards the end of the season) were found to almost equal extent both in areas with positive and those with no significant trend in annual precipitation. Overall, improvements in at least two of the three intraseasonal variables (and no declines in any) were found in 10% of the region, while over a half of the area experienced declines in at least one intraseasonal variable, or no improvement in any. We conclude that rainfall conditions for agriculture have improved overall only in scattered areas across the Sahel since the 1980s, and increased annual rainfall is only weakly, if at all, associated with changes in the agriculturally-relevant intraseasonal rainfall characteristics.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    Publication Date: 2021-05-25
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Demografischer Wandel und Wirtschaft | Demografie und Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2021-05-05
    Description: Das Kapitel beschäftigt sich mit den Wechselwirkungen zwischen der Umwelt, klimatischen Veränderungen und demografischen Prozessen. Nach einer kurzen Einführung in die Thematik und einer Vorstellung zentraler Konzepte in Abschn. 9.2.1 wird in Abschn. 9.2.2 der anthropogene Einfluss auf Umwelt und Klima diskutiert. Insbesondere wird auf die Rolle sich verändernder Bevölkerungen sowie sich wandelnder Konsummuster eingegangen. Der anschließende Abschn. 9.3 behandelt im Schwerpunkt die Folgen des Klimawandels auf Bevölkerungen, wobei ein besonderer Fokus auf die Auswirkungen des Klimawandels auf wirtschaftliche Entwicklung und Ungleichheit, Ernährungssicherheit und Gesundheit sowie Konflikte und Migration gelegt wird. Dieser Abschnitt behandelt auch ausführlich empirische Analysen und Forschungsergebnisse aus der jüngeren Literatur. Der Klimawandel und seine Folgen werden stark von menschlichem Verhalten bedingt. Abschn. 9.4 beschäftigt sich abschließend mit der Frage, wie sich unser Klima in Zukunft verändern wird und durch welche Maßnahmen eine weitere Verschlechterung der Bedingungen vermieden werden kann bzw. welche Möglichkeiten für Bevölkerungen bestehen, sich an die sich verändernden Bedingungen anzupassen.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/bookPart
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    Publication Date: 2021-05-25
    Description: Goals and pathways to achieve sustainable urban development have multiple interlinkages with human health and wellbeing. However, these interlinkages have not been examined in depth in recent discussions on urban sustainability and global urban science. This paper fills that gap by elaborating in detail the multiple links between urban sustainability and human health and by mapping research gaps at the interface of health and urban sustainability sciences. As researchers from a broad range of disciplines, we aimed to: 1) define the process of urbanization, highlighting distinctions from related concepts to support improved conceptual rigour in health research; 2) review the evidence linking health with urbanization, urbanicity, and cities and identify cross-cutting issues; and 3) highlight new research approaches needed to study complex urban systems and their links with health. This novel, comprehensive knowledge synthesis addresses issue of interest across multiple disciplines. Our review of concepts of urban development should be of particular value to researchers and practitioners in the health sciences, while our review of the links between urban environments and health should be of particular interest to those outside of public health. We identify specific actions to promote health through sustainable urban development that leaves no one behind, including: integrated planning; evidence-informed policy-making; and monitoring the implementation of policies. We also highlight the critical role of effective governance and equity-driven planning in progress towards sustainable, healthy, and just urban development.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    Publication Date: 2021-05-25
    Description: Being an extensively produced natural fiber on earth, cotton is of importance for economies. Although the plant is broadly adapted to varying environments, growth and irrigation water demand of cotton may be challenged by future climate change. To study the impacts of climate change on cotton productivity in different regions across the world and the irrigation water requirements related to it, we use the process-based, spatially detailed biosphere and hydrology model LPJmL. We find our modelled cotton yield levels in good agreement with reported values and simulated water consumption of cotton production similar to published estimates. Following the ISIMIP protocol, we employ an ensemble of five General Circulation Models under four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) for the 2011–2099 period to simulate future cotton yields. We find that irrigated cotton production does not suffer from climate change if CO2 effects are considered, whereas rainfed production is more sensitive to varying climate conditions. Considering the overall effect of a changing climate and CO2 fertilization, cotton production on current cropland steadily increases for most of the RCPs. Starting from ~ 65 million tonnes in 2010, cotton production for RCP4.5 and RCP6.0 equates to 83 and 92 million tonnes at the end of the century, respectively. Under RCP8.5, simulated global cotton production raises by more than 50 % by 2099. Taking only climate change into account, projected cotton production considerably shrinks in most scenarios, by up to one-third or 43 million tonnes under RCP8.5. The simulation of future virtual water content (VWC) of cotton grown under elevated CO2 results for all scenarios in less VWC compared to ambient CO2 conditions. Under RCP6.0 and RCP8.5, VWC is notably decreased by more than 2000 m3 t−1 in areas where cotton is produced under purely rainfed conditions. By 2040, the average global VWC for cotton declines in all scenarios from currently 3300 to 3000 m3 t−1 and reduction continues by up to 30 % in 2100 under RCP8.5. While the VWC decreases by the CO2 effect, elevated temperature (and thus water stress) reverse the picture. Except for RCP2.6, the global VWC of cotton increase slightly but steadily under the other RCPs until mid century. RCP8.5 results in an average global VWC of more than 5000 m3 t−1 by end of the simulation period. Given the economic relevance of cotton production, climate change poses an additional stress and deserves special attention. Changes in VWC and water demands for cotton production are of special importance, as cotton production is known for its intense water consumption that led, e.g., to the loss of most of the Aral sea. The implications of climate impacts on cotton production on the one hand, and the impact of cotton production on water resources on the other hand illustrate the need to assess how future climate change may affect cotton production and its resource requirements. The inclusion of cotton in LPJmL allows for various large-scale studies to assess impacts of climate change on hydrological factors and the implications for agricultural production and carbon sequestration.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Sustainable Land Management in a European Context: Human-Environment Interactions | Human-Environment Interactions
