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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-08-01
    Description: The InSight spacecraft was proposed to be a build-to-print copy of the Phoenix vehicle due to the knowledge that the lander payload would be similar and the trajectory would be similar. However, the InSight aerothermal analysts, based on tests performed in CO2 during the Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL) and completion of Russian databases, considered radiative heat flux to the aftbody from the wake for the first time for a US Mars mission. The combined convective and radiative heat flux was used to determine if the as-flown Phoenix thermal protection system (TPS) design would be sufficient for InSight. All analyses showed that the design would be adequate. Once the InSight lander was successfully delivered to Mars on November 26, 2018, work began to reconstruct the atmosphere and trajectory in order to evaluate the aerothermal environments that were actually encountered by the spacecraft and to compare them to the design environments.The best estimated trajectory (BET) reconstructed for the InSight atmospheric entry fell between the two trajectories considered for the design, when looking at the velocity versus altitude values. The maximum heat rate design trajectory (MHR) flew at a higher velocity and the maximum heat load design trajectory (MHL) flew at a lower velocity than the BET. For TPS sizing, the MHL trajectory drove the design. Reconstruction has shown that the BET flew for a shorter time than either of the design environments, hence total heat load on the vehicle should have been less than used in design. Utilizing the BET, both DPLR and LAURA were first run to analyze the convective heating on the vehicle with no angle of attack. Both codes were run with axisymmetric, laminar flow in radiative equilibrium and vibrational non-equilibrium with a surface emissivity of 0.8. Eight species Mitcheltree chemistry was assumed with CO2, CO, N2, O2, NO, C, N, and O. Both codes agreed within 1% on the forebody and had the expected differences on the aftbody. The NEQAIR and HARA codes were used to analyze the radiative heating on the vehicle using full spherical ray-tracing. The codes agreed within 5% on most aftbody points of interest.The LAURA code was then used to evaluate the conditions at angle of attack at the peak heating and peak pressure times. Boundary layer properties were investigated to confirm that the flow over the forebody was laminar for the flight.Comparisons of the aerothermal heating determined for the reconstructed trajectory to the design trajectories showed that the as-flown conditions were less severe than design
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN69598 , AIAA SciTech 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-10-12
    Description: This paper describes the plans, flows, key facilities, components and equipment necessary to fully integrate, functionally test and qualify the Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) Observatory. PACE is currently in the design phase of mission implementation. It is scheduled to launch in 2022, extending and improving NASA's twenty-year record of satellite observations of global ocean biology, aerosols and clouds. PACE will advance the assessment of ocean health by measuring the distribution of phytoplankton, which are small plants and algae that sustain the marine food web. It will also continue systematic records of key atmospheric variables associated with air quality and the Earth's climate. The PACE observatory is comprised of the spacecraft and three instruments, an Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) and two polarimeters, the Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter 2 (HARP2) and the Spectro-Polarimeter for Exploration (SPEXone). The spacecraft and the OCI, which is the primary instrument, are developed and integrated at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The OCI is a hyper-spectral scanning (HSS) radiometer designed to measure spectral radiances from the ultraviolet to shortwave infrared (SWIR) to enable advanced ocean color and heritage cloud and aerosol particle science. The HARP2 and SPEXone are secondary instruments on the PACE observatory, acquired outside of GSFC. The Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter instrument (HARP2) is a wide swath imaging polarimeter that is capable of characterizing atmospheric aerosols for purposes of sensor atmospheric correction as well as atmospheric science. The SPEXone provides atmospheric aerosol and cloud data at high temporal and spatial resolution. This paper will focus on the Integration and Test (I&T) activities for the PACE mission at NASA GSFC. This I&T phase consists of mechanical, electrical and thermal integration and test of all the spacecraft subsystems and the integration of the instruments with the spacecraft. The PACE observatory environmental tests include electromagnetic interference (EMI)/electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), vibration, acoustics, shock, thermal balance, thermal vacuum, mass properties and center of gravity. This paper will also discuss the observatory shipment to the launch site as well as the launch site processing.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance; Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN73647 , IEEE Aerospace Conference; Mar 07, 2020 - Mar 14, 2020; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-12-07
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: JSC-E-DAA-TN75491
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-12-14
    Description: In 1988 DARPA provided funding to NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center to support the development of GaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIP). The goal was to make a single element photodetector that might be expandable to a two-dimensional array format. Ultimately, this led to the development of a 128 x 128 element array in collaboration with AT&T Bell Labs and Rockwell Science Center in 1990. We continued to develop numerous generations of QWIP arrays most recently resulting in the multi-QWIP focal plane for the NASA-US Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat 8 mission launched in 2013 and a similar instrument on the Landsat 9 mission to be launched in 2020. Toward the end of the Landsat 8 QWIP-based Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) instrument the potential of the newly developed Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS) detector array technology became of great interest to NASA for three primary reasons: 1) higher operating temperature; 2) broad spectral response and; 3) higher sensitivity. We have collaborated extensively with QmagiQ, LLC and Northwestern University to further pursue and advance the SLS technology ever since we started back in 2012. In December of 2018 we launched the first SLS-based IR camera system to the International Space Station on board the Robotic Refueling Mission #3 (RRM3). This paper will describe the evolution of QWIP technology leading to the current development of SLS-based imaging systems at the Goddard Space Flight Center over the past 30 years.
