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Years
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-08-01
    Description: The InSight spacecraft was proposed to be a build-to-print copy of the Phoenix vehicle due to the knowledge that the lander payload would be similar and the trajectory would be similar. However, the InSight aerothermal analysts, based on tests performed in CO2 during the Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL) and completion of Russian databases, considered radiative heat flux to the aftbody from the wake for the first time for a US Mars mission. The combined convective and radiative heat flux was used to determine if the as-flown Phoenix thermal protection system (TPS) design would be sufficient for InSight. All analyses showed that the design would be adequate. Once the InSight lander was successfully delivered to Mars on November 26, 2018, work began to reconstruct the atmosphere and trajectory in order to evaluate the aerothermal environments that were actually encountered by the spacecraft and to compare them to the design environments.The best estimated trajectory (BET) reconstructed for the InSight atmospheric entry fell between the two trajectories considered for the design, when looking at the velocity versus altitude values. The maximum heat rate design trajectory (MHR) flew at a higher velocity and the maximum heat load design trajectory (MHL) flew at a lower velocity than the BET. For TPS sizing, the MHL trajectory drove the design. Reconstruction has shown that the BET flew for a shorter time than either of the design environments, hence total heat load on the vehicle should have been less than used in design. Utilizing the BET, both DPLR and LAURA were first run to analyze the convective heating on the vehicle with no angle of attack. Both codes were run with axisymmetric, laminar flow in radiative equilibrium and vibrational non-equilibrium with a surface emissivity of 0.8. Eight species Mitcheltree chemistry was assumed with CO2, CO, N2, O2, NO, C, N, and O. Both codes agreed within 1% on the forebody and had the expected differences on the aftbody. The NEQAIR and HARA codes were used to analyze the radiative heating on the vehicle using full spherical ray-tracing. The codes agreed within 5% on most aftbody points of interest.The LAURA code was then used to evaluate the conditions at angle of attack at the peak heating and peak pressure times. Boundary layer properties were investigated to confirm that the flow over the forebody was laminar for the flight.Comparisons of the aerothermal heating determined for the reconstructed trajectory to the design trajectories showed that the as-flown conditions were less severe than design
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN69598 , AIAA SciTech 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-10-12
    Description: This paper describes the plans, flows, key facilities, components and equipment necessary to fully integrate, functionally test and qualify the Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) Observatory. PACE is currently in the design phase of mission implementation. It is scheduled to launch in 2022, extending and improving NASA's twenty-year record of satellite observations of global ocean biology, aerosols and clouds. PACE will advance the assessment of ocean health by measuring the distribution of phytoplankton, which are small plants and algae that sustain the marine food web. It will also continue systematic records of key atmospheric variables associated with air quality and the Earth's climate. The PACE observatory is comprised of the spacecraft and three instruments, an Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) and two polarimeters, the Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter 2 (HARP2) and the Spectro-Polarimeter for Exploration (SPEXone). The spacecraft and the OCI, which is the primary instrument, are developed and integrated at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The OCI is a hyper-spectral scanning (HSS) radiometer designed to measure spectral radiances from the ultraviolet to shortwave infrared (SWIR) to enable advanced ocean color and heritage cloud and aerosol particle science. The HARP2 and SPEXone are secondary instruments on the PACE observatory, acquired outside of GSFC. The Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter instrument (HARP2) is a wide swath imaging polarimeter that is capable of characterizing atmospheric aerosols for purposes of sensor atmospheric correction as well as atmospheric science. The SPEXone provides atmospheric aerosol and cloud data at high temporal and spatial resolution. This paper will focus on the Integration and Test (I&T) activities for the PACE mission at NASA GSFC. This I&T phase consists of mechanical, electrical and thermal integration and test of all the spacecraft subsystems and the integration of the instruments with the spacecraft. The PACE observatory environmental tests include electromagnetic interference (EMI)/electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), vibration, acoustics, shock, thermal balance, thermal vacuum, mass properties and center of gravity. This paper will also discuss the observatory shipment to the launch site as well as the launch site processing.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance; Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN73647 , IEEE Aerospace Conference; Mar 07, 2020 - Mar 14, 2020; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: Presentation on Advancing Research in Hypersonic Flight at "Emerging Hypersonics Market" Panel at Transportation Research Board
    Keywords: Aeronautics (General)
    Type: HQ-E-DAA-TN76966 , Transportation Research Board; Jan 13, 2020; Washington, D.C.; United States
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: Transient, narrow plumes of strong water vapor transport, referred to as Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) are responsible for much of the precipitation along the west coast of the United States. Along the coast of Oregon and Washington, the most intense cool season precipitation events are almost always induced by an AR and can result in detrimental impacts on society due to mudslides and flooding. It is therefore important to understand the large scale influence on extreme AR events so that they can be accurately predicted on timescales ranging from numerical weather prediction to seasonal forecasts. Here, characteristics of ARs that result in observed extreme precipitation events are compared to typical ARs on the coast of Washington State using data from the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2. In addition to more intense water vapor transport, notable differences in the synoptic scale forcing are present during extreme precipitation events that are not present during typical AR events. In particular, an anomalously deep low pressure system is stationed to the west in the Gulf of Alaska, alongside a jet streak overhead. Attention will also be given to subseasonal and seasonal teleconnection patterns that are known to influence the weather in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. While little influence can be seen from the phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and Pacific North American Pattern, the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) can play a role in determining the strength of precipitation associated with in AR on the Washington Coast. Lastly, interactions between the MJO and other teleconnection patterns will be explored to determine key features that should be investigated when making subseasonal predictions for AR activity and the associated precipitation in the Pacific Northwest.
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76941 , AMS Annual Meeting; Jan 12, 2020 - Jan 16, 2020; Boston, MA; United States
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: This presentation is a refinement of an earlier presentation describing the methods of generating models used for designing control laws for use in vehicles with significant structural effects.
    Keywords: Aircraft Stability and Control
    Type: AFRC-E-DAA-TN76537 , AIAA SciTech Forum 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: As aircraft move to using composite materials as their primary structure they become lighter and more flexible as well. This presents some significant challenges in association with gust load alleviation. In this paper we develop an aeroservoelastic model for use in developing controllers that utilize distributed control surfaces for active gust load alleviation in a set of wind tunnel experiments. The model is based on an preexisting aeroelastic wing tunnel model and compares the baseline functionality to it. We also provide simple full state feedback simulations for the model.
    Keywords: Aerodynamics
    Type: AIAA 2020-0211 , ARC-E-DAA-TN76375 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: This paper covers the design and first measurements of non-perturbative, external inductive magnetic diagnostics for arcjet constrictors which can measure the motion of the arc current channel. These measurements of arc motion are motivated by previous simulations using the ARC Heater Simulator (ARCHeS), which predicted unsteady arc motion due to the magnetic kink instability. Measurements of the kink instability are relevant to characterizing motion of the enthalpy profile of the arcjet, the arcjet operational stability, and electrode damage due to associated arc detachment events. These first measurements indicate 4 mm oscillations at 0.5-2 kHz of the current profile.
    Keywords: Plasma Physics
    Type: AIAA 2020-0919 , ARC-E-DAA-TN76208 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: These slides and the companion paper describe a exciter placement technique using topology optimization.