    Publication Date: 2021-05-25
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/bookPart
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    Publication Date: 2021-05-25
    Description: We present a fully automated method for the optimal state space reconstruction from univariate and multivariate time series. The proposed methodology generalizes the time delay embedding procedure by unifying two promising ideas in a symbiotic fashion. Using non-uniform delays allows the successful reconstruction of systems inheriting different time scales. In contrast to the established methods, the minimization of an appropriate cost function determines the embedding dimension without using a threshold parameter. Moreover, the method is capable of detecting stochastic time series and, thus, can handle noise contaminated input without adjusting parameters. The superiority of the proposed method is shown on some paradigmatic models and experimental data from chaotic chemical oscillators.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    Publication Date: 2021-05-25
    Description: In real systems, the unpredictable jump changes of the random environment can induce the critical transitions (CTs) between two non-adjacent states, which are more catastrophic. Taking an asymmetric Lévy-noise-induced tri-stable model with desirable, sub-desirable, and undesirable states as a prototype class of real systems, a prediction of the noise-induced CTs from the desirable state directly to the undesirable one is carried out. We first calculate the region that the current state of the given model is absorbed into the undesirable state based on the escape probability, which is named as the absorbed region. Then, a new concept of the parameter dependent basin of the unsafe regime (PDBUR) under the asymmetric Lévy noise is introduced. It is an efficient tool for approximately quantifying the ranges of the parameters, where the noise-induced CTs from the desirable state directly to the undesirable one may occur. More importantly, it may provide theoretical guidance for us to adopt some measures to avert a noise-induced catastrophic CT.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    Publication Date: 2021-05-25
    Description: Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is considered an important negative emissions (NEs) technology, but might involve substantial irrigation on biomass plantations. Potential water stress resulting from the additional withdrawals warrants evaluation against the avoided climate change impact. Here we quantitatively assess potential side effects of BECCS with respect to water stress by disentangling the associated drivers (irrigated biomass plantations, climate, land use patterns) using comprehensive global model simulations. By considering a widespread use of irrigated biomass plantations, global warming by the end of the 21st century could be limited to 1.5 °C compared to a climate change scenario with 3 °C. However, our results suggest that both the global area and population living under severe water stress in the BECCS scenario would double compared to today and even exceed the impact of climate change. Such side effects of achieving substantial NEs would come as an extra pressure in an already water-stressed world and could only be avoided if sustainable water management were implemented globally.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    Publication Date: 2021-05-25
    Description: Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica is among the fastest changing glaciers worldwide. Over the last two decades, the glacier has lost in excess of a trillion tons of ice, or the equivalent of 3 mm of sea level rise. The ongoing changes are commonly attributed to ocean-induced thinning of its floating ice shelf and the associated reduction in buttressing forces. However, other drivers of change such as large-scale calving, changes in ice rheology and basal slipperiness could play a vital, yet unquantified, role in controlling the ongoing and future evolution of the glacier. In addition, recent studies have shown that mechanical properties of the bed are key to explaining the observed speed-up. Here we used a combination of the latest remote sensing datasets between 1996 and 2016, data assimilation tools and numerical perturbation experiments to quantify the relative importance of all processes in driving the recent changes in Pine Island Glacier dynamics. We show that (1) calving and ice shelf thinning have caused a comparable reduction in ice-shelf buttressing over the past two decades, that (2) simulated changes in ice flow over a viscously deforming bed are only compatible with observations if large and widespread changes in ice viscosity and/or basal slipperiness are taken into account, and that (3) a spatially varying, predominantly plastic bed rheology can closely reproduce observed changes in flow without marked variations in ice-internal and basal properties. Our results demonstrate that in addition to its evolving ice thickness, calving processes and a heterogeneous bed rheology play a key role in the contemporary evolution of Pine Island Glacier.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    Publication Date: 2021-05-25
    Description: The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed an interconnected and tightly coupled globalized world in rapid change. This article sets the scientific stage for understanding and responding to such change for global sustainability and resilient societies. We provide a systemic overview of the current situation where people and nature are dynamically intertwined and embedded in the biosphere, placing shocks and extreme events as part of this dynamic; humanity has become the major force in shaping the future of the Earth system as a whole; and the scale and pace of the human dimension have caused climate change, rapid loss of biodiversity, growing inequalities, and loss of resilience to deal with uncertainty and surprise. Taken together, human actions are challenging the biosphere foundation for a prosperous development of civilizations. The Anthropocene reality—of rising system-wide turbulence—calls for transformative change towards sustainable futures. Emerging technologies, social innovations, broader shifts in cultural repertoires, as well as a diverse portfolio of active stewardship of human actions in support of a resilient biosphere are highlighted as essential parts of such transformations.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    Publication Date: 2021-08-12