    Keywords: Engineering (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN75338 , SPIE Photonics West; Dec 10, 2019; San Francisco, CA
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-01-01
    Description: The SPLICE project is continuing NASAs efforts to develop precision landing GN&C technologies for future lander missions. One of those technologies is the next generation Hazard Detection (HD) System, which consists of a new HD Lidar and HD Algorithms. The HD System is a modular system that will be adapted to meet specific mission needs in the future. This paper presents the design approach, the nominal concept of operations for which the first prototype is being designed, and the expected performance of the system.
    Keywords: Engineering (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76321 , AIAA Scitech Forum 2019; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: A computational study of a gust field generated by a gust generator in a low-speed wind tunnel. The gust generator is designed for the University of Washington Aeronautical Laboratory (UWAL) Kirsten wind tunnel for a gust load alleviation (GLA) control experiment of a Common Research Model (CRM) flexible wing utilizing the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF). The gust generator comprises four horizontal NACA 0015 gust generator vanes placed upstream of the test section. Computational fluid dynamics simulations using a two-dimensional (2D) Unsteady-Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes (URANS) with k- Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model provide detailed time-resolved information about the generated flow by the gust generator under prescribed sinusoidal motion. The characteristics of the induced flow by the gust generator are analyzed. A gust propagation model of the gust field is investigated. An unsteady lift model is developed using a varying-fidelity approach which includes a 2D interference aerodynamic model of the combined gust generator-wing system. The computed integrated unsteady lift is compared to experimental data for validation of the unsteady lift model. Both the amplitude and transport delay are found to be accurately captured by the unsteady lift model.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance; Computer Programming and Software
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76430 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: A metric called the percent contribution was applied to regression models of temperature-dependent calibration data of a RUAG six-component block-type balance in order to assess the influence of temperature-dependent regression model terms on the balance load prediction. Regression models were examined that are needed if either the Iterative or the Non-Iterative Method is used for the load prediction. Computed values of the percent contribution confirmed that the cross-product term defined by a primary load and the temperature difference is the most influential temperature-dependent term of the regression model of a primary output that the Iterative Method needs. Similarly, the analysis showed that the cross-product term defined by a primary output and the temperature difference is the most influential temperature-dependent term of the regression model of a primary load that the Non-Iterative Method needs. Computed results support conclusions that were reported in an earlier theoretical study. This study asserted that the cross-product term defined by a primary load or output and the temperature difference models the temperature-dependent shift of the gage sensitivity. The influence of other temperature-dependent terms used in the regression models of the calibration data of RUAG's balance was negligible. This observation may be explained by the fact that RUAG's block-type balances have highly linear characteristics. Overall, the percent contribution has proven itself to be a reliable and easy-to-implement metric that may also be used for the assessment of the influence of temperature-dependent regression model terms on the load prediction of a six-component strain-gage balance.
    Keywords: Aerodynamics; Statistics and Probability
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN73131 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 8
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance; Cybernetics, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76689
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: This paper considers the problem of robot-structure coupling dynamics during in-space robotic assembly of large flexible structures. A two-legged walking robot is used as a construction agent, whose primary goal is to stably walking on the flexible structure while carrying a substructure component to a designated location. The reaction forces inserted by the structure to the walking robot are treated as bounded disturbance inputs, and a trajectory tracking robotic controller is proposed that combines the standard full state feedback motion controller and an adaptive controller to account for the disturbance inputs. In this study, a reduced-order Euler-Bernoulli beam structure model is adapted, and a finite number of co-located sensors and actuators are distributed along the span of the beam structure. The robot-structure coupling forces are treated as a bounded external forcing function to the structure, and hence an output covariance constraint problem can be formulated, in terms of linear matrix inequality, for optimal structure control by utilizing the direct output feedback controllers. The numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed robot-structure modeling and control methodology.
    Keywords: Structural Mechanics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76401 , SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: The NASA Risk Informed Decision Making process is used to assess a trade space of three dimensionally woven thermal protection systems for application to the Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle. Candidate architectures are assessed based on mission assurance, technical development, cost, and schedule risk. Assessment methodology differed between the architectures, utilizing a four-point quantitative scale for mission assurance and technical development and highly tailored PERT techniques for cost and schedule. Risk results are presented, in addition to a review of RIDM effectiveness for this application.
    Keywords: Administration and Management
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76633 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: As aircraft move to using composite materials as their primary structure they become lighter and more flexible as well. This presents some significant challenges in association with gust load alleviation. In this paper we develop an aeroservoelastic model for use in developing controllers that utilize distributed control surfaces for active gust load alleviation in a set of wind tunnel experiments. The model is based on an preexisting aeroelastic wing tunnel model and compares the baseline functionality to it. We also provide simple full state feedback simulations for the model.