    Keywords: Numerical Analysis
    Type: AFRC-E-DAA-TN75542 , SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: The X-56A Multi-Utility Technology Testbed (MUTT) is a subscale, fixed-wing aircraft designed for high-risk aeroelastic flight demonstration and research. Structural dynamics ground testing for model validation was especially important for this vehicle because the structural model was directly used in the development of a flight control system with active flutter suppression capabilities. Structural dynamics ground tests of the X-56A MUTT with coupled rigid-body and structural modes provided a unique set of challenges. An overview of the ground vibration test (GVT) and moment of inertia (MOI) test setup and execution is presented. The series of GVTs included the wing by itself attached to a strongback and complete vehicle at two mass conditions: empty and full fuel. Two boundary conditions for the complete-vehicle test were studied: on landing gear and suspended free-free. Pitch MOI tests were performed using a compound pendulum method and repeated with two different pendulum lengths for independent verification. The original soft-support test configuration for the GVT used multiple bungees, resulting in unforeseen coupling interactions between the soft-support bungees and the vehicle structural modes. To resolve this problem, the soft-support test setup underwent multiple iterations. The various GVT configurations and boundary-condition modifications are highlighted and explained. Lessons learned are captured for future consideration when performing structural dynamics testing with similar vehicles.
    Keywords: Research and Support Facilities (Air)
    Type: AFRC-E-DAA-TN73735 , AIAA SciTech Forum 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Type: HQ-E-DAA-TN73359-2 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: The interagency Space Science and Technology (S&T) Partnership Forum was established in 2015 with participation from the United States Air Force, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Reconnaissance Office. Seeking to leverage synergies and influence agency portfolios with a focus on key pervasive and game-changing technologies, the S&T Partnership Forum successfully identified and prioritized several collaboration topic areas with high potential for future cross-agency work. The S&T Partnership Forum determines the forum strategy, goals, and objectives, as well as the strategies and objectives specific to each collaboration topic area. In November 2018, the Partnership held a public open forum that focused on the topic area of in-space assembly (iSA). This open forum was coordinated to facilitate government and commercial dialogue, collect data, and perform data analysis to identify potential cross-agency collaboration between government and commercial participants for in-space assembly and promising technologies. This paper discusses the analysis performed on the commercially provided data in relation to previously identified government needs, observations on the correlation between technologies and capabilities between government and commercial industry, and recommendations for future government collaborations with commercial industry for iSA.
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Type: HQ-E-DAA-TN73559-1 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 12
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: This document is an update (new photos used) of the PDF version of the 2020 NASA Technology Taxonomy that will be available to download on the OCT Public Website. The updated 2020 NASA Technology Taxonomy, or "technology dictionary", uses a technology discipline based approach that realigns like-technologies independent of their application within the NASA mission portfolio. This tool is meant to serve as a common technology discipline-based communication tool across the agency and with its partners in other government agencies, academia, industry, and across the world.
    Keywords: Documentation and Information Science
    Type: HQ-E-DAA-TN76545
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: TESS launched 18 April 2018 to conduct a two-year, near all-sky survey for at least 50 small, nearby exoplanets for which masses can be ascertained and whose atmospheres can be characterized by ground- and space-based follow-on observations. TESS has completed its survey of the southern hemisphere and begun its survey of the northern hemisphere, identifying 〉1000 candidate exoplanets and unveiling a plethora of exciting non-exoplanet astrophysics results, such as asteroseismology, asteroids, and supernova. The TESS Science Processing Operations Center (SPOC) processes the data downlinked every two weeks to generate a range of data products hosted at the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). For each sector (~1 month) of observations, the SPOC calibrates the image data for both 30-min Full Frame Images (FFIs) and up to 20,000 pre-selected 2-min target star postage stamps. Data products for the 2-min targets include simple aperture photometry and systematic error-corrected flux time series. The SPOC also conducts searches for transiting exoplanets in the 2-min data for each sector and generates Data Validation time series and associated reports for each transit-like feature identified in the search. Multi-sector searches for exoplanets are conducted periodically to discover longer period planets, including those in the James Webb Continuous Viewing Zone (CVZ), which are observed for up to one year. Starting with Sector 8, scattered light from the Earth and Moon contaminated significant portions of the data in each orbit. We have developed algorithms for automated identification of the scattered light features at the individual target level. Previously, data for all stars on a CCD affected by scattered light were manually excluded. The automated flagging will allow us to retain significantly more data for stars that are not affected by the scattered light even though it is occurring elsewhere on the CCD. We also discuss enhancements to the SPOC pipeline and the newly available FFI light curves. The TESS Mission is funded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate as an Astrophysics Explorer Mission.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76812 , American Astronomical Society Meeting; Jan 04, 2020 - Jan 08, 2020; Honolulu, HI; United States
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: A non-iterative load prediction algorithm for strain-gage balances was developed for the NASA Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels that computes balance loads from the electrical outputs of the balance bridges and a set of state variables. A state variable could be, for example, a balance temperature difference or the bellows pressure of a flow-through balance. The algorithm directly uses regression models of the balance loads for the load prediction that were obtained by applying global regression analysis to balance calibration data. This choice greatly simplifies both implementation and use of the load prediction process for complex balance configurations as no load iteration needs to be performed. The regression model of a balance load is constructed by using terms from a total of nine term groups. Four term groups are derived from a Taylor Series expansion of the relationship between the load, gage outputs, and state variables. The remaining five term groups are defined by using absolute values of the gage outputs and state variables. Terms from these groups should only be included in the regression model if calibration data from a balance with known bi-directional outputs is analyzed. It is illustrated in detail how global regression analysis may be applied to obtain the coefficients of the chosen regression model of a load component assuming that no linear or massive near-linear dependencies between the regression model terms exist. Data from the machine calibration of a six-component force balance is used to illustrate both application and accuracy of the non-iterative load prediction process.
    Keywords: Aeronautics (General)
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN74220 , AIAA SciTech Forum 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: Habitable Exoplanet Observatory Mission (HabEx) will image & spectroscopically characterize planetary systems in the habitable zone around nearby sun-like stars. Additionally, HabEx will perform a broad range of general astrophysics science enabled by a 150 to 1700 nm spectral range and 3 x 3 arc-minute FOV. Critical to achieving the HabEx science goals is a large, ultra-stable telescope. The baseline HabEx telescope is a 4-m off-axis unobscured three-mirror-anastigmatic design with diffraction limited performance at 400 nm and wavefront stability of picometers per mK. These specifications are driven by science requirements. STOP (structural thermal optical performance) analysis predicts that the baseline telescopes opto-mechanical design meets its specified performance tolerances.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN75627 , American Astronomical Society Meeting; Jan 04, 2020 - Jan 08, 2020; Honolulu, HI; United States
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: Direct force control, where the angle of attack and sideslip angle are modulated, has been proposed as an alternative to bank angle control for a spacecraft performing an aeroassist maneuver. This paper reimplements the current state-of-the-art aerocapture guidance for bank angle control, Fully Numeric Predictor-corrector Aerocapture Guidance (FNPAG), for direct force control. The optimal control theory underlying the structure of FNPAG is shown to not be applicable to the direct force control approach. Several solution structures for the longitudinal channel are compared by simulating dispersed three-degree-of-freedom trajectories for a reference mission consisting of a low lift-to-drag vehicle and a highly elliptical, 1-sol target orbit. The equations of motion for the lateral channel are derived, and a controller is designed to target a specified orbital plane. Finally, a Monte Carlo is used to demonstrate the performance of the new guidance.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: JSC-E-DAA-TN75426 , AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN76747 , Meeting of the American Astronomical Society (AAS); Jan 04, 2020 - Jan 08, 2020; Honolulu, HI; United States
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: This work seeks to experimentally validate a modified Paschen law which takes into account the effects of electron-ion pair removal between two electrodes within a dynamic gas medium. A test facility has been designed and fabricated in order to create supersonic flow conditions within the test section. Custom designed electrodes are mounted into the test section at desired gap distances. A power supply is utilized to charge the electrodes until discharge occurs. The discharge voltage of the electrode is recorded over a range of pressures within the test section. An operational pressure range is calculated using isentropic flow and normal shock relations at the desired Mach numbers. These values are plotted against the modified Paschen curve as a function of Mach number, electrode gap distance, and pressure as a means of validation.