    Description: Global water models (GWMs) simulate the terrestrial water cycle, on the global scale, and are used to assess the impacts of climate change on freshwater systems. GWMs are developed within different modeling frameworks and consider different underlying hydrological processes, leading to varied model structures. Furthermore, the equations used to describe various processes take different forms and are generally accessible only from within the individual model codes. These factors have hindered a holistic and detailed understanding of how different models operate, yet such an understanding is crucial for explaining the results of model evaluation studies, understanding inter-model differences in their simulations, and identifying areas for future model development. This study provides a comprehensive overview of how state-of-the-art GWMs are designed. We analyze water storage compartments, water flows, and human water use sectors included in 16 GWMs that provide simulations for the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project phase 2b (ISIMIP2b). We develop a standard writing style for the model equations to further enhance model improvement, intercomparison, and communication. In this study, WaterGAP2 used the highest number of water storage compartments, 11, and CWatM used 10 compartments. Seven models used six compartments, while three models (JULES-W1, Mac-PDM.20, and VIC) used the lowest number, three compartments. WaterGAP2 simulates five human water use sectors, while four models (CLM4.5, CLM5.0, LPJmL, and MPI-HM) simulate only water used by humans for the irrigation sector. We conclude that even though hydrologic processes are often based on similar equations, in the end, these equations have been adjusted or have used different values for specific parameters or specific variables. Our results highlight that the predictive uncertainty of GWMs can be reduced through improvements of the existing hydrologic processes, implementation of new processes in the models, and high-quality input data.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    Publication Date: 2021-08-12
    Description: The large majority of climate change mitigation scenarios that hold warming below 2 °C show high deployment of carbon dioxide removal (CDR), resulting in a peak-and-decline behavior in global temperature. This is driven by the assumption of an exponentially increasing carbon price trajectory which is perceived to be economically optimal for meeting a carbon budget. However, this optimality relies on the assumption that a finite carbon budget associated with a temperature target is filled up steadily over time. The availability of net carbon removals invalidates this assumption and therefore a different carbon price trajectory should be chosen. We show how the optimal carbon price path for remaining well below 2 °C limits CDR demand and analyze requirements for constructing alternatives, which may be easier to implement in reality. We show that warming can be held at well below 2 °C at much lower long-term economic effort and lower CDR deployment and therefore lower risks if carbon prices are high enough in the beginning to ensure target compliance, but increase at a lower rate after carbon neutrality has been reached.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  International Migration Review
    Publication Date: 2021-08-19
    Description: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted global human mobility dynamics. This IMR Dispatch examines the historical, bidirectional links between pandemics and mobility and provides an early analysis of how they unfolded during the first nine months of the COVID-19 emergency. Results show, first, that international travel restrictions to combat the spread of the coronavirus are not a panacea in and of themselves. Second, our analysis demonstrates that the pandemic, government responses, and resulting economic impacts can lead to the involuntary immobility of at-risk populations, such as aspiring asylum-seekers or survival migrants. In a similar fashion, stay-at-home measures have posed dire challenges for those workers who lack options to work from home, as well as for migrants living in precarious, crowded circumstances. Moreover, global economic contraction has increased involuntary immobility by reducing both people’s resources to move and the demand for labor. Third, we show that people’s attempts to protect themselves from the virus can result in shifting patterns of mobility, such as increases in cross-border return migration and urban-to-rural movements. Drawing on international guidance for measures to combat pandemics and relevant frameworks on mobility, we propose approaches to alleviate the burden of travel restrictions on migrants and people aspiring to move, while still addressing the need to contain the pandemic and lessen its repercussions.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    Publication Date: 2021-08-20
    Description: Due to climate change the frequency and character of precipitation are changing as the hydrological cycle intensifies. With regards to snowfall, global warming has two opposing influences; increasing humidity enables intense snowfall, whereas higher temperatures decrease the likelihood of snowfall. Here we show an intensification of extreme snowfall across large areas of the Northern Hemisphere under future warming. This is robust across an ensemble of global climate models when they are bias-corrected with observational data. While mean daily snowfall decreases, both the 99th and the 99.9th percentiles of daily snowfall increase in many regions in the next decades, especially for Northern America and Asia. Additionally, the average intensity of snowfall events exceeding these percentiles as experienced historically increases in many regions. This is likely to pose a challenge to municipalities in mid to high latitudes. Overall, extreme snowfall events are likely to become an increasingly important impact of climate change in the next decades, even if they will become rarer, but not necessarily less intense, in the second half of the century.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    Publication Date: 2021-08-20
