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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2021-01-15
    Description: Mg/Ca anlaysis of foraminiferal calcite shells. Foraminifera obtained from sediments (benthic, Uvigerina spp.; sediment from ODP Site 1015, California Margin) and from plankton tows (planktonic, Orbulina universa, plankton tow specimens were collected near Green Island, Taiwan in May 2019 using a 1 m plankton net Sea-Gear, 150 µm mesh, 0-50 m depth), were analyzed. Mg/Ca were obtained applying Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and wavelength-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy by electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The goal is to assess the use of EPMA as an alternative technique for Mg/Ca analyses of foraminiferal calcite shells.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 124 data points
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2021-01-24
    Description: Mg/Ca anlaysis of foraminiferal calcite shells. Foraminifera obtained from sediments (benthic, Uvigerina spp.; sediment from ODP Site 1015, California Margin) and from plankton tows (planktonic, Orbulina universa, plankton tow specimens were collected near Green Island, Taiwan in May 2019 using a 1 m plankton net Sea-Gear, 150 µm mesh, 0-50 m depth), were analyzed. Mg/Ca were obtained applying Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and wavelength-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy by electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The goal is to assess the use of EPMA as an alternative technique for Mg/Ca analyses of foraminiferal calcite shells.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 163 data points
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2021-01-21
    Description: We estimated plant community composition as the projection cover of each vascular plant and moss species. We measured the following vascular plant functional traits: plant height, leaf size (LS), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents from the most common species in each site. We measured the following Sphagnum traits: stand density (number of shoots cm-2), capitulum width (cap_width, mm) and dry weight (cap_dw, mg), fascicle density (number cm-1), capitulum dry matter content (CDMC, mg g-1), capitulum water content (cap_wc, g g-1) and capitulum C and N contents and C:N ratio. The data was collected from 47 northern peatlands located in land uplift regions in Finland, Sweden and Russia: Sävar on the west coast of Bothnian Bay (63o50'N, 20o40'E, Sweden), Siikajoki (64°45' N, 24°43', Finland) and Hailuoto island (65°07' N, 24°71' E, Finland) on the east coast of Bothnian Bay, and Belomorsk-Virma (63°90' N, 36°50' E, Russia) on the coast of the White Sea. The data was collected from the different areas as follows: Siikajoki sites were sampled in August 2016, Sävar sites at the end of June 2017, Hailuoto sites during July 2017 and Belomorsk sites at the end of August 2017. We determined the plant community composition by visually estimating the projection cover of each species separately for field (vascular plants) and moss layer using the scale 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, etc. There were fifteen 50 x 50 cm plots in each peatland at Siikajoki and Belomorsk-Virma, and 10 at Sävar and Hailuoto. The sample plots were located five meters apart along a transect starting from the generally treeless peatland margin and heading towards the peatland center. Plant traits were measured as follows: To measure SLA (i.e., the one-sided area of a fresh leaf divided by its oven-dry mass, cm2 g-1), the freshly picked leaf or a sample of 3 leaves in case of shrubs with small leaves was pressed flat between a board and a glass and a standardized photo was taken. The leaf size (LS, cm2) was analysed from the photos with ImageJ. The leaf samples were stored in paper bags and dried at 60°C for a minimum of 48h. The dried samples were weighed, and SLA calculated. The SLA samples were used for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content analysis. Leaves from each species from each site were pooled into one sample, which was milled (Retsch MM301 mill) and analyzed for C and N concentrations and for C:N ration on a CHNS–O Elemental analyzer (EA1110) (University of Oulu). Sphagnum moss samples for trait measurements were collected with a corer (7 cm diameter, area 38 cm2, height at least 8 cm) to maintain the natural density of the stand. Stand density was measured as the number of mosses in the sample. From ten individuals we measured the width of the capitula and counted the number of fascicles from a five cm segment below capitulum. We separated the ten moss individuals into capitulum and stem (5 cm below capitula) wetted them and allowed to dry on top of tissue paper for 2 min before weighing them for water filled fresh weight. Samples were placed on paper bags and dried at 60 °C for at least 48h after which the dry mass of capitula and stems were measured. CDMC and cap_wc were calculated from the fresh and dry weight. We used the capitula samples for analyses of C and N concentrations and for C:N ratio, and treated them similarly to vascular plant samples. The data was collected to find out how functional diversity and trait composition of vascular plant and Sphagnum moss communities develops during peatland succession across land uplift regions.
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    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2021-01-26
    Description: Temperature and heating-induced temperature differences were measured along a chain of thermistors. SIMBA 2020T61 (a.k.a. UiT0206) is an autonomous instrument that was installed on drifting sea ice in the Arctic Ocean during MOSAiC (Leg 2) in February 2020. The thermistor chain was 5 m long with 250 evenly distributed temperature sensors. The resulting time series describes the evolution of temperature and temperature differences after two heating cycles of 30 and 120 s as a function of location (GPS), depth and time between February 5th, 2020 and July 27th 2020 at 6 hour intervals for temperature and 24 hours for temperature differences. The buoy was installed on the transect across “Alli's Ridge” on the first year ice (FYI) flank of the ridge, away of the second year ice (SYI) floe of the Central Observatory. In addition to temperature, geographic position (GPS), barometric pressure, air temperature measured 1m over the ice level, tilt and compass were measured. This instrument was deployed as part of the project "Ridges - Safe HAVens for ice-associated Flora and Fauna in a Seasonally ice-covered Arctic OCean" (HAVOC), funded by the Research Council of Norway, project number: 280292, "Coordinated Arctic Acoustic Thermometry Experiment" (CAATEX), funded by Norwegian Research Council, project number: 280531 and "Arctic Ocean ecosystems - Applied technology, Biological interactions and Consequences in an era of abrupt climate change" (Arctic ABC Development, Research Council of Norway, project number: 245923).
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 4 datasets
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: We present the collection of magnetic field absolute measurements performed by early soviet magnetic survey missions Kosmos-49 (1964) and Kosmos-321 (1970). Totally 17300 measured values are available for Kosmos-49 mission, covering homogeneously 75% of the Earth's surface between 49° north and south latitude. About 5000 measured values are available for Kosmos-321 mission, covering homogeneously 94% of the Earth's surface between 71° north and south latitude. Both satellites had two measurement devices. The data from Kosmos-312 derives from the device that provided the stronger signal during the time of measurement. In case of Kosmos-49 the devices were switched on and off regularly, resulting in the two herein presented data tables for this mission.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Lake Karakul in the eastern Pamirs is a large and closed-basin lake in a partly glaciated catchment. Two parallel sediment cores were collected from 12 m water depth. The cores were correlated using XRF analysis and the composite core of 12.26 m length represents continuous accumulation of sediments in the lake basin since 31 ka. To establish an age-model, radiocarbon dating of 24 samples (aquatic plant remains and bulk sediments) derived from all cores, and OSL dating of 10 sediment slices (8 - 12 cm) derived from core KK12-2 has been conducted. The age results of the two methods are generally in agreement. The lake reservoir effect (1386 years) was determined by dating of living aquatic plants and remained relatively constant over the length of the record. High sediment accumulation rates (SARs) were recorded before 23 ka and after 6.5 ka and interpreted to indicate relatively low lake levels. In contrast, low SARs between 23 and 6.5 ka suggest higher lake levels. The sediment cores from Lake Karakul represent an important climate archive with robust chronology for the last glacial-interglacial cycle from Central Asia.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The geochemical measurements within the long-lived, crustose coralline red alga Clathromorphum compactum in calibration experiments, and the environmental conditions selected for the controlled laboratory aquaria.
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    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: This dataset contains stable isotope (carbon, oxygen) as well as Radiocarbon ages from North Atlantic sediment core SU90-08. The radiocarbon ages were measured on benthic (mixed species) as well as on planktonic (single species) using both classical graphite targets and MICADAS coupled with a gas introdcution system. Radiocarbon measurements were performed at ETH Zürich and Chrono center Belfast. The stable carbon and oxygen isotope measurements were performed on benthic foraminifera C. Wuellestorfi at LSCE, Gif sur Yvette. The radiocarbon measurements cover the last 25 ka (cal BP) and the stable isotopes measurements cover the last 40 ka. Please refer to the article "Radiocarbon dating of small sized foraminifer samples: insights into marine sediment mixing"accessible at: doi:10.1017/RDC.2020.13 for further information."
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The presented daily mean sea ice draft time series are derived from bottom track mode measurements from multiple upward-looking Workhorse 300 kHz Sentinel Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs, manufactured by Teledyne RDI). ADCP moorings were deployed and recovered during multiple TRANSDRIFT expeditions to the Laptev Sea (2003 to 2016). A total of 13 data files, named to indicate the location of the deployment (station name) and the sampling period, provide values of daily mean sea ice draft (in m) and time. Sea ice draft is derived from ADCP bottom track data following Belter et al. (in review). An additional info file provides the coordinates of the stations, expedition specifics and serial numbers of the instruments.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 13 datasets
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: These data report surface mass balance (SMB) stake measurements at the frontal part of Gourdon Glacier on James Ross Island, northern Antarctic Peninsula. The measurements were conducted by drilling stakes made of bamboo or aluminium into the ice. Changes in the height above the glacier surface were measured in yearly field campaigns during January/February from 2014 until 2017. The resulting height differences in meter ice equivalents [SMB (m i.e.)] are presented together with the coordinates [Latitude Start (°)], [Longitude Start (°)], [Latitude End (°)], [Longitude End (°)] and the elevation in regard to the WGS84 ellipsoid [Altitude Start (m)] and [Altitude End (m)] for the start and the end date of each measurement period. GNSS measurements were done with a single-frequency hand-held Garmin GPS 60. The mass balance measurements were not corrected for movement within one yearly measurement period.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The evolution of the calcareous nannofossil E. turriseiffelii - E. eximius lineage in the Turonian from the western tropical Atlantic and Indian Ocean indicates identical eiffellithid forms with morphological change in the rotation of the crossbar, relative to the longitudinal axis, from an "x" (E. turriseiffelii) to a "+" (E. eximius). Within these indistinguishable eiffellithid assemblages, neither the size nor shape show significant change during the morphological transition of the crossbar orientation. The rotation of the crossbar toward an axial alignment results in two shifts in the mean angle values. Prior to the first shift, the mean angles of the eiffellithid assemblage have values between 35o and 45o with no forms with crossbar angles of 〈20o. The first step occurs at the appearance of specimens with crossbar angles between 20o and 10o marking the first appearance datum (FAD) of E. eximius s. Ver. The second shift is a significant change in the mean angle values from 35-45o to 15-22o among the Eiffellithus assemblage and the appearance of morphotypes with crossbar angles of 〈10o recognized as E. eximius s.s. The results of this biometric study indicate that two forms can be reliably recognized and used to increase the biostratigraphic resolution, with the FAD of E. eximius s. Verbeek near the middle to upper Turonian boundary and E. eximius s.s. near the lower to middle Turonian boundary.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 8 datasets
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Mt. Stromboli is an iconic active volcano, located in the Aeolian Islands archipelago, off the north coast of Sicily (Italy), in the Mediterranean Sea. Its volcanic activity is characterized by mild and frequent explosions, sometimes interrupted by occasional episodes of more vigorous activity, which can be accompanied by lava flows and more energetic eruptions, known as "major" or "paroxysmal" eruptions, according to the energy dissipated during the event. Stromboli produced vulcanian eruptions in 2003, 2007 and July-August 2019, which were well recorded by the INGV monitoring network. In particular the last three events were accompanied by a wide range of phenomena (pyroclastic flows which produced tsunami waves, lava flows, eruptive column several kilometers high) and have been studied through records from borehole strainmeters, which allow us to infer many details of source dynamics. These events are clearly preceded by an inflation phase of the volcanic building characterized by a slow strain buildup, starting several minutes before the paroxysms. These observations could be used in future for civil protection purposes. The recorded eruptions consist of two or more pulses, with oscillations ranging from several seconds, as in 2007, to some minutes, such as in 2019 and lasting from several minutes to one hour after the explosions. Mechanisms involved in the triggering process of the vulcanian explosions include an increase of magma flux ascending from sources located from 2 to 5-7 km depths and morphological complexity in the upper feeding system. A preliminary early-warning algorithm, based on an evaluation of strain rate change, has been defined: it has shown itself capable of ascertain the occurring eruptions minutes before their summit onset.