    Keywords: Physics (General)
    Type: KSC-E-DAA-TN69879 , AIAA Science & Technology Forum 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: After successful validation of the design, swaged cathode heaters have been delivered by the NASA Glenn Research Center to Aerojet Rocketdyne for the fabrication of the NEXT-C ion thruster . NASA Glenn Research Center re-established and validated process controls as well as completed cyclic life testing of development heaters. Following an extensive requalification program, fabrication of a flight batch of heaters was executed using the qualified process controls. Of the 28 heaters fabricated in this flight batch, a set of six heaters were acceptance and cyclic tested to verify conformance with operational requirements. Upon completion of 200 percent of the NEXT-C cyclic requirement, the heater batch was certified by NASA for use in the flight hollow cathodes. Nine heaters from the batch of 28 were provided to Aerojet Rocketdyne in early 2018 for cathode fabrication. This paper summarizes the acceptance and cyclic life testing of the flight heaters and preliminary findings of post-test analyses.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: NASA/TM-2020-219454 , E-19773 , AIAA Paper–2019–4167 , GRC-E-DAA-TN72218 , Propulsion and Energy Forum and Exposition; Aug 19, 2019 - Aug 22, 2019; Indianapolis, IN; United States
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  • 20
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: Summer 2019 brought 70 interns from Puerto Rico, 44 continental US states, Sweden, and the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago into the NASA Ames Aeromechanics Branch. Some were high school students learning engineering for the first time, while most were mechanical and aerospace engineering students, though two physics majors and a math major jumped into the mix to provide balance. This years interns completed work on 30 different projects with a collective of 30,000 dedicated hours of work. The projects this year were on urban air mobility (UAM), search and rescue vehicle design, all things Mars, Titan exploration concept designs, 3D modeling (i.e. computer aided design, CAD), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and much more. Last year we addressed the question of what to do with an army of interns. This year, we are following its path to change the world.
    Keywords: Aeronautics (General)
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76770 , Vertiflite Magazine (ISSN 0042-4455); 36-38
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: This paper presents a jig twist optimization study of Mach 0.745 Transonic Truss-Braced Wing (TTBW) aircraft using an in-house developed aero-structural analysis solver VSPAERO coupled to BEAM3D. A vortex-lattice model of the TTBW model is developed, and a transonic and viscous flow correction method is implemented in the VSPAERO model to account for transonic and viscous flow effects. A correction method for the wing-strut interference aerodynamics is developed and applied to the VSPAERO solver. Also, a structural dynamic finite-element model of the TTBW aircraft is developed. This finite-element model includes the geometric nonlinear effect due to the tension in the struts which causes a deflection-dependent nonlinear stiffness. The VSPAERO model is coupled to the corresponding finite-element model to provide a rapid aero-structural analysis. A design flight condition corresponding to Mach 0.745 at 42000 ft is selected for the TTBW aircraft jig twist optimization to reduce the drag coefficient. After the design is implemented, the drag coefficient of the twist optimized TTBW aircraft is reduced about 8 counts. At the end, a high-fidelity CFD solver FUN3D is used to validate the design.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: AIAA 2020-0451 , ARC-E-DAA-TN76389 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: A new, spectrally-resolved, Rayleigh scattering setup at NASA Ames is further developed to measure fluctuations in velocity and temperature. Using a combination of a continuous-wave laser, a stabilized Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI), an EMCCD camera, and a photo-multiplier tube, the setup was demonstrated to provide fairly accurate measurements of time-averaged velocity, temperature, density and spectrum of density fluctuations in a high-speed free jet (Panda & White, 2018). This paper describes further progress in fast measurement of the Rayleigh-Brillouin spectrum via a 16-anode linear-array of photo-multiplier tube and a multi-channel, photo-electron counter. Rayleigh scattered light from a 0.4mm long probe volume was directly imaged through the FPI and was imaged on the linear array. Synchronous photo-electron counting over a series of short, contiguous gates provided time-evolution of the fringes at a 10 kHz sampling rate. Sample spectra collected from a Mach 0.98 jet show spectral content floating on high noise-floor. Efforts to collect longer time series of data and different schemes of extracting velocity and temperature information are now in progress.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: AIAA 2020-0300 , ARC-E-DAA-TN76183 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: The Mars Helicopter (MH) will be flying on the NASA Mars 2020 rover mission scheduled to launch in July of 2020. Research is being performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and NASA Ames Research Center to extend the current capabilities and develop the Mars Science Helicopter (MSH) as the next possible step for Martian rotorcraft. The low atmospheric density and the relatively small-scale rotors result in very low chord-based Reynolds number flows over the rotor airfoils. The low Reynolds number regime results in rapid performance degradation for conventional airfoils due to laminar separation without reattachment. Unconventional airfoil shapes with sharp leading edges are explored and optimized for aerodynamic performance at representative Reynolds-Mach combinations for a concept rotor. Sharp leading edges initiate immediate flow separation, and the occurrence of large-scale vortex shedding is found to contribute to the relative performance increase of the optimized airfoils, compared to conventional airfoil shapes. The oscillations are shown to occur independent from laminar-turbulent transition and therefore result in sustainable performance at lower Reynolds numbers. Comparisons are presented to conventional airfoil shapes and peak lift-to-drag ratio increases between 17% and 41% are observed for similar section lift.
    Keywords: Aeronautics (General)
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76159 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: Pterodactyl is a NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) project focused on developing a design capabilityfor optimal, scalable, Guidance and Control (G&C) solutions that enable precision targeting for Deployable Entry Vehicles(DEVs). This feasibility study is unique in that it focuses on the rapid integration of targeting performance analysis withstructural &packaging analysis, which is especially challenging for new vehicle and mission designs. This paper will detailthe guidance development and trajectory design process for a lunar return mission, selected to stress the vehicle designsand encourage future scalability. For the five G&C configurations considered, the Fully Numerical Predictor-CorrectorEntry Guidance (FNPEG) was selected for configurations requiring bank angle guidance and FNPEG with Uncoupled
    Keywords: Spacecraft Instrumentation and Astrionics
    Type: JSC-E-DAA-TN76681 , AIAA SciTech 2019; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: A metric called the percent contribution was applied to regression models of temperature-dependent calibration data of a RUAG six-component block-type balance in order to assess the influence of temperature-dependent regression model terms on the balance load prediction. Regression models were examined that are needed if either the Iterative or the Non-Iterative Method is used for the load prediction. Computed values of the percent contribution confirmed that the cross-product term defined by a primary load and the temperature difference is the most influential temperature-dependent term of the regression model of a primary output that the Iterative Method needs. Similarly, the analysis showed that the cross-product term defined by a primary output and the temperature difference is the most influential temperature-dependent term of the regression model of a primary load that the Non-Iterative Method needs. Computed results support conclusions that were reported in an earlier theoretical study. This study asserted that the cross-product term defined by a primary load or output and the temperature difference models the temperature-dependent shift of the gage sensitivity. The influence of other temperature-dependent terms used in the regression models of the calibration data of RUAG's balance was negligible. This observation may be explained by the fact that RUAG's block-type balances have highly linear characteristics. Overall, the percent contribution has proven itself to be a reliable and easy-to-implement metric that may also be used for the assessment of the influence of temperature-dependent regression model terms on the load prediction of a six-component strain-gage balance.