    Description: Background Although effects on labour is one of the most tangible and attributable climate impact, our quantification of these effects is insufficient and based on weak methodologies. Partly, this gap is due to the inability to resolve different impact channels, such as changes in time allocation (labour supply) and slowdown of work (labour productivity). Explicitly resolving those in a multi-model inter-comparison framework can help to improve estimates of the effects of climate change on labour effectiveness. Methods In this empirical, multi-model study, we used a large collection of micro-survey data aggregated to subnational regions across the world to estimate new, robust global and regional temperature and wet-bulb globe temperature exposure-response functions (ERFs) for labour supply. We then assessed the uncertainty in existing labour productivity response functions and derived an augmented mean function. Finally, we combined these two dimensions of labour into a single compound metric (effective labour effects). This combined measure allowed us to estimate the effect of future climate change on both the number of hours worked and on the productivity of workers during their working hours under 1·5°C, 2·0°C, and 3·0°C of global warming. We separately analysed low-exposure (indoors or outdoors in the shade) and high-exposure (outdoor in the sun) sectors. Findings We found differentiated empirical regional and sectoral ERF's for labour supply. Current climate conditions already negatively affect labour effectiveness, particularly in tropical countries. Future climate change will reduce global total labour in the low-exposure sectors by 18 percentage points (range −48·8 to 5·3) under a scenario of 3·0°C warming (24·8 percentage points in the high-exposure sectors). The reductions will be 25·9 percentage points (–48·8 to 2·7) in Africa, 18·6 percentage points (–33·6 to 5·3) in Asia, and 10·4 percentage points (–35·0 to 2·6) in the Americas in the low-exposure sectors. These regional effects are projected to be substantially higher for labour outdoors in full sunlight compared with indoors (or outdoors in the shade) with the average reductions in total labour projected to be 32·8 percentage points (–66·3 to 1·6) in Africa, 25·0 percentage points (–66·3 to 7·0) in Asia, and 16·7 percentage points (–45·5 to 4·4) in the Americas. Interpretation Both labour supply and productivity are projected to decrease under future climate change in most parts of the world, and particularly in tropical regions. Parts of sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and southeast Asia are at highest risk under future warming scenarios. The heterogeneous regional response functions suggest that it is necessary to move away from one-size-fits-all response functions to investigate the climate effect on labour. Our findings imply income and distributional consequences in terms of increased inequality and poverty, especially in low-income countries, where the labour effects are projected to be high.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    Publication Date: 2021-08-20
    Description: Multiresolution wavelet analysis (MWA) is a powerful data processing tool that provides a characterization of complex signals over multiple time scales. Typically, the standard deviations of wavelet coefficients are computed depending on the resolution level and such quantities are used as measures for diagnosing different types of system behavior. To enhance the capabilities of this tool, we propose a combination of MWA with detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) of detail wavelet coefficients. We find that such an MWA&DFA approach is capable of revealing the correlation features of wavelet coefficients in independent ranges of scales, which provide more information about the complex organization of datasets compared to variances or similar statistical measures of the standard MWA. Using this approach, we consider changes in the dynamics of coupled chaotic systems caused by transitions between different types of complex oscillations. We also demonstrate the potential of the MWA&DFA method for characterizing different physiological conditions by analyzing the electrical brain activity in mice. Complex signals with multiple time scales are often analyzed by decomposing them into simpler components that can be easily characterized with clear numerical quantities. Fourier transform and Hilbert transform are classic examples of decompositions aimed at introducing simpler characteristics: the magnitudes of harmonic components, instantaneous amplitudes, or frequencies. In the case of time-varying dynamics with localized features of the datasets, an expansion in terms of wavelet functions is often provided, which can be very different and efficient under the fulfillment of some general constraints. The statistics of the multiresolution wavelet analysis (MWA) decomposition coefficients enable detecting short-term changes in system behavior and can be applied for diagnostics in many areas of science and technology. Unlike the generally used analysis of the standard deviation of detail wavelet coefficients vs resolution level, we propose an enhanced MWA dealing with the correlation analysis of these coefficients in order to identify information about their relationship. We show that such an analysis offers wider opportunities for studying complex systems and demonstrates several examples of its application, including chaotic oscillations in mathematical models of interacting systems and electroencephalograms (EEGs)
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    Publication Date: 2021-08-20
    Description: This paper compares the carbon footprint effects of a voluntary real lab with those of the involuntary “real lab” provided by the lockdowns during the recent Corona crisis. In a voluntary real lab situation, 100 private households in Berlin (Germany) have tried to reduce their personal carbon footprints over 1 year (2018). The households have been equipped with a weekly carbon tracker, calculating their CO2e1 footprint in the domains housing energy, mobility on ground, air travel, food, other consumption, and public consumption. The households have been informed by various channels and supported by a network of “green” local enterprises and NGOs. It was also possible for them to make use of in-home energy advisors, identifying easy-to-accomplish saving potential. On average, the households managed to reduce their footprint by 11%, with individual savings of up to 40%. One of the major problems the households have been experiencing was refraining from air travel, e.g., by substituting it by train l. Others identified road safety as a major problem when switching from cars to bikes. With an annual reduction of 10%, carbon neutrality could be reached in or even before 2050. But political decisions are needed in order to change the collective boundary conditions. In 2020, Germany–as many other countries–has experienced a COVID-19 lockdown with substantial restrictions to all kinds of consumption activities (flying, international travel, consumption activities in the public etc.). This work compares the CO2 reduction effects of these two “real labs,” a voluntary and an imposed one, and ask what the relative quantitative effects are. Following that comparison, it reflect upon the similarities and differences of voluntary and imposed situations, and what there can be learned for the implementation of policies for more sustainable production and consumption patterns.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    Publication Date: 2021-08-27