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    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: We analysed water samples taken during the Polarstern PS113 cruise with HPLC technique to retrieve phytoplankton pigment concentrations. We further used these data to obtain major phytoplankton groups following the diagnostic pigment analysis. We also measured at discrete light stations (called Lightstations) and from an undulating platform towed behind the ship (called TRIAXUS stations) radiometric underwater light profiles high spectrally resolved. We obtained high resolution phytoplankton group Chla data from depth resolved apparent optical properties derived from the underwater radiation data by applying an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to the spectral data set and developing subsequently regression models using the pigment based phytoplankton group Chla and the selected EOF modes. Results were obtained from using depth resolved transmission data (Transmission) and also from using the mean diffuse attenuation over the first optical depth (kdmean) of the measured radiometric profile. All the details are described in the related publication by Bracher et al. (2020).
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    Format: application/zip, 4 datasets
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Collapse of permafrost coasts delivers large quantities of particulate organic carbon (POC) to arctic coastal areas. The objective of this study is to assess the pathways and fate of POC derived from thawing and eroding permafrost coasts in the nearshore zone, to better understand its impact on the carbon cycle and climate. We collected suspended particulate matter and sediment samples at the coastline and in the nearshore zone of Herschel Island - Qikiqtaruk (N 69.60°; W 139.00°) during a two‐week period in July‐August 2017. Locations were labelled A - H clockwise around the island, starting at the NE corner (Collinson Head). Samples were taken in transects perpendicular to the coast, at point locations offshore ('Monitoring point 1 - 3'), and from 'thaw streams', creeks carrying material from retrogressive thaw slumps and other abrupt thaw features, at various locations around the island. A total of 49 locations were visited; 12 at thaw streams, and 37 in the nearshore zone ranging from right at the shoreline to up to 20 m water depth (about 2 km offshore). We performed biogeochemical analyses (CN, δ13C, Δ14C) and sedimentological analyses (grain size, mineral surface area) in order to trace the pathway of permafrost material from its source to the nearshore water column and sediments.
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    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: In this experiment, we assessed the different transmission steps from the first to the second intermediate host: i) cercarial emergence from periwinkles, ii) cercarial activity and survival after emergence, iii) cercarial infectivity in mussels, and iv) susceptibility of mussels to cercarial infection. For iii) cercariae were treated but not the mussels, whereas for iv) mussels were treated but not the cercariae. The experiment was run in August-September 2017 in the climate chambers of GEOMAR in Kiel. All experiments were conducted using temperature and salinity (fully crossed) as well as time (only for cercarial output) as fixed factors, and periwinkle/mussel identity nested within water bath as random factor. Temperature levels applied were 19 and 23°C. Salinity levels applied were 13, 16 and 19.
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Lake Bolshie Toroki is located in Novosibirsk Region (55.39350 N, 80.61860E), Russia. It is an undrained lake with an area of 9.57 km2 and a depth of about 1m, with weakly alkaline and weakly mineralized (845 mg/l) water. Aquatic vegetation is predominantly represented by pondgrass (Potamogeton) and watermilfoil (Myriophyllum). The surrounding onland vegetation consists of agricultural lands with birch groves and marshy lowlands. Boreholes were drilled in the summer of 2012 in the middle of Lake Bolshie Toroki.
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    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The middle Miocene is an important analogue for potential future warm climates. Unfortunately, relatively few independent deep ocean temperature records exist, though these are required for climate model validation and estimates of changes in ice volume. The few existing records suggest that bottom water temperatures were 5 – 8°C warmer than present. In order to improve confidence in proxy data, we generated a new bottom water temperature record using carbonate clumped isotopes (Δ47) and compared our results with Mg/Ca-based estimates for the deep Indian Ocean at ODP Site 761. Our Δ47 temperature record agrees well with previously published Mg/Ca temperatures for this site, predicting average deep-sea temperatures of 11.0 ± 1.7°C during the middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (MCO, 14.7 – 17 Ma), 8.1 ± 1.9°C after the middle Miocene Climate Transition (MCT, 13.0 – 14.7 Ma) and a cooling across the MCT of 3 ± 2°C (uncertainties 95% confidence level). The Mg/Ca record derived from the same samples indicates a very similar magnitude of cooling of ~ 2°C. Examining non-thermal factors that could bias either paleothermometer, changes in saturation state are the most likely cause for any remaining offsets, with the caveat that, over the majority of the record, the Mg/Ca temperatures are within the 95% confidence intervals of the Δ47 temperatures. Our new Δ47 temperature record implies a ~0.6 ‰ seawater δ18O change over the MCT, again in good agreement with Mg/Ca-derived estimates. As previously suggested, both paleothermometers imply a heavier than modern seawater δ18O composition after the MCT. It consists of final calculated bottom water temperatures based on carbonate clumped isotope compositions (Δ47) and metal ion (Mg, Li, Ca) ratios. The raw and intermediate carbonate clumped isotope data used to produce the Δ47 temperatures is archived with the EarthChem database, linked under related datasets or at the url: https://doi.org/10.26022/IEDA/111523 . The raw element/metal concentration data are from Lear et al., 2010.
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Here, we present the results of laboratory shearing experiments on chlorite schist, epidotite, and a hornblende-dominated amphibolite, and mixtures of these rocks, and evaluate their frictional properties and microstructures.
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Sediment-hosted CO2-rich aquifers deep below the Colorado Plateau (USA) contain a remarkable diversity of uncultivated microorganisms, including Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR) bacteria that are putative symbionts unable to synthesize membrane lipids. The origin of organic carbon in these ecosystems is unknown and the source of CPR membrane lipids remains elusive. We collected cells from deep groundwater brought to the surface by eruptions of Crystal Geyser, sequenced the community, and analyzed the whole community lipidome over time. Characteristic stable carbon isotopic compositions of microbial lipids suggest that bacterial and archaeal CO2 fixation ongoing in the deep subsurface provides organic carbon for the complex communities that reside there. Coupled lipidomic-metagenomic analysis indicates that CPR bacteria lack complete lipid biosynthesis pathways but still possess regular lipid membranes. These lipids may therefore originate from other community members, which also adapt to high in situ pressure by increasing fatty acid unsaturation. An unusually high abundance of lysolipids attributed to CPR bacteria may represent an adaptation to membrane curvature stress induced by their small cell sizes. Our findings provide new insights into the carbon cycle in the deep subsurface and suggest the redistribution of lipids into putative symbionts within this community.
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    Format: application/zip, 19 datasets
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: A continuous 15-18 m long sequence of permafrost with ice wedges at the Plakhinskii Yar site (Karetovo yedoma, left side of the Stadukhin Channel, lower Kolyma River) has been studied in terms of structure, stable isotopes, radiocarbon ages, major ion chemistry, and spore-pollen spectra. The obtained data allow quantitative estimates of Late Pleistocene permafrost and climate conditions in the area between 30 and 12 ka BP. The study confirms the previous inference that local winters at 30-28 ka BP were much colder than at present.
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    Format: application/zip, 7 datasets
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Data presented here were collected between January 2019 to December 2019 within the research unit DynaCom (Spatial community ecology in highly dynamic landscapes: From island biogeography to metaecosystems, https://uol.de/dynacom/ ) of the Universities of Oldenburg, Göttingen, and Münster, the iDiv Leipzig and the Nationalpark Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer. Experimental islands and saltmarsh enclosed plots were created in the back barrier tidal flat and in the saltmarsh zone of the island of Spiekeroog. Temperature in the sediment surface layer (in approximately 0.05m depth) was measured with DEFI-T miniature temperature recorders (JFE Advantech Co., Ltd., Tokyo; DEFI-T). The manufacturer pre-calibrated temperature recorders and were installed on the experimental islands and in salt-marsh enclosed plots at different elevation levels. Recorded data were internally logged until the readout with the DEFI Series software (V1.02). The position was derived from a portable DGPS-system. Date and Time is given in UTC. Data handling was performed according to Zielinski et al. (2018): Post-processing of collected data was done using MATLAB (R2018a). Quality control was performed by (a) erasing data covering maintenance activities, (b) removing outliers, defined as data exhibiting changes of more than two standard deviations within one time step, and (c) visually checks.