    Keywords: Aerodynamics; Statistics and Probability
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN73131 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This paper investigates using machine learning to rapidly develop empirical models suitable for system-level aircraft noise studies. In particular, machine learning is used to train a neural network to predict the noise spectra produced by a round jet near a surface over a range of surface lengths, surface standoff distances, jet Mach numbers, and observer angles. These spectra include two sources, jet-mixing noise and jet-surface interaction (JSI) noise, with different scale factors as well as surface shielding and reflection effects to create a multi- dimensional problem. A second model is then trained using data from three rectangular nozzles to include nozzle aspect ratio in the spectral prediction. The training and validation data are from an extensive jet-surface interaction noise database acquired at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory. Although the number of training and validation points is small compared a typical machine learning application, the results of this investigation show that this approach is viable if the underlying data are well behaved.
    Keywords: Aircraft Propulsion and Power; Computer Programming and Software
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN75937 , AIAA SciTech 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Defining a feasible vehicle design and mission architecture capable of reliably delivering apayload of 20 metric tons (mt) or more is a great challenge for landing humans on Mars. TheMid Lift-to-Drag Rigid Vehicle (MRV), a rigid decelerator studied in NASAs Entry, Descent,and Landing Architecture Study (EDLAS), has shown to be a viable vehicle candidate forfuture human Mars missions. As the vehicle concept matures, models of increasing fidelity areadded to the six-degree-of-freedom (6DoF) EDL simulation. This paper presents 6DoFsimulation results using model updates for vehicle mass properties, fineness ratio, andaerodynamic-propulsive interactions. Additionally, an assessment of the Fractional-Polynomial Powered Descent Guidance (FP2DG) performance is presented, and the vehicleperformance is compared with the Tunable Apollo Powered Descent Guidance (TAPDG).Finally, Monte Carlo results of the vehicle design trades are presented.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: JSC-E-DAA-TN75777 , AIAA SciTech 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The key measurement to acquire for understanding unsteady flow is surface pressure. Unsteady Pressure-Sensitive Paint (uPSP) is an emerging optical technique used in wind tunnel testing to measure fluctuating surface pressures. Recently, tests were conducted on NASAs Space Launch System in NASA Ames Research Centers Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel to determine the aeroacoustics environment and assist in developing the buffet forcing functions. Unsteady PSP data was collected during this test campaign. Steady state PSP data, infrared thermography, shadowgraph, accelerometer data, and dynamic pressure transducer data were also collected. In all 50 TB of data were collected during the three days of testing. During these three days of testing, a repeating transonic and supersonic alpha sweep condition was acquired. This paper presents these two wind tunnel conditions and examines how the temperature influences the PSP data. In the first large demonstration of uPSP in 2015 on an NESC-, AETC-sponsored wind tunnel test, lifetime PSP results highlighted the influence the model temperature had on the PSP data. A best practice of heat soaking the model before acquiring calibration images was followed during the test campaign presented in this paper. An infrared thermography camera and thermocouples were installed in the model to collect more details of the model surface temperature. Data processing schemes for uPSP are still in development but will be briefly presented here as well.
    Keywords: Aerodynamics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76119 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 29
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    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Astrodynamics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76483 , AMS Annual Meeting; Jan 12, 2020 - Jan 16, 2020; Boston, MA; United States
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: The need to return high mass payloads is driving the development of a new class of vehicles, Deployable Entry Vehicles (DEV) for which feasible and optimized control architectures have not been developed. The Pterodactyl project, seeks to advance the current state-of-the-art for entry vehicles by developing a design, test, and build capability for DEVs that can be applied to various entry vehicle configurations. This paper details the efforts on the NASA-funded Pterodactyl project to investigate multiple control techniques for the Lifting Nano-ADEPT (LNA) DEV. We design and implement multiple control architectures on the LNA and evaluate their performance in achieving varying guidance commands during entry.First we present an overview of DEVs and the Lifting Nano-ADEPT (LNA), along with the physical LNA configuration that influences the different control designs. Existing state-of-the-art for entry vehicle control is primarily propulsive as reaction control systems (RCS) are widely employed. In this work, we analyze the feasibility of using both propulsive control systems such as RCS to generate moments, and non-propulsive control systems such as aerodynamic control surfaces and internal moving mass actuations to shift the LNA center of gravity and generate moments. For these diverse control systems, we design different multi-input multi-output (MIMO) state-feedback integral controllers based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) optimal control methods. The control variables calculated by the controllers vary, depending on the control system being utilized and the outputs to track for the controller are either the (i) bank angle or the (ii) angle of attack and sideslip angle as determined by the desired guidance trajectory. The LQR control design technique allows the relative allocation of the control variables through the choice of the weighting matrices in the cost index. Thus, it is easy to (i) specify which and how much of a control variable to use, and (ii) utilize one control design for different control architectures by simply modifying the choice of the weighting matrices.By providing a comparative analysis of multiple control systems, configurations, and performance, this paper and the Pterodactyl project as a whole will help entry vehicle system designers and control systems engineers determine suitable control architectures for integration with DEVs and other entry vehicle types.
    Keywords: Launch Vehicles and Launch Operations
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN69596 , AIAA SciTech Forum and Exposition; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: Urban Air Mobility (UAM) describes a new type of aviation focused on efficient flight within urban areas for moving people and goods. There are many different configurations of UAM vehicles, but they generally use an electric motor driving a propeller or ducted fan powered by batteries or a hybrid electric power generation system. Transmission cables are used to move energy from the storage or generation system to the electric motors. Though terrestrial power transmission cables are well established technology, aviation applications bring a whole host of new design challenges that are not typical considerations in terrestrial applications. Aircraft power transmission cable designs must compromise between resistance-per-length, weight-per-length, volume constraints, and other essential qualities. In this paper we use a multidisciplinary design optimization to explore the sensitivity of these qualities to a representative tiltwing turboelectric UAM aircraft concept. This is performed by coupling propulsion and thermal models for a given mission criteria. Results presented indicate that decreasing cable weight at the expense of increasing cable volume or cooling demand is effective at minimizing maximum takeoff weight (MTO). These findings indicate that subsystem designers should update their modeling approach in order to contribute to system-level optimality for highly-coupled novel aircraft. Mobility (UAM) vehicles have the potential to change urban and intra-urban transport in new and interesting ways. In a series of two papers Johnson et al.1 and Silva et al.2 presented four reference vehicle configurations that could service different niches in the UAM aviation category. Of those, this paper focuses on the Vertical Take-off and Landing (VTOL) tiltwing configuration shown in Figure 1. This configuration uses a turboelectric power system, feeding power from a turbo-generator through a system of transmission cables to four motors spinning large propellers on the wings. Previous work on electric cable subsystems leaves much yet to be explored, especially in the realm of subsystem coupling. Several aircraft optimization studies1, 3, 4 only considered aircraft electrical cable weight and ignored thermal effects. Electric and hybrid-electric aircraft studies by Mueller et al.5 and Hoelzen et al.6 selected a cable material but did not investigate alternative materials. Advanced cable materials have been examined by a number of authors: Alvarenga7 examined carbon nanotube (CNT) conductors for low-power applications. De Groh8, 9 examined CNT conductors for motor winding applications. Behabtu et al.,10 and Zhao et al.11 examined CNT conductors for a general applications. There were some studies that examined the thermal effects of cables but they did not allow the cable material to change; El-Kady12 optimized ground-cable insulation and cooling subject constraints. Vratny13 selected cable material based on vehicle power demand, and required resulting cable heat to be dissipated by the Thermal Management System (TMS). None of these previous studies allowed for the selection of the cable material based on a system level optimization goal. Instead, they focused on sub-system optimality such as minimum weight, which comes at the expense of incurring additional costs for other subsystems. Dama14 selected overhead transmission line materials using a weighting function and thermal constraints. However, that work was not coupled with any aircraft subsystems like a TMS. The traditional aircraft design approach, which relies on assembling groups of optimal subsystems, breaks down when considering novel aircraft concepts like the tiltwing vehicle. In a large part, this is because novel concepts have a much higher degree of interaction or coupling between subsystems. For example, when a cable creates heat, this heat needs to be dissipated by the TMS, which needs power supplied by the turbine, and delivering the power creates more heat. The cable, the TMS, and the turbine are all coupled. A change to one subsystem will affect all the other subsystems, much to the consternation of subsystem design experts. Multidisciplinary optimization is the design approach that can address these challenges. However, to fully take advantage of this, we must change the way we think about subsystem design. Specifically, we must move away from point design, and focus on creating solution spaces. The work presented in this paper uses the multidisciplinary optimization approach with aircraft level models to study the system-level sensitivity of cable traits: weight-per-length and resistance-per-length. Additionally, we examined the effects of vehicle imposed volume constraints on these traits. This is useful for three purposes: (1) to demonstrate a framework that can perform a coupled analysis between the aircraft thermal and propulsion systems, (2) to provide a method by which future cable designs can be evaluated against each other given a system-level design goal, (3) to provide insight into what cable properties may be promising for future research. This last element is explored given the caveat that the models contained in this analysis do not represent high-fidelity systems. Thus, while we can demonstrate coupling in between systems, the exact system-level sensitivity to a given parameter may change if a subsystem model or the assumptions governing that model change. The organization of this paper is as follows, in Sec II we outline a method to combine the VTOL vehicle design and cable information in order to produce cables sensitivity studies. Results analysis and discussion are contained in Sec III. Conclusions are presented in Sec IV.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN75458 , SciTech2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Geosciences (General); Social and Information Sciences (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76920 , 2020 ESIP Winter Meeting; Jan 07, 2020 - Jan 09, 2020; Bethesda, MD; United States
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: This is an update to the ongoing series of presentations tracking the state of domestic proton facility access for the purpose of single event effects (SEE) testing of microelectronics devices and systems. This includes proton research facilities and oncology therapy centers.