    Keywords: Aerodynamics
    Type: AIAA 2020-0211 , ARC-E-DAA-TN76375 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: This paper covers the design and first measurements of non-perturbative, external inductive magnetic diagnostics for arcjet constrictors which can measure the motion of the arc current channel. These measurements of arc motion are motivated by previous simulations using the ARC Heater Simulator (ARCHeS), which predicted unsteady arc motion due to the magnetic kink instability. Measurements of the kink instability are relevant to characterizing motion of the enthalpy profile of the arcjet, the arcjet operational stability, and electrode damage due to associated arc detachment events. These first measurements indicate 4 mm oscillations at 0.5-2 kHz of the current profile.
    Keywords: Plasma Physics
    Type: AIAA 2020-0919 , ARC-E-DAA-TN76208 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) are responsible for much of the precipitation along the west coast of the United States. In order to accurately predict AR events in numerical weather prediction, subseasonal and seasonal timescales, it is important to understand the large-scale meteorological influence on extreme AR events.Here, characteristics of ARs that result in an extreme precipitation event are compared to typical ARs on the coast of WashingtonState. In addition to more intense water vapor transport, notable differences in the synoptic forcing are present during extreme precipitation events that are not present during typical AR events.In particular, a negatively tilted low pressure system is positioned to the west in the Gulf of Alaska, alongside an upper level jet streak. Subseasonal and seasonal teleconnection patterns are known to influence the weather in the Pacific Northwest. The Madden JulianOscillation (MJO) is shown to be particularly important in determining the strength of precipitation associated with in AR ont he Washington coast.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76948
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2020-01-21
    Description: Habitable Exoplanet Observatory Mission (HabEx) will image & spectroscopically characterize planetary systems in the habitable zone around nearby sun-like stars. Additionally, HabEx will perform a broad range of general astrophysics science enabled by a 150 to 1700 nm spectral range and 3 x 3 arc-minute FOV. Critical to achieving the HabEx science goals is a large, ultra-stable telescope. The baseline HabEx telescope is a 4-m off-axis unobscured three-mirror-anastigmatic design with diffraction limited performance at 400 nm and wavefront stability of picometers per mK. These specifications are driven by science requirements. STOP (structural thermal optical performance) analysis predicts that the baseline telescopes opto-mechanical design meets its specified performance tolerances.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN75627 , American Astronomical Society Meeting; Jan 04, 2020 - Jan 08, 2020; Honolulu, HI; United States
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: This work seeks to experimentally validate a modified Paschen law which takes into account the effects of electron-ion pair removal between two electrodes within a dynamic gas medium. A test facility has been designed and fabricated in order to create supersonic flow conditions within the test section. Custom designed electrodes are mounted into the test section at desired gap distances. A power supply is utilized to charge the electrodes until discharge occurs. The discharge voltage of the electrode is recorded over a range of pressures within the test section. An operational pressure range is calculated using isentropic flow and normal shock relations at the desired Mach numbers. These values are plotted against the modified Paschen curve as a function of Mach number, electrode gap distance, and pressure as a means of validation.
    Keywords: Physics (General)
    Type: KSC-E-DAA-TN69879 , AIAA Science & Technology Forum 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN76747 , Meeting of the American Astronomical Society (AAS); Jan 04, 2020 - Jan 08, 2020; Honolulu, HI; United States
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: This paper discusses a wind tunnel experiment of active gust load alleviation of a flexible wing which took place at University of Washington (UW) in 2019. The experiment performed under a NASA SBIR contract with Scientific Systems Company, Inc (SSCI). The objective of the experiment is to demonstrate active controls of the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system for gust load alleviation and real-time drag optimization. The wind tunnel model is a 8.2% sub-scale Common Research Model (CRM) wing. The wing structure is designed to provide a substantial degree of flexibility to represent that of a modern high-aspect ratio wing. Eight active control surfaces are employed in the VCCTEF. A new gust generator system was designed and installed by UW under a sub-contract with SSCI. The first test entry started in July 2019 and ended in September 2019. During this test entry, many significant issues were found with the hardware and software. The significant issues with the servos prevented the test objective from being completed. A follow-up second test entry in 2020 is being planned. The wing system is being repaired by SSCI. This paper reports on the progress of this experimental effort and the aeroservoelastic (ASE) model validation which was conducted during the test entry.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: AIAA 2020-0214 , ARC-E-DAA-TN76417 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2020-01-23
    Description: A measurement of planetary occurrence rates based on a planet catalog should be robust against details of how initial detections were classified as planets or false positives. This is accomplished by supplying the catalogs rate of missed planets (completeness) and rate of non-planets incorrectly called planets (reliability). The final Kepler data release (DR25) includes products that can be used with the DR25 planet candidate catalog to correct for completeness and reliability in occurrence rate estimates. This is made possible by the Kepler Robovetter, which algorithmically and uniformly selects planets based on a variety of metrics and thresholds. Completeness, reliability, and occurrence rates potentially depend on these Robovetter thresholds. We study the impact of varying these vetting thresholds using the techniques of Bryson et al. 2019 (arXiv:1906.03575). We explore sets of thresholds that result in more or fewer planets (trading off completeness for reliability), as well as thresholds tuned to pass DR25 false positives identified as possible planets by the Kepler False Positive Working Group. We find that when correcting only for completeness, and not reliability, the resulting occurrence rates have a strong dependence on these threshold sets. For example, the value of SAG13 eta-Earth varies by over a factor of 4 when not corrected for reliability. However, when correcting for both completeness and reliability, occurrence rates using our threshold sets are statistically indistinguishable, with differences being well inside 1-sigma error bars. We present occurrence rates integrated over several period-radius ranges. For example, SAG13 eta-Earth is consistent with 0.127 (+0.094)(-0.054) (from Bryson et al. 2019) for all the Robovetter threshold sets. This result emphasizes the importance of correcting occurrence rates for both completeness and reliability. This suggests that inconsistent completeness and reliability correction may be a significant contributor to the large variation of occurrence rates in recent literature. We plan to make the Robovetter results for our threshold sets available, and encourage the community to use them to examine whether other occurrence rate methods yield similarly robust results.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN75923 , Meeting of the American Astronomical Society; Jan 04, 2020 - Jan 08, 2020; Honolulu; United States