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    Format: application/zip, 106 datasets
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Stable isotope composition of syngenetic and epigenetic ice wedges, radiocarbon age, and pollen spectra of the surrounding deposits were studied during long term investigations at the "Belyi Klyuch" site on the first (6-8 m height) terrace of the Chara River (720 m.a.s.l.) in northern Transbaikalia to assess climatic conditions during ice-wedge formation. It was revealed that Holocene ice wedges had been formed from 10 to 7.5 ka 14C BP. The isotope composition (δ18О, δ²H) of relict ice wedges is the lightest and amounts −23‰ and −185‰, correspondingly. The isotopic compositions of ice lenses from sandy loam above ice wedges are −15.7‰ and −133‰; of small ice wedge in peat and sand are −15.3‰ and −117.9‰, accordingly. Interpretation of the ice wedge isotope composition has yielded that mean winter temperatures during cold stages of Holocene optimum were lower than today, during warm stages they were close to modern ones. During the coldest stages of Holocene optimum the total annual freezing index varied from −5100 to −5700 °C degree days, i.e. 300-600 °C degree days colder than during extremely severe modern winters. The total annual thawing index varied from 1300 to 1800 °C degree days, which was slightly higher than modern ones.
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The data set compiles gamma-ray wet bulk density, magnetic susceptibility (MS), and XRF core scans of the three cores GeoB16433-1 (38° 07.843'N, 144° 00.135'E, 7,525 m water depth), GeoB16431-1 (38° 00.177'N, 143° 59.981'E, 7,542 m water depth), and GeoB16444-1 (37° 42.017'N, 143° 52.377'E, 7,529 m water depth) retrieved from the central Japan Trench during Sonne Cruise SO219A in 2012. Gamma-ray wet bulk density and MS were measured by using the Geotek multi-sensor core logger at MARUM, University of Bremen. XRF core scans (elements: Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr) were analyzed by using the Avaatech XRF core scanner at MARUM, University of Bremen.
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    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The presence-absence data for macrobenthic fauna that has been collected in Mingulay Reef Complex (Scotland, UK) across 79 stations over the years 2003, 2005, 2009, 2010 and 2011. The collection of the benthic samples has been carried out using a Van-Veen grab, mainly from hard habitats (e.g. live and dead coral framework). About 60% of the macrofaunal specimens have been identified at species level using high quality taxonomic keys and advice from taxonomy experts. Most common taxonomic groups analysed here are molluscs, polychaetes, arthropods, bryozoans, anthozoans, tunicates and brachiopods. The collection of the specimens is now deposited at the National Museums of Scotland (see the attached excel file for details). The enviromental data contains information about coordinates and environmental settings at stations where macrobenthic samples mentioned above, were collected. The environmental settings that are included in the file refer to the years 2003, 2005, 2009, 2010, 2011. For more information on the environmental variables have a look in Henry et al. 2010 (doi:10.1007/s00338-009-0577-6) and Henry et al. 2013 (doi:10.5194/bg-10-2737-2013). The environmental variables included in the excel file are: type of macrohabitat (i.e. muddy sand, rubble, rock, live coral, dead framework, live & dead framework), depth (m), slope, ruggedness, broad-scale bathymetric position index, fine-scale bathymetric position index, average current speed (m/s), maximum current speed (m/s), northness, eastness, winter North Atlantic Oscillation Index (same year), winter North Atlantic Oscillation Index (previous year), annual average bottom temperature (same year), annual average bottom salinity (same year). Extraction of bathymetric (depth) and topographic data [slope, aspect, northness, eastness, ruggedness, standardised broad-scale bathymetric position index (BPI; with an inner radius of 1 cell and an outer radius of 5 cells), fine-scale BPI (with an inner radius of 1 cell and an outer radius of 3 cells)] was based on multibeam echosounder data, using the Spatial Analyst and Benthic Terrain Modeler toolboxes in ArcGIS v.10.6.1 Average and maximum current speed values (m/s) were extracted by the ArcGIS v. 10.6.1 Spatial Analyst toolbox using data generated by a high-resolution 3D ocean model created for the MRC by Moreno-Navas et al. (2014). Data for the winter NAOI (DJFM) (Hurrell et al., 2003) were downloaded from the National Center for Atmospheric Research/University Corporation for Atmospheric Research website (climatedataguide.ucar.edu; data accessed on 28/02/2019).
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The sample set includes 25 newly sampled sea-level index points based on fossil microatoll measurements from 5 islands in the Spermonde Archipelago, 21 fossl microatoll samples previously published by Mann et al., 2016 from two Islands in the same study region and 20 marine and terrestrial limiting points (e.g. corals, shells and loamy clay) and one further sea-level index point from a Mangrove swamp published by De Klerk, 1982 and Tjia et al., 1972.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 16 datasets
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: We present a multi-proxy dataset of two sediment cores (0.61 and 0.41 m long) from interconnected infilled depositional basins in the Kobbefjord area, southwestern Greenland. We performed analyses of magnetic susceptibility, grain size distribution, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) element composition , total content of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur, biogenic silica (at 0.5-cm resolution), and diatom stratigraphy (at 1 to 5-cm resolution). The sequences provide evidence of sedimentation in former shallow Arctic lakes or ponds in sparsely glacierized catchments.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 4 datasets
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: This data set contains velocity measurements of high spatial resolution which were collected during a shipboard survey onboard RV Knorr in September 2011. The survey included transects across the northern slope of Iceland and the Iceland-Faroe Ridge. The sections are named A to E starting with the north-westernmost transect. Velocities were measured using an upward- and downward-facing lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) system mounted on the rosette. The LADCP data were processed using the LADCP Processing Software Package from the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (Thurnherr 2010, 2018). Following the processing, the barotropic tides were removed from the velocity data set by applying an updated version of the regional tidal model of Egbert and Erofeeva (2002), which has a resolution of 1/60°.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 5 datasets
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: This data set contains hydrographic measurements of high spatial resolution which were collected during a shipboard survey onboard RV Knorr in September 2011. The survey included transects across the northern slope of Iceland and the Iceland-Faroe Ridge. The sections are named A to E starting with the north-westernmost transect. The hydrographic data were obtained using a Sea-Bird 911+ conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) instrument. The CTD was mounted on a rosette with Niskin bottles to collect water samples, which were used to calibrate the conductivity sensor. The resulting accuracy of the CTD measurements is 0.3 db for pressure, 0.001 °C for temperature, and 0.002 for salinity.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 5 datasets
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Data presented here were collected between January 2019 to December 2019 within the research unit DynaCom (Spatial community ecology in highly dynamic landscapes: From island biogeography to metaecosystems, https://uol.de/dynacom/ ) of the Universities of Oldenburg, Göttingen, and Münster, the iDiv Leipzig and the Nationalpark Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer. Experimental islands and saltmarsh enclosed plots were created in the back barrier tidal flat and in the saltmarsh zone of the island of Spiekeroog. Local tide and wave conditions were recorded with a RBRduo TDǀwave sensor (RBR Ltd., Ontario/Canada). The sensor was bottom mounted in a shallow tidal creek (0.78 m NHN) through a steel girder (buried 0.3m deep in the sediment) and was positioned 10 cm above sediment surface, as was determined by using a portable differential GPS. This resulted in the sensor falling dry during low tide. For accurate depth calculations, raw pressure data were manually corrected for atmospheric pressure derived from a locally installed weather station. The sensor was pre-calibrated by the manufacturer and the sampling rate was 3 Hz with 1024 samples per burst at a sample interval of 10 min. Recorded data were internally logged until the readout with the Ruskin (V1.13.13) software. Date and time is given in UTC. Data handling was performed according to Zielinski et al. (2018): Post-processing of collected data was done using MATLAB (R2018a). Quality control was performed by (a) erasing data covering maintenance activities, (b) removing outliers, and (c) visually checks. Low-tide data is not removed, but were easily identified through the manually calculated water depth data, where all depths 〈 0.05m represented low tide data.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 12 datasets
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 7 datasets
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Within the setup of a long‐term irrigation experiment in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest at Pfynwald in the inner-Alpine Swiss Rhone valley, ecophysiological data were recorded from permanently irrigated trees, from trees cut off the irrigation after 11 years, and non-treated control trees. The data sets include continuous stem radius changes (automated point dendrometer at breast height), tree stem sap flow (Granier-type sap flow sensors at breast height), air temperature and humidity, vapour pressure deficit, net solar radiation, precipitation (tipping bucket), and volumetric soil water content (TDR and HS-sensors). The meteorological data were measured 2 m above the canopy in about 13 m height on top of a scaffold. The soil water sensors covered soil depth of up to 80 cm. Data resolution is 1 hour or higher and covers the years 2011-2017. Data as used and published in Zweifel, et al. (2020), Determinants of legacy effects in pine trees ‐ implications from an irrigation‐stop experiment. New Phytol. doi:10.1111/nph.16582
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    Format: application/zip, 4 datasets
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: This submission contains data on local ecological knowledge of marine fishes collected in Roviana Lagoon, Western Province, Solomon Islands, between 2014 and 2015. At four communities (from west to east: Ilangana, Nusa Roviana, Baraulu, and Nusa Hope)—those in the west being closer to the provincial town Munda—eight focus groups were held each, representing four age groups (13-19, 20-35, 36-55 and 〉55 years) divided by gender. Participants in each age group were selected by each village leadership to participate in the focus groups under the premise of being a "competent marine harvester" for their age group and gender. Participants were asked to free-list all local names of marine species (particularly fishes) known to them, thus allowing each respondent to list as many responses as they wanted. Then, they were instructed to assign the free-listed names into broader categories through pile sorting if possible, which represented local taxonomic groupings, and provide information on the characteristics underlying classification into each of the broader categories. To assess what kind of domains of knowledge respondents drew on in their classification, the descriptors used to characterize categories were assigned to one of five domains: taxonomic (e.g. if respondents used a generic term such as mara [carangids] to describe a group), appearance (i.e. for information on morphology, color or smell), behavior (e.g. schooling), habitat (e.g. deep water, seagrass), or utilitarian characteristics (e.g. bait, gear used to catch a species, or way of preparation). The data comprises two tables.
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    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Purpose Electromagnetic induction based metal detectors are commonly used in landmine clearance operations.Their performance can be seriously deteriorated by magnetic properties of the soil in which the landmines are buried. Materials and methods Soil magnetic parameters were studied at three locations in Southern Mozambique where soils had caused severe problems during former landmine clearance campaigns. Field work comprised a geological and pedological survey of soils and the parent rock materials. Soil and rock samples were analyzed to determine pedological standard parameters and magnetic susceptibility. Geochemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and thermomagnetic analysis helped to clarify the Mineral composition and to specify the origin and properties of the magnetic minerals. The spatial distribution of the topsoil magnetic susceptibility was investigated in the field and characterized using geo-statistical analyses. Results and discussion Despite different degrees of weathering of the investigated soils, their magnetic mineral composition is dominated by lithogenic (Ti-) magnetites. Moreover, there are clues for the pedogenic neoformation of ultrafinegrained ferrimagnetic minerals in two of the three topsoils. The deterioration of metal detector performance at the sites results from the high frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility at two locations and from the distinct spatial variability of topsoil magnetic susceptibility at all locations. Conclusions To assess soil effects on the performance of modern metal detectors the investigations of frequencydependent susceptibility and of spatial susceptibility distribution are the most meaningful tools. Summarizing, the topsoil magnetic properties of the investigated sites are predominantly influenced by their parentmaterial and to a minor degree by pedogenic neoformation.