    Description: Increasing greenhouse gas emissions are likely to impact not only natural systems but economies worldwide. If these impacts alter future economic development, the financial losses will be significantly higher than the mere direct damages. So far, potentially aggravating investment responses were considered negligible. Here we consistently incorporate an empirically derived temperature-growth relation into the simple integrated assessment model DICE. In this framework we show that, if in the next eight decades varying temperatures impact economic growth as has been observed in the past three decades, income is reduced by ~ 20% compared to an economy unaffected by climate change. Hereof ~ 40% are losses due to growth effects of which ~ 50% result from reduced incentive to invest. This additional income loss arises from a reduced incentive for future investment in anticipation of a reduced return and not from an explicit climate protection policy. Under economically optimal climate-change mitigation, however, optimal investment would only be reduced marginally as mitigation efforts keep returns high.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    Publication Date: 2021-08-31
    Description: Input–output estimates of nitrogen on cropland are essential for improving nitrogen management and better understanding the global nitrogen cycle. Here, we compare 13 nitrogen budget datasets covering 115 countries and regions over 1961–2015. Although most datasets showed similar spatiotemporal patterns, some annual estimates varied widely among them, resulting in large ranges and uncertainty. In 2010, global medians (in TgN yr−1) and associated minimum–maximum ranges were 73 (64–84) for global harvested crop nitrogen; 161 (139–192) for total nitrogen inputs; 86 (68–97) for nitrogen surplus; and 46% (40–53%) for nitrogen use efficiency. Some of the most uncertain nitrogen budget terms by country showed ranges as large as their medians, revealing areas for improvement. A benchmark nitrogen budget dataset, derived from central tendencies of the original datasets, can be used in model comparisons and inform sustainable nitrogen management in food systems.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Bekenntnisse zur Verantwortung für die Umwelt
    Publication Date: 2021-06-10
    Language: German
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/bookPart
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    Publication Date: 2021-09-06
    Description: Climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability studies tend to confine their attention to impacts and responses within the same geographical region. However, this approach ignores cross-border climate change impacts that occur remotely from the location of their initial impact and that may severely disrupt societies and livelihoods. We propose a conceptual framework and accompanying nomenclature for describing and analysing such cross-border impacts. The conceptual framework distinguishes an initial impact that is caused by a climate trigger within a specific region. Downstream consequences of that impact propagate through an impact transmission system while adaptation responses to deal with the impact propagate through a response transmission system. A key to understanding cross-border impacts and responses is a recognition of different types of climate triggers, categories of cross-border impacts, the scales and dynamics of impact transmission, the targets and dynamics of responses and the socio-economic and environmental context that also encompasses factors and processes unrelated to climate change. These insights can then provide a basis for identifying relevant causal relationships. We apply the framework to the floods that affected industrial production in Thailand in 2011, and to projected Arctic sea ice decline, and demonstrate that the framework can usefully capture the complex system dynamics of cross-border climate impacts. It also provides a useful mechanism to identify and understand adaptation strategies and their potential consequences in the wider context of resilience planning. The cross-border dimensions of climate impacts could become increasingly important as climate changes intensify. We conclude that our framework will allow for these to be properly accounted for, help to identify new areas of empirical and model-based research and thereby support climate risk management.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    Publication Date: 2021-09-07
    Description: In this review, we discuss the crucial role of cranial and the extracranial lymphatics in keeping the central nervous system (CNS) health. We talk about the important lymphatic mechanism of removal of metabolites and toxins from the brain, which orchestrates the regenerative processes in CNS. We debate a novel knowledge about the lymphatic mechanism responsible for maintaining the balance between the exit and the entrance of molecules and cells from and into CNS. Finally, we highlight the pioneering technologies of biophotonic stimulation of lymphatic drainage function that can open a new era for the development of novel bedside, readily applicable and commercially viable technologies for the treatment of brain diseases.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
    Publication Date: 2021-09-15
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/report
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 59
    Publication Date: 2021-02-25
    Description: Open quantum systems with Markovian dynamics can be described by the Lindblad equation. The quantity governing the dynamics is the Lindblad superoperator. We apply random-matrix theory to this superoperator to elucidate its spectral properties. The distribution of eigenvalues and the correlations of neighboring eigenvalues are obtained for the cases of purely unitary dynamics, pure dissipation, and the physically realistic combination of unitary and dissipative dynamics. The theory of ensembles of random matrices has proved useful in understanding the energy spectra of complex closed quantum systems, such as heavy atomic nuclei and classically chaotic billiards. In these cases, the Hamiltonian describing the system is drawn from a suitable random-matrix ensemble. More recently, it has been realized that random-matrix theory can also shed light on open quantum systems. Their dynamics is not described by a Hamiltonian but by a so-called Lindblad generator. Using random-matrix ensembles suitable for the Lindblad generator, we study its spectral properties, which are important for the dynamics of open quantum systems.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 60