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: AFRC-E-DAA-TN76690 , SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: This paper presents a trade study method used to evaluate and down-select from a set of guidance and control (G&C) system designs for a mechanically deployable entry vehicle (DEV). The Pterodactyl project, funded by NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD), was prompted by the challenge to develop an effective G&C system for a vehicle without a backshell, which is the case for DEVs. For the DEV, the project assumed a specific aeroshell geometry pertaining to an Adaptable, Deployable, Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT) vehicle, which was successfully developed by STMD prior to this study. The Pterodactyl project designed three different G&C systems for the vehicle's precise entry, which this paper briefly discusses. This paper details the Figures of Merit (FOMs) and metrics used during the course of the project's G&C system assessment. Each G&C configuration was traded against the three FOMs categories: G&C system performance, affordability and life cycle costs, and safety and mission success. The relative importance of the FOMs was determined from the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), which was used to develop weights that were combined with quantitative design metrics and engineering judgement to rank the G&C systems against one another. This systematic method takes into consideration the project's input while simultaneously reducing unintentional judgement bias and ultimately was used to select a single G&C design for the project to continue pursuing in the next prototyping and testing phase.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN69534 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, Fl; United States
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: The interagency Space Science and Technology (S&T) Partnership Forum was established in 2015 with participation from the United States Air Force, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Reconnaissance Office. Seeking to leverage synergies and influence agency portfolios with a focus on key pervasive and game-changing technologies, the S&T Partnership Forum successfully identified and prioritized several collaboration topic areas with high potential for future cross-agency work. The S&T Partnership Forum determines the forum strategy, goals, and objectives, as well as the strategies and objectives specific to each collaboration topic area. In November 2018, the Partnership held a public open forum that focused on the topic area of in-space assembly (iSA). This open forum was coordinated to facilitate government and commercial dialogue, collect data, and perform data analysis to identify potential cross-agency collaboration between government and commercial participants for in-space assembly and promising technologies. This paper discusses the analysis performed on the commercially provided data in relation to previously identified government needs, observations on the correlation between technologies and capabilities between government and commercial industry, and recommendations for future government collaborations with commercial industry for iSA.
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Type: HQ-E-DAA-TN73559-1 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: These slides and the companion paper describe a exciter placement technique using topology optimization.
    Keywords: Numerical Analysis
    Type: AFRC-E-DAA-TN75542 , SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: The Mars Helicopter (MH) will be flying on the NASA Mars 2020 rover mission scheduled to launch in July of 2020. Research is being performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and NASA Ames Research Center to extend the current capabilities and develop the Mars Science Helicopter (MSH) as the next possible step for Martian rotorcraft. The low atmospheric density and the relatively small-scale rotors result in very low chord-based Reynolds number flows over the rotor airfoils. The low Reynolds number regime results in rapid performance degradation for conventional airfoils due to laminar separation without reattachment. Unconventional airfoil shapes with sharp leading edges are explored and optimized for aerodynamic performance at representative Reynolds-Mach combinations for a concept rotor. Sharp leading edges initiate immediate flow separation, and the occurrence of large-scale vortex shedding is found to contribute to the relative performance increase of the optimized airfoils, compared to conventional airfoil shapes. The oscillations are shown to occur independent from laminar-turbulent transition and therefore result in sustainable performance at lower Reynolds numbers. Comparisons are presented to conventional airfoil shapes and peak lift-to-drag ratio increases between 17% and 41% are observed for similar section lift.
    Keywords: Aeronautics (General)
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76159 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 24
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Astrodynamics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76483 , AMS Annual Meeting; Jan 12, 2020 - Jan 16, 2020; Boston, MA; United States
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The NASA-funded Pterodactyl project is a design, test, and build capability to (i) advance the current state of the art for Deployable Entry Vehicle (DEV) guidance and control (G&C), and (ii) determine the feasibility of control system integration for various entry vehicle types including those without aeroshells. This capability is currently being used to develop control systems for one such unconventional entry vehicle, the Lifting Nano-ADEPT (LNA) vehicle. ADEPT offers the possibility of integrating control systems directly onto the mechanically deployed structure and building hardware demonstrators will help assess integration and design challenges. Control systems based on aerodynamic control surfaces, mass movement, and reaction control systems (RCS) are currently being investigated for a down-select to the most suitable control architecture for the LNA.To that effect, in this submission, we detail the efforts of the Pterodactyl project to develop a series of hardware demonstrators for the different LNA control systems. Rapid prototypes, for a set of quarter- model or eighth-model vehicle segments, will be developed for all three architectures to validate mechanical design assumptions, and hardware-in-the-loop (HIWL) control approaches. A ground test control system demonstrator will be designed and built after the trade study is complete. The industrial-grade demonstrator will be designed so that it can be incorporated into a HWIL simulation to further validate the findings of the initial trade study. The HWIL simulation will leverage the iPAS environment developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center which facilitates integration testing to support technology maturation and risk reduction, necessary elements for the hardware demonstration development detailed in this paper.