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    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The paper deals with the factors determining engineering geological aspects of development of the territories adjoining the South Tambey Gas-Condensate Field in the Yamal Peninsula (including widespread development of shallow location ice wedges) by the example of a licensed site of the field in the area of the Tambey River mouth. The relief, climate, hydrological conditions, geochemical features of bottom sediments of the Gulf of Ob, soils, geocryological conditions, cryogenic processes and engineering-geological conditions of the site are characterized. Subfossil pollen spectra, spore and pollen content, chemical composition of ice wedges and surrounding sediments are investigated, that permits to clarify the formation history of ice wedges. The character of enclosing soil deformations on the contacts with ice wedges is considered especially in detail. The macro ice content of the floodplain massif to the depths of 1 and 3 m and the potential subsidence at thawing of ice wedges are calculated. Comparison of the results of geothermal measurements in boreholes of 1978 and 2013 shows that the average annual temperature increased by more than 5 °С per 35 years.
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    Format: application/zip, 8 datasets
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The sediment core KES2 (37.94558° N, 22.57641° E) was retrieved from the Kaisari Polje, Peloponnese Greece, in spring 2017 using a piston corer (Stitz type). The sedimentary sequence covers 350 cm (sedimentary units 1 - 7). The core was scanned at 0.5 cm resolution with an Avaatech X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scanner and the raw data presented here is displayed as element counts per second (cps). RGB colour values were taken with a digital line scan camera to depict colour variation with depth. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total organic carbon (TOC), and total inorganic carbon (TIC) were determined on dried, grinded, and homogenized samples through combustion in an elemental analyzer (Euro EA, Elementanalyzer). The grain size distribution 〈2 mm was measured on air-dried samples (ca. 0.3 g) using a laser-particle-analyser Malvern Mastersizer 2000. The core sequence covers the last 6000 years and was analysed to reconstruct ecosystem and landscape changes as well as palaeoclimatic fluctuations in southern Greece.
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    Format: application/zip, 4 datasets
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Precipitation fallen during the summer months (November-December-January) on four expeditions, 2015-16, 2016-17, 2017-18, and 2018-19, in the Terra Nova Bay area, were monitored using a vertically pointing radar, disdrometer and snow gauge. The vertical pointing METEK Micro Rain Radar 2 (MRR) was installed in MZS at the end of November 2015. It records Doppler velocity spectra every 10 s at 32 range gates. The radar gate spacing was set to 100 m allowing the profiler to sound heights ranging from 100 to 3100 m above the surface. The raw K-band power spectra, collected by the MRR, were processed applying the method proposed by Maahn and Kollias (2012) to correct for noise and aliasing effects, making them suitable for snow observation. A Thies CLIMA laser disdrometer (LPM), has been operational since December 2014.The disdrometer can simultaneously count and measure the size and fall velocity of hydrometeors (Frasson and others, 2011). A Total Rain weighing Sensor (TRwS) manufactured by MPS system was installed during the december 2018- January 2019 campaign within the YOPP observing period. The TRwS is a total rain/snowfall weighing gauge with an orifice area of 400 cm2, a depth accuracy of 0.01 mm of w.e. and a one -minute sampling time resolution (Savina and others, 2012). The TRwS was protected by an alter shield in order to minimize wind effect over the accumulation inside the instrumentation.
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    Format: application/zip, 12 datasets
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The uncertain response of marine terminating outlet glaciers to climate change at time scales beyond short-term observation limits models of future sea level rise. At temperate tidewater margins, abundant subglacial meltwater forms morainal banks (marine shoals) or ice-contact deltas that reduce water depth, stabilizing grounding lines and slowing or reversing glacial retreat. Here we present a radiocarbon-dated record from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1421 that tracks the terminus of the largest Alaskan Cordilleran Ice Sheet outlet glacier during Last Glacial Maximum climate transitions. Sedimentation rates, ice-rafted debris, and microfossil and biogeochemical proxies, show repeated abrupt collapses and slow advances typical of the tidewater glacier cycle observed in modern systems. When global sea level rise exceeded the local rate of bank building, the cycle of readvances stopped leading to irreversible retreat. These results support theory that suggests sediment dynamics can control tidewater terminus position on an open shelf under temperate conditions delaying climate-driven retreat.
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    Format: application/zip, 9 datasets
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The object of research is syncryogenic Holocene strata on the coast of the Onemen Bay, 2 km from the town of Anadyr. In July 2017, the outcrop of the first marine terrace uncovered by strong storms was examined. The stratigraphy of the outcrop was represented mainly by sandy loam (5-7 m thick) covered by peat (1-1.5 m) and underlain by sand. Numerous ice wedges were opened in the upper part of this outcrop. Along with that another outcropping of transect of a lakemarsh basin represented by a peat bog of 2-2.5 m thick underlain by sandy loam was also investigated. Ice wedges occur below the polygonal trenches. The present-day narrow ice wedges were found in the upper part of the peat bog. Two representative fragments of both the above outcrops were thoroughly examined. Radiocarbon dating had shown that accumulation of peat on surface of the first marine terrace started in early Holocene (about 8 ka BP). Accumulation of peatland within the lake-marsh basin was also dated to the beginning of the Holocene (about 9 ka BP). In the middle of the Holocene, it was most likely interrupted as a result of thermokarst processes and bogging of the surface. Formation of peatlands in Chukotka during the Holocene is known to be accompanied by active growth of the ice wedges inside them, so the age of the wedges studied by us was estimated as the beginning of the Holocene. The analysis of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the Holocene and the modern ice wedges had allowed establishing mainly the atmospheric type of moisture feeding of the wedges (due to melted snow) and lack of noticeable isotope fractionation during the ice formation. It has been found that δ¹⁸О and δ²Н values in the Holocene ice wedges were lower than in the modern wedges and snow by an average 2-3 and 7-12 ‰, respectively. Paleotemperature reconstructions performed on the basis of isotopeoxygen data showed that the air temperature of the coldest winter month in the first half of the Holocene in the Onemen Bay area was lower than the present-day ones by an average 2-3 °C, which is in a good agreement with the trend of rising winter temperatures throughout the Chukotka Peninsula, as well as in other areas of Eastern Siberia and Alaska.
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    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
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    Format: application/zip, 0 datasets
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The datasets include the analysis of the chemical profiles of the collected water samples (ICP-OES, IC for chemical compositions and on-site water parameter measurements) and the mineralogical analysis of the collected solid samples (Raman, XRD) from the serpentinite-hosted alkaline springs in Oman.
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    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The data set includes an age and geochemical data of a lava succession recovered from the flank of the Vate Trough in the back-arc of the New Hebrides as well as geochemical data of lavas from the island of Erromango and Vulcan Seamount in the arc front of the New Hebrides
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    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Resilience to drought of relict Mediterranean Quercus pyrenaica populations in the southern Iberian Peninsula was analyzed in relation to historical records of land-use, combining dendroecological growth of adult trees and greenness (EVI) as proxies for secondary and primary growth. This dataset contains the followings data: - Tree-ring measurements of the focal trees (in rwl files, tucson format). - Forest inventory data: Distance, azimuth, diameter at breast height (DBH), species, and total height of all neighboring living trees with DBH 〉 7.5 cm within a circular plot with a 10-m radius around target (focal) trees. - Annual EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) mean of pixels (250 m x 250 m) covering Quercus pyrenaica forests in Sierra Nevada (southern Spain). Data were derived from MOD13Q1 product of the MODIS sensor. MODIS EVI data were compiled for the period 2000 - 2016. We selected the pixels covering the distribution of Quercus pyrenaica forests in Sierra Nevada (n = 928 pixels). Any values affected by clouds, snow, shadows or high content aerosols, were filtered out following recommendations for mountain regions.
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    Format: application/zip, 4 datasets
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Seven different labs XRF scanned the same seven marine sediment sections. Additionally, four labs XRF scanned pellets that had known compositions determined by ICP-ES and ICP-MS. These datasets contain the XRF scanning results of the seven sediment section and four pellets. The seven 1.5 m core sections of marine sediment core used in this study were drilled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 346 at Site U1424 in the Japan Basin (40°11.39'N, 138°13.90'E, 2808 m water depth) and Site U1425 on the Yamato Rise (39°29.43' N, 134°26.55' E, 1909 m water depth). The sections selected (Hole U1424C Sections 1H4, 2H5, 3H5 and Hole U1425C Sections 2H3, 2H4, and 2H6, and 3H6) cover a range of sediment compositions. U-channels extracted continuous marine sediment approximately 1 cm thick from the center of each split core section. One lab scanned sections from different holes at the same sites (U1424A, U1425B, and U1425D) that were stratigraphically aligned with the sections listed above. Over the course of four years (2014 to 2017), the set of seven u-channels was shipped around the world to seven labs with XRF scanners including, in no particular order, the Kochi Core Center at Kochi University (Japan), IODP Core Repository at Texas A&M University (U.S.A.), Nanjing Normal University (China), Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami (U.S.A.), ETH Zurich (Switzerland), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (U.S.A.), and the Royal Netherlands Institute of Sea Research (The Netherlands). We intentionally do not identify which lab generated which scans, as many of the variables (e.g., X-ray tube aging, detector aging, and/or dehydration of the core material) could affect any instrument at various times or be exacerbated during the transit between labs. Instead, we label the XRF scans #1-#7 in the order in which they were scanned. The lead investigators overseeing the XRF scanning in these labs were shipboard participants on IODP Expedition 346 and are among the authors of this paper. The only instructions to each lab were "to XRF scan the seven sediment sections at 1mm or 2mm resolution using the approach and elements typical for paleoceanographic research performed in your lab." To emulate variations in the XRF results that have been previously published, these simple guidelines were intentionally broad and general to determine the degree of intercomparability between the labs amongst all the different settings and nuances of XRF scanning. The labs used various types and different generations of XRF scanning instruments (4 Avaatech Core Scanners, 2 ITRAX Core Scanners, and 1 Geotek Core Scanning Logger) with different X-ray sources (Rhodium, Molybdenum). Three of the labs scanned the cores at two or three excitation energies (e.g., 10 kV, 30 kV, and 50 kV). Each lab reported a different suite of elements, but all included Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Si, Sr, Ti, and Zr. Six labs also reported Al, Br, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Rb, S, and Zn and five labs reported and Ba, Cl, Ga, Mo, V, and Y. In addition to the seven core sediment sections, we freeze-dried and powdered four discrete samples that were pressed into disc-shaped pellets about 2 cm in diameter from nearby Core MD01-2407 on the Oki Ridge (37°04'N, 134°42'E, 932m water depth). The four samples have a similar matrix to the seven sediment sections scanned in this study. The four samples from Core MD01-2407 covered a range of sediment types (calcareous, siliceous, light-, and dark-colored; Kido et al., 2007) that span the dynamic range of at least Fe and Ca element cps scanned for this study. A set of four pellets was sent to four of the seven labs (1 ITRAX and 3 Avaatech) involved in the study to be scanned using the same instrument parameters they used on the sediment sections. Three labs used the same instrument and parameters used for the sediment section, but the fourth lab replaced the X-ray tube in between scanning the pellets and sediment sections. The major and trace element concentrations of the pellets were also analyzed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-optical emission spectrometry (OES) and ICP-mass spectrometry (MS) in the Analytical Geochemistry Facilities at Boston University, Boston, MA, USA. The ICP analyses had ~2% precision and a standard reference material analyzed as an unknown alongside the samples was accurate within precision.