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76820 , JEDEC JC-13; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 09, 2020; New Orleans, LA; United States
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: Pterodactyl is a NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) project focused on developing a design capability for optimal, scalable, Guidance and Control (G&C) solutions that enable precision targeting for Deployable Entry Vehicles (DEVs). This feasibility study is unique in that it focuses on the rapid integration of targeting performance analysis with structural & packaging analysis, which is especially challenging for new vehicle and mission designs. This paper will detail the guidance development and trajectory design process for a lunar return mission, selected to stress the vehicle designs and encourage future scalability. For the five G&C configurations considered, the Fully Numerical Predictor-Corrector Entry Guidance (FNPEG) was selected for configurations requiring bank angle guidance and FNPEG with Uncoupled Range Control (URC) was developed for configurations requiring angle of attack and sideslip angle guidance. Successful G&C configurations are defined as those that can deliver payloads to the intended descent and landing initiation point, while abiding by trajectory constraints for nominal and dispersed trajectories.
    Keywords: Space Communications, Spacecraft Communications, Command and Tracking
    Type: JSC-E-DAA-TN75574 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 09, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: The bounded-impulse approach to low-thrust interplanetary trajectory optimization is widely used. In an effort to efficiently implement this approach using NASAs OpenMDAO optimization software, the authors have implemented implicit formulations of the forward shooting/backwards-shooting methods commonly used in bounded-impulse models. These implicit approaches allow for vectorization of the underlying calculations which can significantly reduce runtime in interpreted languages. An implicit approach may be either converged by using an underlying nonlinear solver to converge the state propagation, or as a constraint in an optimizer-driven multiple-shooting approach. Significant computational efficiency gains are realized through the utilization of the modular approach to unified derivatives. Further computational efficiency is achieved by capitalizing on the sparsity of the constraint Jacobian matrix. This work demonstrates that a vectorized multiple-shooting approach for propagating a state-time history is superior in terms of computational efficiency as the number of segments in the state-propagation is increased.
    Keywords: Numerical Analysis
    Type: AIAA 2020-2185 , GRC-E-DAA-TN75788 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: Intentions of humans revisiting the moon, exploring new planets, and the ever sought out goal of landing humans on Mars is a focus for NASA. With the most recent human missions being the Apollo missions in the 1960's-1970's, upgrades to previous landers are a continuing project. One of the most important and difficult parts of these missions is the landing. An unknown environment and terrain provide challenges for the crew or lander, that may result in broken instruments, overuse of fuel and worst of all, loss of life. The following paper highlights the work done to build a demo lidar scanner for landers and other spacecrafts that touchdown on an alien surface. This instrument intends to provide key information about the surface by creating a three-dimensional map of the terrain in a couple of seconds. Information that can then be used as feedback to the guidance computer and pilots to make an informed decision about a safe landing site. The work is being undertaking by a team at Goddard Spaceflight Center under the electro-mechanical systems branch, and the following represents the work done to create a prototype scanner.
    Keywords: Electronics and Electrical Engineering; Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN75161
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN76756 , American Astronomical Society Meeting; Jan 04, 2020 - Jan 08, 2020; Honolulu, HI; United States
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: This poster describes the function of the NASA ESDIS Standards Office, lists the findable, interoperable, accessible and the reusable standards that have been reviewed and endorsed for broader use in NASA data and information systems, and the impacts of these endorsed standards.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing; Administration and Management
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76884 , 2020 ESIP Winter Meeting; Jan 07, 2020 - Jan 09, 2020; Bethesda, MD; United States
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76438 , ESIP Winter Meeting; Jan 07, 2020 - Jan 09, 2020; Bethesda, MD; United States
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: As space exploration missions continue to get more complex, greater demands for mass and volume are being placed on planetary entry vehicles. At the same time, the desire for precision entry targeting to enable surface missions at very specific locations is becoming common. Deployable aeroshells are one type of technology that is being developed to increase the down-mass capability of planetary entry vehicles while complying with current launch vehicle volume constraints. Propulsive control can be used for precision entry targeting but can require a large percentage of the vehicle's total mass or volume for propellant. The Pterodactyl project is studying alternative entry control systems on a Deployable Entry Vehicle to potentially introduce a mass and volume efficient entry system that can achieve precision targeting. This paper presents the mechanical design work undertaken to support the Pterodactyl trade study of three entry vehicle control system options: 1) Flaps, 2) Mass Movement, and 3) Reaction Control System.
    Keywords: Launch Vehicles and Launch Operations
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76601 , AIAA SciTech 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: This paper considers the problem of robot-structure coupling dynamics during in-space robotic assembly of large flexible structures. A two-legged walking robot is used as a construction agent, whose primary goal is to stably walking on the flexible structure while carrying a substructure component to a designated location. The reaction forces inserted by the structure to the walking robot are treated as bounded disturbance inputs, and a trajectory tracking robotic controller is proposed that combines the standard full state feedback motion controller and an adaptive controller to account for the disturbance inputs. In this study, a reduced-order Euler-Bernoulli beam structure model is adapted, and a finite number of co-located sensors and actuators are distributed along the span of the beam structure. The robot-structure coupling forces are treated as a bounded external forcing function to the structure, and hence an output covariance constraint problem can be formulated, in terms of linear matrix inequality, for optimal structure control by utilizing the direct output feedback controllers. The numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed robot-structure modeling and control methodology.
    Keywords: Structural Mechanics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76401 , SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: The Pterodactyl project, seeks to advance the current state-of-the-art for entry vehicles by developing novel guidance and control technologies for Deployable Entry Vehicles (DEVs) that can be applied to various entry vehicle configurations. This paper details the efforts on the NASA-funded Pterodactyl project to investigate and implement multiple control techniques for an asymmetric mechanical DEV. We design multiple control architectures for a Pterodactyl Baseline Vehicle (PBV) and evaluate their performance in achieving varying guidance commands during entry. The control architectures studied are (i) propulsive control systems such as reaction control systems and (ii) non-propulsive control systems such as aerodynamic control surfaces and internal moving masses. For each system, state-feedback integral controllers based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) optimal control methods are designed to track guidance commands of either (i) bank angle or (ii) angle of attack and sideslip angle as determined by the desired guidance trajectory. All control systems are compared for a lunar return reference mission and by providing a comparative analysis of these systems, configurations, and performance, the efforts detailed in this paper and the Pterodactyl project as a whole will help entry vehicle system designers determine suitable control architectures for integration with DEVs and other entry vehicle types.