    Keywords: Launch Vehicles and Launch Operations
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN69600 , AIAA SciTech Forum and Exposition; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: The need to return high mass payloads is driving the development of a new class of vehicles, Deployable Entry Vehicles (DEV) for which feasible and optimized control architectures have not been developed. The Pterodactyl project, seeks to advance the current state-of-the-art for entry vehicles by developing a design, test, and build capability for DEVs that can be applied to various entry vehicle configurations. This paper details the efforts on the NASA-funded Pterodactyl project to investigate multiple control techniques for the Lifting Nano-ADEPT (LNA) DEV. We design and implement multiple control architectures on the LNA and evaluate their performance in achieving varying guidance commands during entry.First we present an overview of DEVs and the Lifting Nano-ADEPT (LNA), along with the physical LNA configuration that influences the different control designs. Existing state-of-the-art for entry vehicle control is primarily propulsive as reaction control systems (RCS) are widely employed. In this work, we analyze the feasibility of using both propulsive control systems such as RCS to generate moments, and non-propulsive control systems such as aerodynamic control surfaces and internal moving mass actuations to shift the LNA center of gravity and generate moments. For these diverse control systems, we design different multi-input multi-output (MIMO) state-feedback integral controllers based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) optimal control methods. The control variables calculated by the controllers vary, depending on the control system being utilized and the outputs to track for the controller are either the (i) bank angle or the (ii) angle of attack and sideslip angle as determined by the desired guidance trajectory. The LQR control design technique allows the relative allocation of the control variables through the choice of the weighting matrices in the cost index. Thus, it is easy to (i) specify which and how much of a control variable to use, and (ii) utilize one control design for different control architectures by simply modifying the choice of the weighting matrices.By providing a comparative analysis of multiple control systems, configurations, and performance, this paper and the Pterodactyl project as a whole will help entry vehicle system designers and control systems engineers determine suitable control architectures for integration with DEVs and other entry vehicle types.
    Keywords: Launch Vehicles and Launch Operations
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN69596 , AIAA SciTech Forum and Exposition; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: Urban Air Mobility (UAM) describes a new type of aviation focused on efficient flight within urban areas for moving people and goods. There are many different configurations of UAM vehicles, but they generally use an electric motor driving a propeller or ducted fan powered by batteries or a hybrid electric power generation system. Transmission cables are used to move energy from the storage or generation system to the electric motors. Though terrestrial power transmission cables are well established technology, aviation applications bring a whole host of new design challenges that are not typical considerations in terrestrial applications. Aircraft power transmission cable designs must compromise between resistance-per-length, weight-per-length, volume constraints, and other essential qualities. In this paper we use a multidisciplinary design optimization to explore the sensitivity of these qualities to a representative tiltwing turboelectric UAM aircraft concept. This is performed by coupling propulsion and thermal models for a given mission criteria. Results presented indicate that decreasing cable weight at the expense of increasing cable volume or cooling demand is effective at minimizing maximum takeoff weight (MTO). These findings indicate that subsystem designers should update their modeling approach in order to contribute to system-level optimality for highly-coupled novel aircraft. Mobility (UAM) vehicles have the potential to change urban and intra-urban transport in new and interesting ways. In a series of two papers Johnson et al.1 and Silva et al.2 presented four reference vehicle configurations that could service different niches in the UAM aviation category. Of those, this paper focuses on the Vertical Take-off and Landing (VTOL) tiltwing configuration shown in Figure 1. This configuration uses a turboelectric power system, feeding power from a turbo-generator through a system of transmission cables to four motors spinning large propellers on the wings. Previous work on electric cable subsystems leaves much yet to be explored, especially in the realm of subsystem coupling. Several aircraft optimization studies1, 3, 4 only considered aircraft electrical cable weight and ignored thermal effects. Electric and hybrid-electric aircraft studies by Mueller et al.5 and Hoelzen et al.6 selected a cable material but did not investigate alternative materials. Advanced cable materials have been examined by a number of authors: Alvarenga7 examined carbon nanotube (CNT) conductors for low-power applications. De Groh8, 9 examined CNT conductors for motor winding applications. Behabtu et al.,10 and Zhao et al.11 examined CNT conductors for a general applications. There were some studies that examined the thermal effects of cables but they did not allow the cable material to change; El-Kady12 optimized ground-cable insulation and cooling subject constraints. Vratny13 selected cable material based on vehicle power demand, and required resulting cable heat to be dissipated by the Thermal Management System (TMS). None of these previous studies allowed for the selection of the cable material based on a system level optimization goal. Instead, they focused on sub-system optimality such as minimum weight, which comes at the expense of incurring additional costs for other subsystems. Dama14 selected overhead transmission line materials using a weighting function and thermal constraints. However, that work was not coupled with any aircraft subsystems like a TMS. The traditional aircraft design approach, which relies on assembling groups of optimal subsystems, breaks down when considering novel aircraft concepts like the tiltwing vehicle. In