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    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: This study investigates the timing of development of oligotrophic conditions and thickening of the West Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) during the Pliocene. It has been hypothesized that the evolution of the WPWP and the establishment of strong equatorial Pacific zonal gradients are closely related to the narrowing of the Indonesian Gateway (IG) as well as the closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS). However, the timing of these events remains unclear. Here we report Pliocene-to-recent relative abundances of planktic foraminifera at DSDP Site 214, in the eastern Indian Ocean, and at ODP Site 807, in the western Pacific, along with stable isotope values at the latter site. A comparison of the abundance of mixed-layer species (MLS) from both sites indicates a pronounced increase in their population between ~3.15 and 1.6 Ma. On the contrary, there is a contemporaneous decrease in the Globigerinita glutinata population during this time, which together suggest the development of oligotrophic conditions in the western tropical Pacific. Our data suggest that the oligotrophic WPWP resembling present-day conditions developed around ~3.15 Ma, and was closely linked to the gradual constriction of the IG.
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    Format: application/zip, 4 datasets
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: We provide processed bathymetry and gravity (Free-air anomaly) datasets collected in the equatorial Atlantic during ILAB-SPARC experiment conducted aboard N/O Pourquoi Pas? in Fall 2018. The seismic data sample the oceanic lithosphere extending between the Romanche Transform Fault to the Charcot Fracture Zone. Refraction data were collected during the ILAB-SPARC experiment. The provided refraction data were recorded on 25 Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS data) instruments (from 25 to 50) and span source-receiver offsets from ~-100 km to 100 km. Reflection (multichannel seismic - MCS data), we provide are sorted as CMP gathers that were used to produce seismic sections for imaging layer 2A. The data were collected during two experiments, using different survey geometries: 1) ILAB_SPARC_CMP.segy (in 5 parts): collected during ILAB_SPARC experiment in 2018, sample the region south of the Chain Fracture Zone. The maximum source-receiver offset is ~6 km. Note that the provided data were interpolated only in the shot domain (data fold 40). 2) TransAtlantic_CMP.segy (provided in two parts): collected during iLAB TransAtlantic survey aboard M/V Western Trident in Spring 2015. The data sample the region between the Chain Fracture ZOne and Romanche Transform Fault. The maximum source-receiver offset provided is ~ 6 km. Finally, we provide our final velocity model obtained by analyzing the OBS data (the data are provided in ascii format (horizontal and vertical grid sizes are 200 m and 50 m, respectively).
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    Format: application/zip, 4 datasets
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: North Africa is the largest source of mineral dust on Earth, which has multiple impacts on the climate system; however, our understanding of decadal to centennial changes in African dust emissions over the last few millenniums is limited. Here, we present a high-resolution multiproxy analysis of sediment core from high-elevation lake Bastani, in Corsica Island to reconstruct past African dust inputs to the Western Mediterranean area over the last 3150 yrs cal BP. Clay Mineralogy with palygorskite and clay ratio associated to geochemical data allows us to identify that terrigenous fluxes are almost exclusively related to atmospheric dust deposition from the West Sahara and Sahel areas over this period. High resolution geochemical contents provide a reliable proxy of Saharan dust inputs with millennial to centennial scale variations. Millennial variations have been correlated to the long term southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) with an increase of dust input since 1070 yrs cal BP. This correlation suggests a strong link with ITCZ and could reflect the increased availability of dust sources to be mobilized with an increase in wind and a decrease in precipitation over West and North Africa. For centennial to decadal variations, wavelet analyses show that since 1070 yr cal BP, North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the main climatic forcing with an increase of Saharan dust input during positive phase, as suggested by previous study over the last decades. However, when ITCZ is in a northern position, before 1070 yr cal BP, wavelet analyses indicate that total solar irradiance (TSI) is the main forcing factor, with an increase of African dust input during low TSI. With climate reanalysis over the instrumental era, during low TSI we observe a significant negative anomaly in pressure over Africa which is known to increase the dust transport. These two climatic forcing factors (NAO, TSI) modulate Saharan dust inputs to the Mediterranean area at centennial timescale through changes in wind and transport pathways
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    Format: application/zip, 7 datasets
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Soil and root samples were taken at the Jena Experiment, a large grassland biodiversity experiment located in the Saale valley near Jena (east Thuringia, Germany, 50°55'N, 11°35'E, 130 m above sea level). In 2002, the experiment was established with a total number of 81 grassland plots of 20 × 20 m (Roscher et al., 2004). The soil type is Eutric Fluvisol and the soil texture changes from sandy loam to silty clay with increasing distance to the Saale river (FAO-Unesco, 1997; Fischer et al., 2014). In June 2016, three surface soil samples (0-10 cm) from each plot were collected, combined to reduce the spatial heterogeneity, and homogenized. The soil samples were sieved (2 mm mesh size). Fine roots (if present) were picked using steel tweezers and stored at −20 ℃. The root samples were taken separately from six plots with different combinations of four functional groups (grass, legume, tall herb, small herb; Table S1). The roots were washed, freeze-dried and frozen. All fungal strains used originate from Jena Microbial Resource Collection (JRMC), University of Jena and HKI, Germany. The saprotrophic fungi Schizophyllum commune FSU:3214xFSU:2896 and Mucor plumbeus JMRC:SF:013709 were cultivated in Petri dishes on solid complex yeast medium (CYM; Schwalb and Miles, 1967) and the mycorrhizal fungi Tricholoma vaccinum JMRC:FSU:4731 and Pisolithus tinctorius FSU:10019 on modified Melin Norkrans b (MMNb) medium (Kottke et al., 1987) at room temperature for 2 and 5 days for the fast growing M. plumbeus and S. commune and 2 and 3 weeks for the slow growing P. tinctorius and T. vaccinum (Table S1). Further six bacterial strains were chosen for this study: Streptomyces acidiscabies E13 (JMRC:ST:033552 from JRMC), Streptomyces mirabilis P16B-1 (Schmidt et al., 2009), Bacillus subtilis DSM-10, Agrobacterium tumefaciens DSM-30150, Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM-50090 (DSMZ, Braunschweig, Germany), and Acetobacter xylinum NQ5 (ATCC 53582; ATCC, USA European Office at Wesel, Germany). The strains were cultivated for 2 to 5 days in Petri dishes on minimal medium (MM; Schmidt et al. 2009) at 28 °C. The collembolans species Heteromurus nitidus (Templeton, 1835) and Folsomia candida Willem, 1902 were taken from laboratory cultures fed with baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Table S1). Laboratory cultures were maintained in glass jars filled with moist potting soil at 15 °C in darkness and kept moist with distilled water. Before analysis, collembolans were starved for three days to empty their guts; subsequently they were frozen and stored in methanol. Polysphondylium pallidum strain was from the Stallforth Lab at Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology in Jena (Germany). Amoebae were cultured (xenically) in the presence of the bacterium Klebsiella aerogenes as food. Briefly, amoebal spore suspension (from previously collected sori) was added to the surface of SM/5 agar plate seeded with 1 X 108 CFU/ml food bacterium K. aerogenes. Plates were incubated at 22°C for 7 to 10 days for mature fruiting bodies to appear. The entire cell mass of amoebal fruiting bodies was carefully collected using a sterile inoculation loop and suspended in KK2 buffer. This cell mass was washed clean of any attached bacteria using the same buffer. Resulting amoebal cells were then subjected to further analysis. Before analyses, roots, fungi, collembolans and amoebae were frozen in liquid nitrogen. They were ground into fine powder and extracted using the same protocol as for the soil samples. Cultured bacteria were collected from Petri dish plates, weighed and extracted using the same protocol.