    Keywords: Space Communications, Spacecraft Communications, Command and Tracking
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76143 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: A study was undertaken to investigate the CO & soot emissions generated by a partially-fueled 9- element LDI (Lean-Direct Injection) combustor configuration operating in the idle range of jet engine conditions. In order to perform the CFD analysis, several existing soot/chemistry models were implemented into the OpenNCC (Open National Combustion Code). The calculations were based on a Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) simulation with standard k-epsilon turbulence model, a 62- species jet-a/air chemistry, a 2-equation soot model, & a Lagrangian spray solver. A separate transport equation was solved for all individual species involved in jet-a/air combustion. In the test LDI configuration we examined, only five of the nine injectors were fueled with the major pilot injector operating at an equivalence ratio of near one and the other four main injectors operating at an equivalence ratio near 0.55. The calculations helped to identify several reasons behind the soot & CO formation in different regions of the combustor. The predicted results were compared with the reported experimental data on soot mass concentration (SMC) & emissions index of CO (EICO). The experimental results showed that an increase in either T3 and/or F/A ratio lead to a reduction in both EICO & SMC. The predicted results were found to be in reasonable agreement. However, the predicted EICO differed substantially in one test condition associated with higher F/A ratio.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: AIAA 2020-2088 , GRC-E-DAA-TN75696 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2020-01-14
    Description: A rotating detonation engine (RDE) configuration whereby the working fluid enters and exits in a predominantly radial manner is examined using a quasi-two-dimensional computational fluid dynamic simulation. The simulation, based on a Cartesian coordinate system, was originally developed to examine the physics and performance of the more typical annular RDE. Modifications required to accommodate the radial and circumferential flowfield are discussed. The centripetal forces that arise in this disk RDE (DRDE) configuration create a different wave structure than that seen in the annular RDE. They also give rise to markedly different fluid behavior depending on whether the flow is radially inward or radially outward. Using an entropy-based measure of pressure gain, it is found that for the preliminary idealized calculations performed in this paper, the inward flowing DRDE outperforms the outward flowing variant. The inward flowing DRDE is further shown to outperform the equivalent annular RDE. The effects on performance of several parameters are examined, including inner-to-outer diameter ratio, inner-to-outer cross-sectional area ratio, and inlet throat-to-channel area ratio.
    Keywords: Aircraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: AIAA 2020-2157 , GRC-E-DAA-TN75670 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2020-01-14
    Description: Benefits of the Integrated Demand Management (IDM) concept were assessed utilizing a newly developed automated simulation capability called Traffic Management Initiative Automated Simulation (TMIAutoSim). The IDM concept focuses on improving traffic flow management (TFM) by coordinating the FAAs strategic Traffic Flow Management System (TFMS) with its more tactical Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system. The IDM concept leverages a new TFMS capability called Collaborative Trajectory Options Program (CTOP) to strategically pre-condition traffic demand flowing into a TBFM-managed arrival environment, where TBFM is responsible for tactically managing traffic by generating precise arrival schedules. The IDM concept was developed over a multi-year effort, focusing on solving New York metroplex airport arrival problems. TMIAutoSim closely mimics NASAs high-fidelity simulation capabilities while enabling more data to be collected at higher speed. Using this new capability, the IDM concept was evaluated using realistic traffic across various weather scenarios. Six representative weather days were selected after clustering three months of historical data. For those selected six days, Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) and LaGuardia Airport (LGA) arrival traffic scenarios were developed. For each selected day, the historical data were analyzed to accurately simulate actual operations and the weather impact of the day. The current day operations and the IDM concept operations were simulated for the same weather scenarios and the results were compared. The selected six days were categorized into two groups: clear weather for days without Ground Delay Programs (GDP) and convective weather for days with GDP and significant weather around New York metroplex airports. For the clear weather scenarios, IDM operations reduced last minute, unanticipated departure delays for short-haul flights within TBFM control boundaries with minimal to no impact on throughput and total delay. For the convective weather scenarios, IDM significantly reduced delays and increased throughput to the destination airports.
    Keywords: Air Transportation and Safety
    Type: AIAA 2020-1400 , ARC-E-DAA-TN75814 , AIAA SciTech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2019-12-14
    Description: In 1988 DARPA provided funding to NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center to support the development of GaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIP). The goal was to make a single element photodetector that might be expandable to a two-dimensional array format. Ultimately, this led to the development of a 128 x 128 element array in collaboration with AT&T Bell Labs and Rockwell Science Center in 1990. We continued to develop numerous generations of QWIP arrays most recently resulting in the multi-QWIP focal plane for the NASA-US Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat 8 mission launched in 2013 and a similar instrument on the Landsat 9 mission to be launched in 2020. Toward the end of the Landsat 8 QWIP-based Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) instrument the potential of the newly developed Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS) detector array technology became of great interest to NASA for three primary reasons: 1) higher operating temperature; 2) broad spectral response and; 3) higher sensitivity. We have collaborated extensively with QmagiQ, LLC and Northwestern University to further pursue and advance the SLS technology ever since we started back in 2012. In December of 2018 we launched the first SLS-based IR camera system to the International Space Station on board the Robotic Refueling Mission #3 (RRM3). This paper will describe the evolution of QWIP technology leading to the current development of SLS-based imaging systems at the Goddard Space Flight Center over the past 30 years.
    Keywords: Engineering (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN75338 , SPIE Photonics West; Dec 10, 2019; San Francisco, CA
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: In this work we examine a multigrid preconditioning approach in the context of a high- order tensor-product discontinuous-Galerkin spectral-element solver. We couple multigrid ideas together with memory lean and efficient tensor-product preconditioned matrix-free smoothers. Block ILU(0)-preconditioned GMRES smoothers are employed on the coarsest spaces. The performance is evaluated on nonlinear problems arising from unsteady scale- resolving solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations: separated low-Mach unsteady ow over an airfoil from laminar to turbulent ow. A reduction in the number of ne space iterations is observed, which proves the efficiency of the approach in terms of preconditioning the linear systems, however this gain was not reflected in the CPU time. Finally, the preconditioner is successfully applied to problems characterized by stiff source terms such as the set of RANS equations, where the simple tensor product preconditioner fails. Theoretical justification about the findings is reported and future work is outlined.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76312 , AIAA SciTech 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN76613 , American Meteorological Society (AMS) Annual Meeting; Jan 12, 2020 - Jan 16, 2020; Boston, MA; United States
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: A multiple shaker placement methodology is developed and tested using a topology optimization technique. Current multiple shaker placement methodology requires optimum accelerometer placement and optimum single-shaker placement techniques. The proposed methodology is tested using a finite element model of the X-59 Low Boom Flight Demonstrator aircraft. The effective independence and the driving point acceleration transfer function (DPATF) methods are used for the accelerometer placement study. In this study, four shakers are used to excite each mode more effectively during the ground vibration test; all the modes of interest thus are separated into four groups. Each shaker takes care of a separate group of modes. Grouping the modes of interest is performed utilizing topology optimization. The number of modes for each group therefore will be automatically decided during grouping. For each group of modes, perform the following two steps to determine optimal location of four shakers: 1) At each accelerometer location, compare the magnitude of DPATF values at natural frequencies, select the minimum value, and make a vector with these minimum values of the DPATF magnitudes for each group; and 2) Select the degrees of freedom corresponding to the maximum value of this vector. The objective function value is the maximum value of the vector with minimum value of the magnitude of the superposed acceleration transfer function. This objective function value is maximized by changing the modes for each group. Forty accelerometers are enough to have good correlation between mode shapes obtained from the reduced order model and the simulated ground vibration test.