    Publication Date: 2021-02-25
    Description: We analyzed the impacts of drought severity on a variety of sectors in a topographically complex basin (the upper Aragón basin 2181 km2) in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Using diverse data sources including meteorological and hydrological observations, remote sensing and tree rings, we analyze the possible hydrological implications of drought occurrence and severity on water availability in various sectors, including downstream impacts on irrigation water supply for crop production. Results suggest varying responses in forest activity, secondary growth, plant phenology, and crop yield to drought impacts. Specifically, meteorological droughts have distinct impacts downstream, mainly due to water partitioning between streamflow and irrigation channels that transport water to crop producing areas. This implies that drought severity can extend beyond the physical boundaries of the basin, with impacts on crop productivity. This complex response to drought impacts makes it difficult to develop objective basin-scale operational definitions for monitoring drought severity. Moreover, given the high spatial variability in responses to drought across sectors, it is difficult to establish reliable drought thresholds from indices that are relevant across all socio-economic sectors. The anthropogenic impacts (e.g. water regulation projects, ecosystem services, land cover and land use changes) pose further challenges to assessing the response of different systems to drought severity. This study stresses the need to consider the seasonality of drought impacts and appropriate drought time scales to adequately assess and understand their complexity.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 61
    Publication Date: 2021-02-25
    Description: Limiting global warming to “well below 2°C” as stated in the Paris Agreement requires ambitious emissions reductions from all sectors. Rapid technology cost declines in the energy sector are changing energy investment and emissions, even with the weak climate policies currently in place. We assess how energy supply costs and carbon dioxide removal (CDR) availability affect mitigation by performing a sensitivity analysis with the energy-economy-climate model REMIND. We use new scenarios with carbon price paths that aim to reduce the frequently seen temperature overshoot. Further, we measure the sensitivities of mitigation indicators to the costs of technologies across economic sectors. We assess the sensitivity to nine techno-economic parameters: the costs of wind, solar, biomass, gas, coal, oil, nuclear, and electric/hydrogen vehicles, as well as the injection rate of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). While technology costs play a role in shaping optimal pathways, we find that transport sector costs affect the economics of deep decarbonization, whereas costs of renewables are more important for scenarios under weak climate policies. This further highlights the value of renewable energy deployment as a no-regrets option in climate policy. In terms of the sensitivity of model outputs, economic indicators become more sensitive to costs than emissions, with increasing policy stringency.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 62
    Publication Date: 2021-03-23
    Description: We develop a model of optimal carbon taxation and redistribution taking into account horizontal equity concerns by considering heterogeneous energy efficiencies. By deriving first- and second-best rules for policy instruments including carbon taxes, transfers and energy subsidies, we then investigate analytically how horizontal equity is considered in the social welfare maximizing tax structure. We calibrate the model to German household data and a 30 percent emission reduction goal. Our results show that energy-intensive households should receive more redistributive resources than energy-efficient households if and only if social inequality aversion is sufficiently high. We further find that redistribution of carbon tax revenue via household-specific transfers is the first-best policy. Equal per-capita transfers do not suffer from informational problems, but increase mitigation costs by around 15 percent compared to the first- best for unity inequality aversion. Adding renewable energy subsidies or non-linear energy subsidies, reduces mitigation costs further without relying on observability of households’ energy efficiency.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/report
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 63
    Publication Date: 2021-05-25
    Description: The use of cyclostratigraphy to reconstruct the timing of deposition of lacustrine deposits requires sophisticated tuning techniques that can accommodate continuous long-term changes in sedimentation rates. However, most tuning methods use stationary filters that are unable to take into account such long-term variations in accumulation rates. To overcome this problem we present herein a new multiband wavelet age modeling (MUBAWA) technique that is particularly suitable for such situations and demonstrate its use on a 293 m composite core from the Chew Bahir basin, southern Ethiopian rift. In contrast to traditional tuning methods, which use a single, defined bandpass filter, the new method uses an adaptive bandpass filter that adapts to changes in continuous spatial frequency evolution paths in a wavelet power spectrum, within which the wavelength varies considerably along the length of the core due to continuous changes in long-term sedimentation rates. We first applied the MUBAWA technique to a synthetic data set before then using it to establish an age model for the approximately 293 m long composite core from the Chew Bahir basin. For this we used the 2nd principal component of color reflectance values from the sediment, which showed distinct cycles with wavelengths of 10–15 and of ∼40 m that were probably a result of the influence of orbital cycles. We used six independent 40Ar/39Ar ages from volcanic ash layers within the core to determine an approximate spatial frequency range for the orbital signal. Our results demonstrate that the new wavelet-based age modeling technique can significantly increase the accuracy of tuned age models.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    Publication Date: 2021-05-25