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    Format: application/zip, 8 datasets
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: - Data set of the non-clay and clay mineral composition of 1210 surface and core samples - Comparison of supervised and unsupervised cluster methods in determining cluster membership - Validation of supervised and unsupervised cluster membership by Classification Decision Trees - Comparison of variation in the weight % of quartz and magnetic susceptibility during MIS#2 and #3.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 6 datasets
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The 1933 Diexi earthquake occurred over 80 yr ago in the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Little attention has been paid to the post-seismic ecological recovery process, largely due to the lack of suitable geological archives and indexes. We selected the Yanwan section, relatively stable wetlands near the epicenter to carry out detailed palynological analysis in order to document the post-seismic vegetation succession and ecological recovery processes. Based on robust 210Pb-137Cs age model, the earthquake event was constrained and characteristic pollen assemblages were found. The earthquake caused great damage to natural vegetation. Moreover, with increasing human activities, the degradation of vegetation seems irreversible. The data set includes 210Pb-137Cs age model for Yanwan section, topsoil pollen results along the Songpinggou River, and pollen percentages and concentrations, total carbon contents data of Yanwan section.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 4 datasets
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  • 51
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    PANGAEA
    In:  Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, Carl-von-Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Germany
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Data presented here were collected between January 2019 to September 2019 within the research unit DynaCom (Spatial community ecology in highly dynamic landscapes: From island biogeography to metaecosystems, https://uol.de/dynacom/ ) of the Universities of Oldenburg, Göttingen, and Münster, the iDiv Leipzig and the Nationalpark Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer. Experimental islands and saltmarsh enclosed plots were created in the back barrier tidal flat and in the saltmarsh zone of the island of Spiekeroog. Meteorological data were collected near the experimental setup, with a locally installed weather station located approximately 500m north of the southern shoreline. The weather station system used here was a ClimaSensor US 4.920x.00.00x that was pre-calibrated by the manufacturer (Adolf Thies GmbH & Co. KG, D-Göttingen). Data were recorded and saved within the Meteo-Online (V4.5.0.20253) software in a sampling interval of 1 min, with an averaging time of 10 s. Date and time were given in UTC and the position was derived from the internal GPS system. Data handling was performed according to Zielinski et al. (2018, doi:10.5194/essd-10-1843-2018): Post-processing of collected data was done using MATLAB (R2018a). Quality control was performed by (a) erasing data covering maintenance activities, (b) removing outliers, defined as data exhibiting changes of more than two standard deviations within one time step, and (c) visually checks.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 9 datasets
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  • 52
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Pérez-Asensio, José N; Frigola, Jaime; Pena, Leopoldo D; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Reguera, Maria Isabel; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J; Dorador, Javier; Asioli, Alessandra; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Huhn, Katrin; Cacho, Isabel (2020): Changes in western Mediterranean thermohaline circulation in association with a deglacial Organic Rich Layer formation in the Alboran Sea. Quaternary Science Reviews, 228, 106075, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2019.106075
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The accumulation of an Organic Rich Layer (ORL) during the last deglaciation in the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean Sea) and its link to changes in deep and intermediate water circulation are here investigated. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages and the shallow infaunal foraminifer Uvigerina peregrina δ13C record support the establishment of sustained high organic matter fluxes, and thus eutrophic conditions at the sea floor, during the late phase of the ORL (Younger Dryas to early Holocene periods). Since organic matter fluxes were lower (mesotrophic conditions) during the Bølling-Allerød period, they cannot be solely responsible for the ORL initiation. Geochemical, sedimentological and micropalaeontological proxies support a major weakening of the deep-water convection in the Gulf of Lion as the main driver for the development of poorly-ventilated conditions from intermediate depths (946 m) to the deep western Mediterranean basin that promoted the beginning of the ORL deposition. Nevertheless, a better ventilation at intermediate depths was established during the late ORL, while the deep basin remained poorly ventilated. We propose that our data reflect the arrival of a new better-ventilated intermediate water mass analogue to the current Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) and/or a new intermediate water mass from the Gulf of Lion. The ultimate source of this water mass needs to be further explored but chronologies of the changes recorded here indicate that intermediate and deep ventilation phases were decoupled between the western and eastern Mediterranean basins during the deglaciation and early-middle Holocene.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 18 datasets
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  • 53
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Ridha, Dana; Boomer, Ian; Edgar, Kirsty M (2019): Latest Oligocene to earliest Pliocene deep-sea benthic foraminifera from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 752, 1168 and 1139, southern Indian Ocean. Journal of Micropalaeontology, 38(2), 189-229, https://doi.org/10.5194/jm-38-189-2019
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Count data for most abundant benthic foraminifera in the late Oligocene-Neogene in ODP Holes 752A, 1139A and 1139A
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: XRF measurement of bulk rock composition of sample SO253-035-ROV15M recovered during RV Sonne expedition SO253 (Kermadec arc).
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Rainfall is one of the most important triggers of slope failure. Weathered pyroclastic (tephra) deposits are especially vulnerable to slope failure because they commonly form slopes of high porosity and high clay content. Empirically derived thresholds for the triggering of landslides are commonly based on rainfall conditions and have been widely applied in volcanic soils. However, so far only few researchers utilized pore water pressure in the slope as additional variable for the threshold calibration. Here, we derived a new rainfall threshold for initiating the decrease in effective stress in the slope by analyzing a long-term record of rainfall and piezometer data from a slide-prone coastal area in northern New Zealand that consists of clayey, halloysitic tephra deposits. The level of effective stress decrease increased with rainfall intensity and duration. We observed highest effective stress decrease of up to 36% during rainfall events that triggered landslides in our study area. The effective stress threshold exhibits a satisfactory predictive capability. The probability of correctly predicting a decrease in effective stress is 53%. The effective stress threshold contributes towards the implementation of the decrease in effective stress into rainfall thresholds for the occurrence of landslides.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The early Paleogene represents the most recent interval in Earth's history characterized by global greenhouse warmth on multi-million year timescales, yet our understanding of long-term climate and carbon cycle evolution in the low latitudes, and in particular the Indian Ocean, remains very poorly constrained. Here we present the first long-term sub-eccentricity-resolution stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) and trace element (Mg/Ca and B/Ca) records spanning the late Paleocene–early Eocene (~58–53 Ma) from a surface–deep transect of the northern Indian Ocean, resolving late Paleocene 405-kyr paced cyclicity and a portion of the PETM recovery. Our new records reveal a long-term warming of ~4–5°C at all depths in the water column, with absolute surface ocean temperatures and magnitudes of warming comparable to the low latitude Atlantic and Pacific. As a result of warming, we observe a long-term increase in δ18Osw of the mixed layer, implying an increase in net evaporation. We also observe a collapse in the temperature gradient between mixed layer- and thermocline-dwelling species, potentially due to either the development of a more homogeneous water column with a thicker mixed layer, or depth migration of the Morozovella in response to warming. Synchronous warming at both low and high latitudes, along with decreasing B/Ca ratios in planktic foraminifera implying falling ocean pH and/or increasing dissolved inorganic carbon, suggest that global climate was forced by rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations during this time.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 6 datasets
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Mineral geochemical data of drill core serpentinites from the Mariana serpentinite mud volcanoes (IODP Exp. 366), including major element and fluid-mobile element (Li, B, Rb, Sr, Cs, Ba) compositions of olivine, spinel, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, serpentine, and brucite as determined by electron microprobe and laser ablation-ICP-MS.
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    Format: application/zip, 5 datasets
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: This dataset is constituted of radar profiles acquired using Ku-band radar ASIRAS and Ka-band radar KAREN along the EGIG line in West Central Greenland as part of the ESA CryoVEx campaigns in 2006, 2008, 2011, 2012, 2014, 2016 and 2017. This dataset consists of NetCDF files with the radar backscatter profiles along the EGIG line and various parameters describing the degree of radar penetration (depth at which power falls below 1% of maximum surface return, width of the OCOG retracking algorithm and number of layers recorded with a power higher than 10% of the maximum surface return). The two-way travel time of the radar was converted to depth below the ice sheet surface using the firn density outputs from MAR. The MAR firn density profiles used to perform the radar travel time to depth conversion are included in this dataset. In addition, the IMAU-FDM firn density profiles from 2016 and 2017 are also included, with the chronology of the firn column given for the 2017 profile. Density measured from in-situ firn cores and used to validate the two firn density models are included in this dataset. The radar data and the firn cores were collected as part of the ESA CryoVEx campaigns.
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    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Two deep-sea cores, GIK13891 and GIK13291, retrieved off Mauretania (NW Africa) from the top of a ca. 250 m high seamount and from the seamount's foot were studied. Planktonic foraminifera oxygen isotope records in conjunction with 14C ages in the upper core sections were used to establish a stratigraphy. Sedimentological studies of both cores focused on the occurrence and abundance of giant grains of up to 1500 µm. Three possible transport ways for those giant grains are being discussed: a) transport by turbidity currents b) erosion from the seamount top c) eolian delivery. The sedimentological results, including SEM pictures, point mainly to erosion and additional eolian delivery of the giant grains.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 6 datasets
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Ocean margin sediments have been considered as important sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the deep ocean, yet the contribution from advective settings has just started to be acknowledged. Here we present evidence showing that near-surface heating of sediment in the Guaymas Basin, a young extensional depression, causes mass production and discharge of reactive dissolved organic matter (DOM). In the sediment heated up to ~100 °C, we found unexpectedly low DOC concentrations in the pore waters, reflecting the combined effect of thermal desorption and advective fluid flow. Heating experiments suggested DOC production to be a rapid, abiotic process with the DOC concentration increasing exponentially with temperature. The high proportions of total hydrolyzable amino acids and presence of chemical species affiliated with activated hydrocarbons, carbohydrates and peptides indicate high reactivity of the DOM. Model simulation suggests that at the local scale, near-surface heating of sediment creates short and massive DOC discharge events that elevate the bottom-water DOC concentration. Because of the heterogeneous distribution of high heat flow areas, the expulsion of reactive DOM is spotty at any given time. We conclude that hydrothermal heating of young rift sediments alter deep-ocean budgets of bioavailable DOM, creating organic-rich habitats for benthic life.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 19 datasets
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The datasets contain the foraminifera oxygen isotope records over the last ~400 ka of two western equatorial Pacific cores, KX21-2 (01°25.0'S, 157°58.9'E, 1897 m water depth) and KX12-1 (01°48.8'S, 143°40.1'E, 1568 m water depth). There are three data sheets, including (1) benthic foraminifera (Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi) d18O of KX21-2, (2) planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber s.s.) d18O of KX21-2, and (3) planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber s.s.) d18O of KX12-1.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: This datasets contain the XRF-scanning records of major terrigenous elements (Ti and Fe) and their ratios to the calcium content in the bulk sediment, obtained from six cores from the Western Equatorial Pacific. Records of the six cores are listed in separate datasets as: KX21-2 (01°25.0'S, 157°58.9'E, 1897 m water depth), KX22-4 (00°01.7'S, 159°14.7'E, 2362 m water depth), KX12-1 (01°48.8'S, 143°40.1'E, 1568 m water depth), KX13-1 (01°14.4'S, 140°00.9'E, 2987 m water depth), KX15-2 (04°07.3'S, 145°36.2'E, 2063 m water depth), KX10-1 (03°20.3'N, 131°50.5'E, 2216 m water depth).