    Keywords: Numerical Analysis; Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: AFRC-E-DAA-TN73257 , SciTech 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 50
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: The Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) airborne science project based out of NASA Ames Research Center performed eight science flights in coordination with the California Baseline Ozone Transport Study (CABOTS) campaign. Many of these flights included a series of vertical profiles (~ 0-5 km) distributed roughly along either a North/South or East/West transect. Some flights also connected the fixed-location measurements at Visalia (TOPAZ ozone lidar) and Bodega Bay (ozonesondes). AJAX measured ozone, carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and 3-D winds on each flight, and those in situ measurements are the basis of the data sets collected here. Trace gas data sets including time and aircraft position have been delivered as comma-separated-value text files. Meteorological data (temperature, pressure and 3-dimensional winds) are provided at 1 Hz in ICARTT-compliant text files.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN77025
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: The proposed poster will highlight two NASA developed entry technologies that are enablers for Ice Giant Missions. They are: (1) Heat-shield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET), and (2) Adaptable, Deployable, Entry, and Placement Technology (ADEPT), a mechanically deployable entry system. HEEET development is complete and is at TRL 6. HEEET is ready for Ice Giant in situ probe missions, and HEEET is an enabler for either direct ballistic entry or entry from Orbit. NASA plans to sustain the HEEET capability as it is needed for Venus, Saturn and higher speed sample return missions in addition to Ice Giant Missions. The emerging recognition among the scientific community that by delivering the probe from orbit will allow for simultaneous in-situ and orbital measurement can be enabled by aerocapture using ADEPT. The drag modulated aerocapture (DMA) with ADEPT is the simplest approach that can deliver an orbiter and probe together and without the significant penalty associated with propulsive insertion. Studies performed by JPL and NASA Ames teams point to this very promising possibility. Numerous DMA with ADEPT studies point to its applicability to small spacecraft missions as well as Ice Giant missions. The poster will present the current state of readiness of HEEET, ADEPT and DMA.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76382 , Ice Giants Systems; Jan 20, 2020 - Jan 22, 2020; London, England; United Kingdom
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN76760 , AMS Annual Meeting; Jan 12, 2020 - Jan 16, 2020; Boston, MA; United States
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: The highest priority science goals for Ice Giant missions are: 1) Interior structure of the Planet, and 2) Bulk composition that includes isotopes and noble gases. The interaction between the planetary interior and the atmosphere requires sustained global measurements. Noble gas and Isotope measurements require in situ measurement. Drag modulated aerocapture utilizing ADEPT offers more mass delivered to the Ice Giants than with propulsive orbit insertion. The Galileo Probe entered at a hot spot which created interpretation challenges. Juno is providing valuable orbital measurements, but without in situ measurements the story is incomplete. Planetary scientists interested in Ice Giant missions should perform mission design studies with these new Entry System technologies to assess the feasibility within the context of the international collaboration framework. A mission architecture that includes probe(s) along with an orbiting spacecraft can deploy the probes at the desired location while taking simultaneous measurements from orbit to provide invaluable data that can correlate both global and local measurements. Entry System Technologies currently being developed by NASA are poised to enable missions that position the Orbiter & Probes through drag modulated aerocapture (ADEPT), and HEEET enables the Probes to survive the extreme environments encountered for entry into the atmospheric interior.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN77152 , Ice Giants Systems; Jan 20, 2020 - Jan 22, 2020; London, England; United Kingdom
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: The presentation discusses operational suitability metrics computed from the closed-loop simulations of EO/IR and DAA systems.
    Keywords: Air Transportation and Safety
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN77133 , SC-228 (Minimum Performance Standards for Unmanned Aircraft Systems) Working Group 1 EO/IR Subworking Group; Jan 14, 2020; Washington, DC; United States
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2020-01-24
    Description: This paper determined the feasibility of an adaptive hexapod simulator motion algorithm based on aircraft roll stability. An experiment was conducted that used a transport aircraft model in the Vertical Motion Simulator at NASA Ames Research Center. Eighteen general aviation pilots flew a heading-capture task and a stall task consecutively under four motion configurations: baseline hexapod, adaptive hexapod, optimized hexapod, and full motion. The adaptive motion was more similar to the baseline hexapod motion in the heading-capture task when the aircraft was more stable, and more similar to the optimized hexapod motion in the stall task when the aircraft was more unstable. Pilot motion ratings and task performance in the heading-capture task under the adaptive hexapod motion were more similar to baseline hexapod motion compared to optimized hexapod motion. However, motion ratings and task performance in the stall task under the adaptive motion were not significantly more similar to the optimized hexapod motion compared to baseline hexapod motion. Motion ratings and overall task performance under optimized hexapod motion as opposed to baseline hexapod motion were always more similar to the full motion condition. This paper showed that adaptive motion based on aircraft stability is feasible and can be implemented in a straightforward way. More research is required to test the adaptive motion algorithm in different tasks.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: AIAA 2020-2268 , ARC-E-DAA-TN76664 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 56
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: This presentation provides an overview of a range of perspectives on risk in the development and operation of space systems. It also introduces the concept of risk-based safety and mission assurance.
    Keywords: Quality Assurance and Reliability
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN75623 , NSC Webinar; Jan 15, 2020; Cleveland, OH; United States
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Social and Information Sciences (General)
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN76765 , AMS Annual Meeting; Jan 12, 2020 - Jan 16, 2020; Boston, MA; United States
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Law, Political Science and Space Policy; Space Transportation and Safety
    Type: JSC-E-DAA-TN76975 , IAA Conference on Space Situational Awareness (ICSSA); Jan 14, 2020 - Jan 16, 2020; Washington, DC; United States
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: Favorable indications of massive quantities of water on Mars have initiated studies of potential changes to human Mars missions. Using a technique known as a Rodriguez Well to melt the ice, store the resulting water in a subsurface ice cavity until needed, and then pump water to the surface for use is one potential means to effect these changes. A computer simulation of the Rodriguez Well in a terrestrial environment is one of the engineering tools being used to characterize the performance of this type of well on Mars. An experiment at the NASA Johnson Space Center is gathering data for convective heat transfer and evaporation rates at Mars surface conditions so that this computer simulation can be properly modified to predict performance on Mars. While quantitative results await processing, tests have indicated that a pool of water can be maintained at 1C to 2 C while at Mars surface temperatures and pressures.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: JSC-E-DAA-TN74283 , International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration; Jan 13, 2020 - Jan 17, 2020; Tierr del Fuego; Argentina
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2020-01-01
    Description: The SPLICE project is continuing NASAs efforts to develop precision landing GN&C technologies for future lander missions. One of those technologies is the next generation Hazard Detection (HD) System, which consists of a new HD Lidar and HD Algorithms. The HD System is a modular system that will be adapted to meet specific mission needs in the future. This paper presents the design approach, the nominal concept of operations for which the first prototype is being designed, and the expected performance of the system.