a large part, this is because novel concepts have a much higher degree of interaction or coupling between subsystems. For example, when a cable creates heat, this heat needs to be dissipated by the TMS, which needs power supplied by the turbine, and delivering the power creates more heat. The cable, the TMS, and the turbine are all coupled. A change to one subsystem will affect all the other subsystems, much to the consternation of subsystem design experts. Multidisciplinary optimization is the design approach that can address these challenges. However, to fully take advantage of this, we must change the way we think about subsystem design. Specifically, we must move away from point design, and focus on creating solution spaces. The work presented in this paper uses the multidisciplinary optimization approach with aircraft level models to study the system-level sensitivity of cable traits: weight-per-length and resistance-per-length. Additionally, we examined the effects of vehicle imposed volume constraints on these traits. This is useful for three purposes: (1) to demonstrate a framework that can perform a coupled analysis between the aircraft thermal and propulsion systems, (2) to provide a method by which future cable designs can be evaluated against each other given a system-level design goal, (3) to provide insight into what cable properties may be promising for future research. This last element is explored given the caveat that the models contained in this analysis do not represent high-fidelity systems. Thus, while we can demonstrate coupling in between systems, the exact system-level sensitivity to a given parameter may change if a subsystem model or the assumptions governing that model change. The organization of this paper is as follows, in Sec II we outline a method to combine the VTOL vehicle design and cable information in order to produce cables sensitivity studies. Results analysis and discussion are contained in Sec III. Conclusions are presented in Sec IV.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN75458 , SciTech2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: Pattern Language describes the morphology and functionality of a system in the absence of design particulars. Harnessing this capability will provide the Systems Engineering discipline a means of managing the development of increasingly complex systems with increasingly distributed design teams while capturing and retaining knowledge for future generations. Pattern Language is a syntax for describing, and structurally relating, design patterns. Design patterns contextually describe the application of domain knowledge in the engineered solution to the force balance problem. The parallels between pattern recognition and application, as a fundamental stage of human learning, and pattern observation within a complex system, suggests pattern language may be a valuable tool in the capture and dissemination of knowledge. Pattern application has enjoyed considerable study over the last several decades, however much of this work has focused on the replication of design particulars. This work returns to the roots of Pattern Language and explores the utility of patterns as an architectural description and guide, and knowledge capture method, for complex system development beginning with the identification of a time proven design pattern.
    Keywords: Cybernetics, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics
    Type: JSC-E-DAA-TN75977 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: The X-56A Multi-Utility Technology Testbed (MUTT) is a subscale, fixed-wing aircraft designed for high-risk aeroelastic flight demonstration and research. Structural dynamics ground testing for model validation was especially important for this vehicle because the structural model was directly used in the development of a flight control system with active flutter suppression capabilities. Structural dynamics ground tests of the X-56A MUTT with coupled rigid-body and structural modes provided a unique set of challenges. An overview of the ground vibration test (GVT) and moment of inertia (MOI) test setup and execution is presented. The series of GVTs included the wing by itself attached to a strongback and complete vehicle at two mass conditions: empty and full fuel. Two boundary conditions for the complete-vehicle test were studied: on landing gear and suspended free-free. Pitch MOI tests were performed using a compound pendulum method and repeated with two different pendulum lengths for independent verification. The original soft-support test configuration for the GVT used multiple bungees, resulting in unforeseen coupling interactions between the soft-support bungees and the vehicle structural modes. To resolve this problem, the soft-support test setup underwent multiple iterations. The various GVT configurations and boundary-condition modifications are highlighted and explained. Lessons learned are captured for future consideration when performing structural dynamics testing with similar vehicles.
    Keywords: Research and Support Facilities (Air)
    Type: AFRC-E-DAA-TN73735 , AIAA SciTech Forum 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Type: HQ-E-DAA-TN73359-2 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: The Aqueous, QUick-charging battery Integration For Electric flight Research project is explained and the major subsystems are described, including nano-electric fluid, rim-driven motors, and integration concepts. The nano-electric fluid concept is a new type of aqueous flow battery that could reduce or retire the fire and explosion hazards of conventional batteries and fuel cells. The nano-electric fluid itself could enable energy storage and increased available energy per fuel weight ratios. The rim-driven motor is being developed to improve propulsion system safety and stability and to reduce noise. The rim-driven motor concept could enable motors that are more efficient both electrically and aerodynamically. The Energy Economy of the project concept is presented as a potential renewable or green energy sustainment for utilizing in-place infrastructure. The nano-electric fluid energy charge-use-recharge cycle is presented using renewable energy input from solar, wind, and hydroelectricity. Powered aircraft operations are presented, and the logistics of the new nano-electric fluid technology are explored. Powered aircraft operations topics include weight and balance, fueling, recharging, safety, and derivative considerations.