    Description: Most hydrological studies rely on a model calibrated using discharge alone. However, judging the model reliability based on such calibration is problematic, as it does not guarantee the correct representation of internal hydrological processes. This study aims (a) to develop a comprehensive multi-objective calibration framework using remote sensing vegetation data and hydrological signatures (flow duration curve, FDC, and baseflow index) besides discharge, and (b) to apply this framework for calibration of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in a typical Andean catchment. Overall, our calibration approach outperformed traditional discharge-based and FDC signature-based calibration strategies in terms of vegetation, streamflow, and flow partitioning simulation. New hydrological insights for the region are: baseflow is the main component of the streamflow sustaining the long dry-season flow, and pasture areas offer higher water yield and baseflow than other land covers. The proposed approach could be used in other data-scarce regions with complex topography.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    Publication Date: 2021-02-26
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 66
    Publication Date: 2021-05-25
    Description: We present MUSE@VLT imaging spectroscopy of rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines and ALMA observations of the [Ci]3P1-3P0emission line, probing both the ionized and diffuse molecular medium around the radio galaxy 4C 19.71 at z'3.6. This radio galaxyhas extended Lyαemission over a region∼100 kpc in size preferentially oriented along the axis of the radio jet. Faint Lyαemissionextends beyond the radio hot spots. We also find extended Civand Heiiemission over a region of∼150 kpc in size, where themost distant emission lies∼40 kpc beyond the north radio lobe and has narrow full width half maximum (FWHM) line widths of∼180 km s−1and a small relative velocity offset∆v∼130 km s−1from the systemic redshift of the radio galaxy. The [Ci] is detectedin the same region with FWHM∼100 km s−1and∆v∼5 km s−1, while [Ci] is not detected in the regions south of the radio galaxy. Weinterpret the coincidence in the northern line emission as evidence of relatively quiescent multi-phase gas residing within the halo ata projected distance of∼75 kpc from the host galaxy. To test this hypothesis, we performed photoionization and photo-dissociatedregion (PDR) modeling, using the code Cloudy, of the three emission line regions: the radio galaxy proper and the northern andsouthern regions. We find that the [Ci]/Civλλ1548,1551 and Civλλ1548,1551/Heiiratios of the two halo regions are consistent witha PDR or ionization front in the circumgalactic medium likely energized by photons from the active galactic nuclei. This modelingis consistent with a relatively low metallicity, 0.03〈[Z/Z]〈0.1, and diffuse ionization with an ionization parameter (proportional tothe ratio of the photon number density and gas density) of log U∼ −3 for the two circumgalactic line emission regions. Using roughmass estimates for the molecular and ionized gas, we find that the former may be tracing≈2-4 orders of magnitude more mass. Asour data are limited in signal-to-noise due to the faintness of the line, deeper [Ci] observations are required to trace the full extent ofthis important component in the circumgalactic medium.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 67
    Publication Date: 2021-05-25
    Description: Food system innovations will be instrumental to achieving multiple Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, major innovation breakthroughs can trigger profound and disruptive changes, leading to simultaneous and interlinked reconfigurations of multiple parts of the global food system. The emergence of new technologies or social solutions, therefore, have very different impact profiles, with favourable consequences for some SDGs and unintended adverse side-effects for others. Stand-alone innovations seldom achieve positive outcomes over multiple sustainability dimensions. Instead, they should be embedded as part of systemic changes that facilitate the implementation of the SDGs. Emerging trade-offs need to be intentionally addressed to achieve true sustainability, particularly those involving social aspects like inequality in its many forms, social justice, and strong institutions, which remain challenging. Trade-offs with undesirable consequences are manageable through the development of well planned transition pathways, careful monitoring of key indicators, and through the implementation of transparent science targets at the local level.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 68
    Publication Date: 2021-05-25
    Description: Despite the large body of literature on ape conservation, much of the data needed for evidence‐based conservation decision‐making is still not readily accessible and standardized, rendering cross‐site comparison difficult. To support knowledge synthesis and to complement the IUCN SSC Ape Populations, Environments and Surveys database, we created the A.P.E.S. Wiki (https://apeswiki.eva.mpg.de), an open‐access platform providing site‐level information on ape conservation status and context. The aim of this Wiki is to provide information and data about geographical ape locations, to curate information on individuals and organizations active in ape research and conservation, and to act as a tool to support collaboration between conservation practitioners, scientists, and other stakeholders. To illustrate the process and benefits of knowledge synthesis, we used the momentum of the update of the conservation action plan for western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and began with this critically endangered taxon. First, we gathered information on 59 sites in West Africa from scientific publications, reports, and online sources. Information was compiled in a standardized format and can thus be summarized using a web scraping approach. We then asked experts working at those sites to review and complement the information (20 sites have been reviewed to date). We demonstrate the utility of the information available through the Wiki, for example, for studying species distribution. Importantly, as an open‐access platform and based on the well‐known wiki layout, the A.P.E.S. Wiki can contribute to direct and interactive information sharing and promote the efforts invested by the ape research and conservation community. The Section on Great Apes and the Section on Small Apes of the IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group will guide and support the expansion of the platform to all small and great ape taxa. Similar collaborative efforts can contribute to extending knowledge synthesis to all nonhuman primate species. Despite the large body of literature on ape conservation, much of the data needed for evidence‐based conservation decision‐making is still not readily accessible and standardized, rendering cross‐site comparison difficult. To support knowledge synthesis and to complement the IUCN SSC Ape Populations, Environments and Surveys database, we created the A.P.E.S. Wiki (https://apeswiki.eva.mpg.de), an open‐access platform