    Keywords: Engineering (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76321 , AIAA Scitech Forum 2019; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Aeronautics (General)
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN77000 , AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop; Jan 04, 2020 - Jan 05, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN76715 , AMS Annual Meeting; Jan 12, 2020 - Jan 16, 2020; Boston, MA; United States
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: Adjoint models are powerful tools that can be used to estimate the impact of observations on a chosen norm for numerical weather prediction forecasts. In this study, the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (NASA/GMAO) Observing System Simulation Experiment framework is employed to investigate the behavior of the adjoint tool in an environment where the 'true' state of the atmosphere is fully known. This allows for the calculation of adjoint estimates of observation impact for very short forecast times including the zero-hour analysis state. The adjoint calculations using self-analysis verification can also be compared to adjoint calculations using the 'truth' as verification in order to characterize the robustness of adjoint estimations in the operational setting. Results from a experiments exploring various aspects of performance of the adjoint tool will be presented.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76951 , AMS Annual Meeting; Jan 12, 2020 - Jan 16, 2020; Boston, MA; United States
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN76754 , AMS Annual Meeting; Jan 12, 2020 - Jan 16, 2020; Boston, MA; United States
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Physics (General); Aerodynamics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76890 , AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop; Jan 04, 2020 - Jan 05, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: Some of the most intense thunderstorms on the planet occur in the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) region of South-Central Asia. NASA/SERVIR Applied Sciences Team competitive project to develop capacity of severe thunderstorm monitoring and forecasting tool for HKH. Project Goal: Use [NASA] modeling and remote-sensing assets to build early warning capabilities and facilitate timely disaster response for high impact weather events in the HKH region. Specific objectives: 1. Prototype and transition High-Impact Weather Assessment Toolkit (HIWAT) 2. Jointly develop HIWAT capabilities & training with SERVIRs hub in Kathmandu, Nepal: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) 3. Demonstrate capacity in end-user environment 4. Transition HIWAT system to ICIMOD for future maintenance.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN76785 , AMS Annual Meeting; Jan 12, 2020 - Jan 16, 2020; Boston, MA; United States
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN76637 , AMS Annual Meeting; Jan 12, 2020 - Jan 16, 2020; Boston, MA; United States
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: The Olympic Mountains Experiment and Radar Definition Experiment (OLYMPEX/RADEX) took place Fall 2015 Spring 2016 in Washington, United States. The Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) was flown on NASA ER-2 aircraft during science flights. This poster summarizes advancements in geophysical retrievals using AMPR data from OLYMPEX/RADEX. Calm ocean has low emissivity at microwave frequencies; wind creates foam increases emissivity. Liquid hydrometeors in atmosphere generally yield higher brightness temperature (T(sub b)) due to their higher reflectance. Effect of liquid hydrometeors depends highly on frequency resonance increases with increasing frequency, as does absorption (e.g., due to water vapor). Retrieve cloud liquid water (CLW), water vapor (WV), and 10-m wind speed (WS) using multiple T(sub b).
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN76718 , AMS Annual Meeting; Jan 12, 2020 - Jan 16, 2020; Boston, MA; United States
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: The shape of the nonlinear relationship between evapotranspiration and soil moisture (the "ET-W relationship") helps control the evolution of soil moisture with time. Together, the shape of the relationship and the magnitude of the soil moisture anomaly at the beginning of a subseasonal forecast help determine whether a given anomaly will still be present at subseasonal leads, allowing it to contribute to skill in subseasonal temperature and precipitation prediction at those leads. In this study we examine subseasonal prediction in the context of soil moisture initialization using a suite of forecasts performed with the NASA GEOS seasonal forecast system. Large soil moisture anomalies are in fact found to be harbingers of increased skill in the subseasonal forecasts. Furthermore, accounting explicitly for the nonlinear shape of the ET-W relationship improves our ability to quantity the increase in forecast reliability associated with soil moisture initialization.
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76878 , AMS Annual Meeting; Jan 12, 2020 - Jan 16, 2020; Boston, MA; United States
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: The NASA Risk Informed Decision Making process is used to assess a trade space of three dimensionally woven thermal protection systems for application to the Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle. Candidate architectures are assessed based on mission assurance, technical development, cost, and schedule risk. Assessment methodology differed between the architectures, utilizing a four-point quantitative scale for mission assurance and technical development and highly tailored PERT techniques for cost and schedule. Risk results are presented, in addition to a review of RIDM effectiveness for this application.
    Keywords: Administration and Management
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76633 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: This paper discusses a wind tunnel experiment of active gust load alleviation of a flexible wing which took place at University of Washington (UW) in 2019. The experiment performed under a NASA SBIR contract with Scientific Systems Company, Inc (SSCI). The objective of the experiment is to demonstrate active controls of the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system for gust load alleviation and real-time drag optimization. The wind tunnel model is a 8.2% sub-scale Common Research Model (CRM) wing. The wing structure is designed to provide a substantial degree of flexibility to represent that of a modern high-aspect ratio wing. Eight active control surfaces are employed in the VCCTEF. A new gust generator system was designed and installed by UW under a sub-contract with SSCI. The first test entry started in July 2019 and ended in September 2019. During this test entry, many significant issues were found with the hardware and software. The significant issues with the servos prevented the test objective from being completed. A follow-up second test entry in 2020 is being planned. The wing system is being repaired by SSCI. This paper reports on the progress of this experimental effort and the aeroservoelastic (ASE) model validation which was conducted during the test entry.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: AIAA 2020-0214 , ARC-E-DAA-TN76417 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: A measurement of planetary occurrence rates based on a planet catalog should be robust against details of how initial detections were classified as planets or false positives. This is accomplished by supplying the catalogs rate of missed planets (completeness) and rate of non-planets incorrectly called planets (reliability). The final Kepler data release (DR25) includes products that can be used with the DR25 planet candidate catalog to correct for completeness and reliability in occurrence rate estimates. This is made possible by the Kepler Robovetter, which algorithmically and uniformly selects planets based on a variety of metrics and thresholds. Completeness, reliability, and occurrence rates potentially depend on these Robovetter thresholds. We study the impact of varying these vetting thresholds using the techniques of Bryson et al. 2019 (arXiv:1906.03575). We explore sets of thresholds that result in more or fewer planets (trading off completeness for reliability), as well as thresholds tuned to pass DR25 false positives identified as possible planets by the Kepler False Positive Working Group. We find that when correcting only for completeness, and not reliability, the resulting occurrence rates have a strong dependence on these threshold sets. For example, the value of SAG13 eta-Earth varies by over a factor of 4 when not corrected for reliability. However, when correcting for both completeness and reliability, occurrence rates using our threshold sets are statistically indistinguishable, with differences being well inside 1-sigma error bars. We present occurrence rates integrated over several period-radius ranges. For example, SAG13 eta-Earth is consistent with 0.127 (+0.094)(-0.054) (from Bryson et al. 2019) for all the Robovetter threshold sets. This result emphasizes the importance of correcting occurrence rates for both completeness and reliability. This suggests that inconsistent completeness and reliability correction may be a significant contributor to the large variation of occurrence rates in recent literature. We plan to make the Robovetter results for our threshold sets available, and encourage the community to use them to examine whether other occurrence rate methods yield similarly robust results.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN75923 , Meeting of the American Astronomical Society; Jan 04, 2020 - Jan 08, 2020; Honolulu; United States
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) are responsible for much of the precipitation along the west coast of the United States. In order to accurately predict AR events in numerical weather prediction, subseasonal and seasonal timescales, it is important to understand the large-scale meteorological influence on extreme AR events.Here, characteristics of ARs that result in an extreme precipitation event are compared to typical ARs on the coast of WashingtonState. In addition to more intense water vapor transport, notable differences in the synoptic forcing are present during extreme precipitation events that are not present during typical AR events.In particular, a negatively tilted low pressure system is positioned to the west in the Gulf of Alaska, alongside an upper level jet streak. Subseasonal and seasonal teleconnection patterns are known to influence the weather in the Pacific Northwest. The Madden JulianOscillation (MJO) is shown to be particularly important in determining the strength of precipitation associated with in AR ont he Washington coast.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76948
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: AFRC-E-DAA-TN76690 , SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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