    Keywords: Aircraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: AFRC-E-DAA-TN74097 , SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 32
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: This document is an update (new photos used) of the PDF version of the 2020 NASA Technology Taxonomy that will be available to download on the OCT Public Website. The updated 2020 NASA Technology Taxonomy, or "technology dictionary", uses a technology discipline based approach that realigns like-technologies independent of their application within the NASA mission portfolio. This tool is meant to serve as a common technology discipline-based communication tool across the agency and with its partners in other government agencies, academia, industry, and across the world.
    Keywords: Documentation and Information Science
    Type: HQ-E-DAA-TN76545
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: The scientific balloon program at NASA offers an exciting and open area of opportunity for testing new technologies and for conducting meaningful experimentation at a fraction of the cost of a space mission. This paper outlines a simple thermal model developed and employed for the Primordial Inflation Polarization ExplorER (PIPER). The sub-orbital environment that PIPER operates in hosts an interesting mix of atmospheric and space thermal challenges. The work done was to mitigate thermal loads and passively cool the payload's exterior mounted electronics at an altitude of 36.6 km. This was done by characterizing the thermal environment and then designing solutions for the heat loads through a combined radiation and conduction passive cooling radiator system thermal model. Despite the simplicity and subsequent limitations of the model, as well as some unexpected payload operational events, the model produced results between 0.31% and 11.8% difference between the predicted values and measured average temperatures. From these results, the model was able to successfully provide estimates for the electronics temperatures. Additional flights will be needed to eliminate unknowns encountered in this flight in order to further refine the model for higher accuracy.
    Keywords: Engineering (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76082 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: This poster describes the function of the NASA ESDIS Standards Office, lists the findable, interoperable, accessible and the reusable standards that have been reviewed and endorsed for broader use in NASA data and information systems, and the impacts of these endorsed standards.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing; Administration and Management
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76884 , 2020 ESIP Winter Meeting; Jan 07, 2020 - Jan 09, 2020; Bethesda, MD; United States
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  • 35
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: The purpose of this talk is to provide an undergraduate student audience with basic information about the sleep and circadian challenges that astronauts and pilots face. Dr. Flynn-Evans will begin by highlighting how NASA works. She will next cover basic information about sleep, circadian rhythms, and performance, including how sleep works on earth. She will explain how people have circadian rhythms of different lengths and how the circadian clock has to be re-set each day. She will also describe how jet-lag works as an example of what happens during circadian misalignment. Dr. Flynn-Evans will describe how modest circadian misalignment affects airline pilots during short-haul flights. She will also describe how sleep is different in space and will highlight the challenges that astronauts face in low-earth orbit. She will discuss how astronauts have a shorter sleep duration in space relative to on the ground and how their schedules can shift due to operational constraints. She will also describe how these issues affect alertness and performance. She will then discuss how sleep and scheduling may be different on a long-duration mission to Mars. She will discuss the differences in light and day length on earth and mars and illustrate how those differences pose significant challenges to sleep and circadian rhythms.
    Keywords: Behavioral Sciences
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76706
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: TESS launched 18 April 2018 to conduct a two-year, near all-sky survey for at least 50 small, nearby exoplanets for which masses can be ascertained and whose atmospheres can be characterized by ground- and space-based follow-on observations. TESS has completed its survey of the southern hemisphere and begun its survey of the northern hemisphere, identifying 〉1000 candidate exoplanets and unveiling a plethora of exciting non-exoplanet astrophysics results, such as asteroseismology, asteroids, and supernova. The TESS Science Processing Operations Center (SPOC) processes the data downlinked every two weeks to generate a range of data products hosted at the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). For each sector (~1 month) of observations, the SPOC calibrates the image data for both 30-min Full Frame Images (FFIs) and up to 20,000 pre-selected 2-min target star postage stamps. Data products for the 2-min targets include simple aperture photometry and systematic error-corrected flux time series. The SPOC also conducts searches for transiting exoplanets in the 2-min data for each sector and generates Data Validation time series and associated reports for each transit-like feature identified in the search. Multi-sector searches for exoplanets are conducted periodically to discover longer period planets, including those in the James Webb Continuous Viewing Zone (CVZ), which are observed for up to one year. Starting with Sector 8, scattered light from the Earth and Moon contaminated significant portions of the data in each orbit. We have developed algorithms for automated identification of the scattered light features at the individual target level. Previously, data for all stars on a CCD affected by scattered light were manually excluded. The automated flagging will allow us to retain significantly more data for stars that are not affected by the scattered light even though it is occurring elsewhere on the CCD. We also discuss enhancements to the SPOC pipeline and the newly available FFI light curves. The TESS Mission is funded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate as an Astrophysics Explorer Mission.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76812 , American Astronomical Society Meeting; Jan 04, 2020 - Jan 08, 2020; Honolulu, HI; United States
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: A non-iterative load prediction algorithm for strain-gage balances was developed for the NASA Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels that computes balance loads from the electrical outputs of the balance bridges and a set of state variables. A state variable could be, for example, a balance temperature difference or the bellows pressure of a flow-through balance. The algorithm directly uses regression models of the balance loads for the load prediction that were obtained by applying global regression analysis to balance calibration data. This choice greatly simplifies both implementation and use of the load prediction process for complex balance configurations as no load iteration needs to be performed. The regression model of a balance load is constructed by using terms from a total of nine term groups. Four term groups are derived from a Taylor Series expansion of the relationship between the load, gage outputs, and state variables. The remaining five term groups are defined by using absolute values of the gage outputs and state variables. Terms from these groups should only be included in the regression model if calibration data from a balance with known bi-directional outputs is analyzed. It is illustrated in detail how global regression analysis may be applied to obtain the coefficients of the chosen regression model of a load component assuming that no linear or massive near-linear dependencies between the regression model terms exist. Data from the machine calibration of a six-component force balance is used to illustrate both application and accuracy of the non-iterative load prediction process.