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 6 datasets
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  • 63
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Wahl, Martin; Schneider Covachã, Sabrina; Saderne, Vincent; Hiebenthal, Claas; Müller, Jens Daniel; Pansch, Christian; Sawall, Yvonne (2018): Macroalgae may mitigate ocean acidification effects on mussel calcification by increasing pH and its fluctuations. Limnology and Oceanography, 63(1), 3-21, https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.10608
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Ocean acidification (OA) is generally assumed to negatively impact calcification rates of marine organisms. At a local scale however, biological activity of macrophytes may generate pH fluctuations with rates of change that are orders of magnitude larger than the long-term trend predicted for the open ocean. These fluctuations may in turn impact benthic calcifiers in the vicinity. Combining laboratory, mesocosm and field studies, such interactions between OA, the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, the sea grass Zostera marina and the blue mussel Mytilus edulis were investigated at spatial scales from decimetres to 100s of meters in the western Baltic. Macrophytes increased the overall mean pH of the habitat by up to 0.3 units relative to macrophyte- free, but otherwise similar, habitats and imposed diurnal pH fluctuations with amplitudes ranging from 0.3 to more than 1 pH unit. These amplitudes and their impact on mussel calcification tended to increase with increasing macrophyte biomass to bulk water ratio. At the laboratory and mesocosm scales, biogenic pH fluc- tuations allowed mussels to maintain calcification even under acidified conditions by shifting most of their calcification activity into the daytime when biogenic fluctuations caused by macrophyte activity offered temporal refuge from OA stress. In natural habitats with a low biomass to water body ratio, the impact of biogenic pH fluctuations on mean calcification rates of M. edulis was less pronounced. Thus, in dense algae or seagrass habitats, macrophytes may mitigate OA impact on mussel calcification by raising mean pH and providing temporal refuge from acidification stress.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 7 datasets
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The data set contains temperature and humidity time-series from a salt desert showing salt polygons at the surface. The data set characterizes the environmental conditions of the salt deserts and is used together with other data sets (which characterize the surface and subsurface of the desert) to explain the driving mechanism of salt polygon growth in salt deserts. For three sites, temperature data loggers of type HiTemp140 with measurement precision of 0.01°C and humidity data loggers of type RHTemp1000IS with a precision of 0.1% were placed at the center of a salt polygon and inside a salt ridge to enable a comparison between center- and ridge values for temperature and humidity. Data loggers were active for 7 days in late 2016 and recorded temperature and humidity values every minute. Measurements were conducted at 3 sites at Owens Lake, Central California. All data was recorded during a field campaign in November and December 2016. Related to this data are also - grain size distributions of sand samples taken at the field sites at different depths (see data at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.910996), - pictures and videos characterizing the sites (see data at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.911054), - salinity profiles from cross-sections below polygons and background salt concentration measurements (see data at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.911059), - as well as surface scans measured by TLS (see data at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.911233) - and a chemical characterization of the salt species present in the crust (see data at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.911239).
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 6 datasets
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Silicon isotope records from diatoms can be used as a proxy for the relative consumption of dissolved silicic acid (DSi) in surface waters. Silicon isotopes in sponges provide information on the concentration of DSi within the ambient seawater in which the sponges reside. Here we provide deglacial silicon isotope records from both diatoms (d30Si_diat) and sponges (d30Si_sponge) collected in three piston cores from the Southern Ocean. Isolated diatom samples were produced from bulk sediment by mechanical separation and chemical cleaning. Pure diatom samples were digested in 0.1 M NaOH before removal of matrix via cation exchange chromatography. The samples were analysed by MC-ICP-MS at the University of Edinburgh. Sponge spicules were individually picked from sediment and underwent the same analytical procedure as decribed above. We relate the d30Si_diat records to changes in the deep upwelling DSi supply and diatom demand for DSi in the Southern Ocean surface across the deglaciation. We suggest that during the late deglaciation, the supply increased dramatically, leading to a decline in the d30Si_diat in all records. The d30Si_sponge data were used in conjunction with older previously published data to elucidate how a restructing of the deep ocean - which supplies DSi to the Southern Ocean - during the deglaciation, could explain the apparent increase in DSi supply that is recorded in the d30Si_diat data.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 4 datasets
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The dataset includes foraminiferal geochemistry and assemblage data, and pore water oxygen isotopes. The samples were collected during IODP Expedition 347 from Site M0059, located in the southern section of the Little Belt in the Baltic Sea. We have measured trace element concentrations (by LA-ICP-MS), oxygen and carbon isotopes of foraminiferal calcite, and fauna assemblage, for reconstruction of past environmental conditions over the past ~7.5 thousand years. We have also measured pore water oxygen isotopes from the same site. In the dataset we also present the trace element concentrations of foraminiferal calcite from IODP347 Site M0059 measured by solution-based ICP-OES. In addition, we include the measurement of water column salinity and oxygen isotopes data from cruise MSM 50 between the Skagerrak and the southern Baltic Sea.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 6 datasets
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  • 67
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    PANGAEA
    In:  Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The data set contains a chemical analysis of the salt species from two salt deserts showing salt polygons at the surface. The data set is used together with other data sets (which characterize the environmental conditions, surface and subsurface of the deserts) to explain the driving mechanism of salt polygon growth in salt deserts. Different salt species crystallize in spatially separated patches. These patches were visually identified and sampled. Salt samples from the salt crust were collected at two sites at Owens Lake, Central California. Samples were dried, and pulverized and their mineral composition was analyzed using quantitative XRD. Pore water was collected from the subsurface at two sites at Badwater Basin (also central California) and 10 sites at Owens Lake. Elemental composition of the pore water was analyzed using ICPOES. All samples were collected during two field campaigns in November / December 2016 and January 2018. Related to this data are also - grain size distributions of sand samples taken at the field sites at different depths (see data at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.910996), - pictures and videos characterizing the sites (see data at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.911054), - salinity profiles from cross-sections below polygons and background salt concentration measurements (see data at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.922264), - surface scans measured by TLS (see data at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.911233) and - temperature and humidity time-series measured during one week in late 2016 (see data at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.922231).
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Scatterometer data acquired in Ku-band from the QuikSCAT satellite have been used to identify midwinter melt events over Greenland. The focus was set on winter months (November-March) 2000 to 2008. Several approaches were examined for their capability of detecting thaw events. In the first case the change of the backscatter coefficient sigma0 based on a three-day moving window was used. In the second case the difference between two consecutive days was used. Two types of parameterization have been investigated for both cases: a constant threshold of 1.5 dB (Approach I and III) and a location specific noise level (Approach II and IV). Thaw events were detected for all winters, however, the spatially largest extent was found during late November in 2005 in case of all approaches. The dataset (csv files) includes the results from all four approaches. Grid spacing is 10km (pre-processed based on Bartsch et al. 2007). The following values are provided for each detected event: grid point ID (GP_NAME), latitude, longitude, date, depending on the approach a three day average difference or a day to day difference of sigma0 and if used (Approach II and IV) the location specific noise multiplied by three. Shape files are provided for the three largest detected events in addition: 26.11.-30.11.2005, 17.11.-21.11.2007 and 01.-04.11.2008. No Data value is -9999. Algorithm details and overview maps are provided in Freund (2017).
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 5 datasets
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Data set from borehole PRGL1-4 (PROMESS EC-project) and sediment core MD99-2348 (IMAGES) from the upper slope of the Gulf of Lion continental margin, north-western Mediterranean Sea. It includes age model, sedimentation rates, Globigerina bulloides δ18O, grain-size and XRF-Ca records for the whole sequence. The integrated records of both sediment sequences allowed to investigate the effects of orbitally-driven glacioeustatic sea-level oscillations on the margin outbuilding during the last 5 glacial cycles (500 kyr). The high-resolution grain-size record from borehole PRGL1-4 allowed also to illustrate the imprint of sea-level oscillations at millennial time-scale, as shown for Marine Isotopic Stage 3, thus presentig the first evidence for a one-to-one coupling of millennial time-scale sealevel oscillations associated with each Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 9 datasets
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Profiles and time-series of Oxygen, pH and CO2 was measured in situ in shallow (〈10cm) tidal ponds located in the salt marshes of the Plum Island Estuary, MA, USA. The investigation was conducted using a novel needle optode profiling system from PreSens GmBH with an Automated Micromanipulator and needle-type optodes for measurements of oxygen (PM-PSt7), pH (PM-HP5), and CO2 (PM-CDM1 prototypes), respectively. The data provide novel information about the spatial and temporal variation of oxygen, pH and CO2 in water and sediment, driven by microphytobenthic photosynthesis and respiration. These parameters vary markedly throughout the day due to changes in light availability and temperature. The data characterizes salt marsh tidal ponds as a habitat with extreme oxygen dynamics. Data includes 1) In situ Oxygen, pH and CO2 profiles across the sediment-water interface in shallow salt marsh tidal ponds at 3 different times of the day; morning, afternoon and night, respectively; 2) Oxygen and pH profiles across the sediment-water interface under different light regimes; 0. 25, 150, 350 PAR (0 μmol photons m−2 s−1), respectively; 3) In situ time series of Oxygen, pH and temperature in shallow salt marsh tidal ponds.; 4) Oxygen profiles across the sediment-water interface in shallow salt marsh tidal ponds under different in situ light regimes, determined by a natural layer of seafoam covering the water surface.; 5) In situ oxygen profiles across the sediment-water interface in 3 different tidal ponds in the Plum Island Estuary.; 6) Oxygen profiles across the sediment-water interface in three different habitats in salt marshes: a) Tidal river; submerged sediment. b) Tidal ponds; submerged sediment and c) Vegetated marsh platform; intertidal.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 13 datasets