providing site‐level information on ape conservation status and context. The aim of this Wiki is to provide information and data about geographical ape locations, to curate information on individuals and organizations active in ape research and conservation, and to act as a tool to support collaboration between conservation practitioners, scientists, and other stakeholders. To illustrate the process and benefits of knowledge synthesis, we used the momentum of the update of the conservation action plan for western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and began with this critically endangered taxon. First, we gathered information on 59 sites in West Africa from scientific publications, reports, and online sources. Information was compiled in a standardized format and can thus be summarized using a web scraping approach. We then asked experts working at those sites to review and complement the information (20 sites have been reviewed to date). We demonstrate the utility of the information available through the Wiki, for example, for studying species distribution. Importantly, as an open‐access platform and based on the well‐known wiki layout, the A.P.E.S. Wiki can contribute to direct and interactive information sharing and promote the efforts invested by the ape research and conservation community. The Section on Great Apes and the Section on Small Apes of the IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group will guide and support the expansion of the platform to all small and great ape taxa. Similar collaborative efforts can contribute to extending knowledge synthesis to all nonhuman primate species.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 69
    Publication Date: 2021-05-25
    Description: The Indian summer monsoon is an integral part of the global climate system. As its seasonal rainfall plays a crucial role in India's agriculture and shapes many other aspects of life, it affects the livelihood of a fifth of the world's population. It is therefore highly relevant to assess its change under potential future climate change. Global climate models within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP-5) indicated a consistent increase in monsoon rainfall and its variability under global warming. Since the range of the results of CMIP-5 was still large and the confidence in the models was limited due to partly poor representation of observed rainfall, the updates within the latest generation of climate models in CMIP-6 are of interest. Here, we analyse 32 models of the latest CMIP-6 exercise with regard to their annual mean monsoon rainfall and its variability. All of these models show a substantial increase in June-to-September (JJAS) mean rainfall under unabated climate change (SSP5-8.5) and most do also for the other three Shared Socioeconomic Pathways analyzed (SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0). Moreover, the simulation ensemble indicates a linear dependence of rainfall on global mean temperature with high agreement between the models and independent of the SSP; the multi-model mean for JJAS projects an increase of 0.33 mm/day and 5.3 % per degree of global warming. This is significantly higher than in the CMIP-5 projections. Most models project that the increase will contribute to the precipitation especially in the Himalaya region and to the northeast of the Bay of Bengal, as well as the west coast of India. Interannual variability is found to be increasing in the higher-warming scenarios by almost all models. The CMIP-6 simulations largely confirm the findings from CMIP-5 models, but show an increased robustness across models with reduced uncertainties and updated magnitudes towards a stronger increase in monsoon rainfall.
    Language: English
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 70
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS)
    Publication Date: 2021-08-12
    Description: The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is a potentially unstable component of the Earth system and may exhibit a critical transition under ongoing global warming. Mass reductions of the GrIS have substantial impacts on global sea level and the speed of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, due to the additional freshwater caused by increased meltwater runoff into the northern Atlantic. The stability of the GrIS depends crucially on the positive melt-elevation feedback (MEF), by which melt rates increase as the overall ice sheet height decreases under rising temperatures. Melting rates across Greenland have accelerated nonlinearly in recent decades, and models predict a critical temperature threshold beyond which the current ice sheet state is not maintainable. Here, we investigate long-term melt rate and ice sheet height reconstructions from the central-western GrIS in combination with model simulations to quantify the stability of this part of the GrIS. We reveal significant early-warning signals (EWS) indicating that the central-western GrIS is close to a critical transition. By relating the statistical EWS to underlying physical processes, our results suggest that the MEF plays a dominant role in the observed, ongoing destabilization of the central-western GrIS. Our results suggest substantial further GrIS mass loss in the near future and call for urgent, observation-constrained stability assessments of other parts of the GrIS.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 71
    Publication Date: 2021-08-20
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 72
    Publication Date: 2021-08-20
    Description: In the present study, we quantify the vorticity interactions in a bluff body stabilized turbulent combustor during the transition from combustion noise to thermoacoustic instability via intermittency using complex networks. To that end, we perform simultaneous acoustic pressure, high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and high-speed chemiluminescence measurements during the occurrence of combustion noise, intermittency and thermoacoustic instability. Based on the Biot–Savart law, we construct time-varying weighted spatial networks from the flow fields during these different regimes of combustor operation. We uncover that the turbulent networks display weighted scale-free behaviour intermittently during the different regimes of combustor operation, with the strong vortical structures acting as the hubs. Further, we discover two optimal locations for injecting steady air jets to successfully suppress the thermoacoustic oscillations. The amplitude of the acoustic pressure fluctuations of the suppressed state is comparable to that during the occurrence of combustion noise. However, the weighted scale-free network topology during the suppressed state is not as dominant as compared with the state of combustion noise.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 73