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Data presented here were collected during the cruise SO245 with RV SONNE from Antofagasta, Chile to Wellington, New Zealand (December 17th, 2015 - January 28, 2016). In total, 15 underwater light profiles were collected at 15 stations, using a free-falling hyperspectral light profiler. The system used was a SEABIRD HyperPro II (SN 099, former Satlantic), equipped with a irradiance sensor to measure downwelling irradiance (Ed, SN 262) and a radiance sensor for upwelling radiance (Lu, SN 227). A reference unit was attached to the ship to measure the above water irradiance (Es, SN 223). The sensors were pre-calibrated by the manufacturer and validated prior to the cruise with a reference lamp. Data were recorded with the SatView software (V 2.9.5_7) and processed from raw to Level1, 1b, 2, 2s to Level 3a using the ProSoft Processing software (V 7.7.19_2). Measured data were binned in 1 m depth intervals. A dark correction was made automatically based on shutter measurements by the instrument. Measurements with a tilt higher than 5° were not taken into account during processing. Spectra were interpolated to 1 nm intervals. For each station the hyperspectral profiles for each parameter cover the wavelength range from 400-700 nm, for Ed and Es in [W/m² nm], for Lu in [W/m² nm sr]. For Ed, Lu and Es descriptive statistics are given including min, max, mean, median and standard deviation of the tilt and the photosynthetically active radiation PAR [µmol photons/m² s (sr)], integrated from 400 - 700 nm. To allow an assignment of above water conditions to the respective depth measurements, Es spectra were given as a function of depth, recalculated from data Level2s. The Profiler measurements were only conducted during daylight. Raw data are available on request from the principal investigator.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 5 datasets
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Seven pollen datasets are included. Each dataset is in a separate folder. Each folder contains two files: a text (docx) file with a short summary and an Excel with several sheets, including pollen counts (also percentage and concentration values), 14C dating, age-model details, macrofossils, etc.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 26 datasets
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Thanks to improved multibeam swath bathymetry, targeted coring of glacial landforms is now possible. In turn, it is possible to improve our understanding of sedimentary facies that developed in glacimarine settings during the post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) deglaciation. We explore foraminiferal records from 18 sediment cores from the western Ross Sea largely from sites near paleo-grounding lines. Based on general foraminiferal indices and radiocarbon dates, we identify environments and geomorphic settings from which high quality in situ foraminiferal data can be obtained, which is imperative for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and geochemistry on glaciated continental margins worldwide. We investigated post-LGM foraminiferal assemblages from distinct glacimarine environments, including those from proximal and more distal locations with respect to paleo-grounding lines as well as an unusual assemblage influenced by the drainage of subglacial meltwater into the ocean. Despite clear differences in post-LGM foraminiferal records between the western and the eastern Ross Sea, it appears that the high bathymetric gradient of grounding zone wedges is a key factor promoting rich benthic foraminiferal communities in habitats proximal to grounding lines. Additionally, rapid deposition of meltwater plume sediments inhibited - and in some cases, significantly altered - foraminifera abundance and diversity. This knowledge will enable better site selection in future studies on the Antarctic continental shelf and potentially other glaciated margins.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 22 datasets
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: This data set contains the stable isotope record of Uvigerina auberiana, Melonis barleeanus and Cibicidoides spp., abundance and fragmentation of planktonic foraminifera, major and trace elements and total inorganic carbon content of ODP Site 202-1242.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 7 datasets
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Data presented here were collected during the cruise SO248 with RV SONNE from Auckland, New Zealand to Dutch Harbor, USA (May 1st, 2016 - June 3rd, 2016). In total, 20 underwater light profiles were collected at 19 stations, using a free-falling hyperspectral light profiler. The system used was a SEABIRD HyperPro II (SN 099, former Satlantic), equipped with a irradiance sensor to measure downwelling irradiance (Ed, SN 262) and a radiance sensor for upwelling radiance (Lu, SN 227). A reference unit was attached to the ship to measure the above water irradiance (Es, SN 223). The sensors were calibrated by the manufacturer and validated prior to the cruise with a reference lamp. Data were recorded with the SatView software (V 2.9.5_7) and processed from raw to Level1, 1b, 2, 2s to Level 3a using the ProSoft Processing software (V 7.7.19_2). Measured data were binned in 1 m depth intervals. A dark correction was made automatically based on shutter measurements by the instrument. Measurements with a tilt higher than 5° were not taken into account during processing. Spectra were interpolated to 1 nm intervals. For each station the hyperspectral profiles for each parameter cover the wavelength range from 400-700 nm, for Ed and Es in [W/m² nm], for Lu in [W/m² nm sr]. For Ed, Lu and Es descriptive statistics are given including min, max, mean, median and standard deviation of the tilt and the photosynthetically active radiation PAR [µmol photons/m² s (sr)], integrated from 400 - 700 nm. To allow an assignment of above water conditions to the respective depth measurements, Es spectra were given as a function of depth, recalculated from data Level2s. The profiler measurements were only conducted during daylight. Raw data are available on request from the principal investigator.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Data presented here were collected during the cruise SO254 with RV SONNE from Auckland, New Zealand to Auckland, New Zealand (January 26th, 2017 - February 27th, 2017). In total, 12 underwater light profiles were collected at 27 stations, using a free-falling hyperspectral light profiler. The system used was a SEABIRD HyperPro II (SN 099, former Satlantic), equipped with a irradiance sensor to measure downwelling irradiance (Ed, SN 262) and a radiance sensor for upwelling radiance (Lu, SN 227). A reference unit was attached to the ship to measure the above water irradiance (Es, SN 223). The sensors were calibrated by the manufacturer and validated prior to the cruise with a reference lamp. Data were recorded with the SatView software (V 2.9.5_7) and processed from raw to Level1, 1b, 2, 2s to Level 3a using the ProSoft Processing software (V 7.7.19_2). Measured data were binned in 1 m depth intervals. A dark correction was made automatically based on shutter measurements by the instrument. Measurements with a tilt higher than 5° were not taken into account during processing. Spectra were interpolated to 1 nm intervals. For each station the hyperspectral profiles for each parameter cover the wavelength range from 400-700 nm, for Ed and Es in [W/m² nm], for Lu in [W/m² nm sr]. For Ed, Lu and Es descriptive statistics are given including min, max, mean, median and standard deviation of the tilt and the photosynthetically active radiation PAR [µmol photons/m² s (sr)], integrated from 400 - 700 nm. To allow an assignment of above water conditions to the respective depth measurements, Es spectra were given as a function of depth, recalculated from data Level2s. The profiler measurements were only conducted during daylight. Raw data are available on request from the principal investigator.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Laboratory-bred males of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were assigned to one of two treatments: exposure to the nematode parasite Camallanus lacustris (exposed) or control (i.e. unexposed). After infection key fitness and immune traits were measured. Fish were then sacrificed and liver tissue was dissected. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing was conducted on DNA extracted from whole liver tissue. Overall we aimed to investigated the role of host DNA methylation modifications to respond to parasite infections.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: The geologic time scale for the Cenozoic Era has been notably improved over the last decades by virtue of integrated stratigraphy, combining high-resolution astrochronologies, biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy with high-precision radioisotopic dates. However, the middle Eocene remains a weak link. The so-called "Eocene time scale gap" reflects the scarcity of suitable study sections with clear astronomically-forced variations in carbonate content, primarily because large parts of the oceans were starved of carbonate during the Eocene greenhouse. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 369 cored a carbonate-rich sedimentary sequence of Eocene age in the Mentelle Basin (Site U1514, offshore southwest Australia). The sequence consists of nannofossil chalk and exhibits rhythmic clay content variability. Here, we show that IODP Site U1514 allows for the extraction of an astronomical signal and the construction of an Eocene astrochronology, using 3-cm resolution X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) core scans. The XRF-derived ratio between calcium and iron content (Ca/Fe) tracks the lithologic variability and serves as the basis for our U1514 astrochronology. We present a 16 million-year-long (40-56 Ma) nearly continuous history of Eocene sedimentation with variations paced by eccentricity and obliquity. We supplement the high-resolution XRF data with low-resolution bulk carbon and oxygen isotopes, recording the long-term cooling trend from the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM - ca. 56 Ma) into the middle Eocene (ca. 40 Ma). Our early Eocene astrochronology corroborates existing chronologies based on deep-sea sites and Italian land sections. For the middle Eocene, the sedimentological record at U1514 provides a single-site geochemical backbone and thus offers a further step towards a fully integrated Cenozoic geologic time scale at orbital resolution.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Data presented here were collected during the cruise SO267/2 with RV SONNE from Suva, Fiji to Manzanillo, Mexico (January 28, 2019 - February 14, 2019). In total, 15 underwater light profiles were collected at 16 stations, using a free-falling hyperspectral light profiler. The system used was a SEABIRD HyperPro II (SN 099, former Satlantic), equipped with a irradiance sensor to measure downwelling irradiance (Ed, SN 262) and a radiance sensor for upwelling radiance (Lu, SN 227). A reference unit was attached to the ship to measure the above water irradiance (Es, SN 223). The sensors were calibrated by the manufacturer and validated prior to the cruise with a reference lamp. Data were recorded with the SatView software (V 2.9.5_7) and processed from raw to Level1, 1b, 2, 2s to Level 3a using the ProSoft Processing software (V 7.7.19_2). Measured data were binned in 1 m depth intervals. A dark correction was made automatically based on shutter measurements by the instrument. Measurements with a tilt higher than 5° were not taken into account during processing. Spectra were interpolated to 1 nm intervals. For each station the hyperspectral profiles for each parameter cover the wavelength range from 400-700 nm, for Ed and Es in [W/m² nm], for Lu in [W/m² nm sr]. For Ed, Lu and Es descriptive statistics are given including min, max, mean, median and standard deviation of the tilt and the photosynthetically active radiation PAR [µmol photons/m² s (sr)], integrated from 400 - 700 nm. To allow an assignment of above water conditions to the respective depth measurements, Es spectra were given as a function of depth, recalculated from data Level2s. The profiler measurements were only conducted during daylight. Raw data are available on request from the principal investigator.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2020-12-04
    Description: Data presented here were collected during the cruise HE516 with RV HEINCKE from Bremerhaven, Germany to Bremerhaven, Germany (July 17th, 2018 - August 15th, 2018). In total, 169 underwater light profiles were collected at 75 stations (with at least three repititions), using a free-falling hyperspectral light profiler. The system used was a SEABIRD HyperPro II (SN 189, former Satlantic), equipped with a irradiance sensor to measure downwelling irradiance (Ed, SN 532) and a radiance sensor for upwelling radiance (Lu, SN 421). A reference unit was attached to the ship to measure the above water irradiance (Es, SN 533). The sensors were calibrated by the manufacturer and validated prior to the cruise with a reference lamp. Data were recorded with the SatView software (V 2.9.5_7) and processed from raw to Level1, 1b, 2, 2s to Level 3a using the ProSoft Processing software (V 7.7.19_2). Measured data were binned in 0.5 m depth intervals. A dark correction was made automatically based on shutter measurements by the instrument. Measurements with a tilt higher than 10° were not taken into account during processing. Spectra were interpolated to 1 nm intervals. For each station the hyperspectral profiles for each parameter cover the wavelength range from 400-700 nm, for Ed and Es in [W/m² nm], for Lu in [W/m² nm sr]. For Ed, Lu and Es descriptive statistics are given including min, max, mean, median and standard deviation of the tilt and the photosynthetically active radiation PAR [µmol photons/m² s (sr)], integrated from 400 - 700 nm. Statistics are not given for profiles which do not reach the 1% PAR depth. To allow an assignment of above water conditions to the respective depth measurements, Es spectra were given as a function of depth, recalculated from data Level2s. The profiler measurements were only conducted during daylight. Raw data are available on request from the principal investigator.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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