    Keywords: Aeronautics (General)
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN74220 , AIAA SciTech Forum 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: Deep neural networks are used increasingly for perception and decision-making in UAVs. For example, they can be used to recognize objects from images and decide what actions the vehicle should take. While deep neural networks can perform very well at complex tasks, their decisions may be unintuitive to a human operator. When a human disagrees with a neural network prediction, due to the black box nature of deep neural networks, it can be unclear whether the system knows something the human does not or whether the system is malfunctioning. This uncertainty is problematic when it comes to ensuring safety. As a result, it is important to develop technologies for explaining neural network decisions for trust and safety. This paper explores a modification to the deep neural network classification layer to produce both a predicted label and an explanation to support its prediction. Specifically, at test time, we replace the final output layer of the neural network classifier by a k-nearest neighbor classifier. The nearest neighbor classifier produces 1) a predicted label through voting and 2) the nearest neighbors involved in the prediction, which represent the most similar examples from the training dataset. Because prediction and explanation are derived from the same underlying process, this approach guarantees that the explanations are always relevant to the predictions. We demonstrate the approach on a convolutional neural network for a UAV image classification task. We perform experiments using a forest trail image dataset and show empirically that the hybrid classifier can produce intuitive explanations without loss of predictive performance compared to the original neural network. We also show how the approach can be used to help identify potential issues in the network and training process.
    Keywords: Cybernetics, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76279 , SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2020-01-22
    Description: The NASA Risk Informed Decision Making process is used to assess a trade space of three dimensionally woven thermal protection systems for application to the Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle. Candidate architectures are assessed based on mission assurance, technical development, cost, and schedule risk. Assessment methodology differed between the architectures, utilizing a four-point quantitative scale for mission assurance and technical development and highly tailored PERT techniques for cost and schedule. Risk results are presented, in addition to a review of RIDM effectiveness for this application.
    Keywords: Quality Assurance and Reliability
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN69484 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 40
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: The optical design is presented for the Origins Space Telescope, one of four large missions under study in preparation for the 2020 Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics is presented. Sensitive to the mid- and far-infrared spectrum (between 2.8 and 588 m) and set to launch in approximately 2035, Origins sets out to answer a number of important scientific questions by addressing NASA's three key science goals in astrophysics: How does the universe work?, How did we get here, and Are we alone? To do so, Origins seeks to answer three main questions: 1) How do galaxies form stars, build up metals, and grow their central supermassive black holes from reionization to today? 2) How do the conditions for habitability develop during the process of planet formation? 3) Do planets orbiting M-dwarf stars support life?The Origins telescope has a 5.9 m diameter primary mirror and operates at f/14. The large on-axis primary consists of 18 'keystone' segments of two different prescriptions arranged in two annuli (six inner and twelve outer segments) that together form a circular aperture in the goal of achieving a symmetric point spread function. To simplify the design, the telescope will be launched with both the primary mirror segments and the secondary mirror already deployed. To accommodate the 46 x 15 arcminute full field of view of the telescope at the design wavelength of = 30 m, a three-mirror anastigmat configuration is used. The design is diffraction-limited across its instruments' fields of view. A brief discussion of each of the three baselined instruments within the Instrument Accommodation Module (IAM) is presented: 1) Origins Survey Spectrometer (OSS), 2) Mid-infrared Spectrometer, Camera (MISC) transit spectrometer channel, and 3) Far-Infrared Polarimeter/Imager (FIP). In addition, the upscope options for the observatory are laid out as well, including a fourth instrument: the Heterodyne Receiver for Origins (HERO).
    Keywords: Engineering (General); Optics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76572 , meeting of the American Astronomical Society; Jan 04, 2020 - Jan 08, 2020; Honolulu,HI; United States
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: Transmission spectroscopy is one of our primary tools for measuring the structure and composition of exoplanet atmospheres, especially for close-in exoplanets. During an exoplanet transit part of the host stars' light passes through the planet's atmosphere imparting atomic and molecular absorption features on top of the stellar spectrum.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76096 , Meeting of the American Astronomical Society (AAS); Jan 04, 2020 - Jan 08, 2020; Honolulu, HI; United States
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: After successful validation of the design, swaged cathode heaters have been delivered by the NASA Glenn Research Center to Aerojet Rocketdyne for the fabrication of the NEXT-C ion thruster . NASA Glenn Research Center re-established and validated process controls as well as completed cyclic life testing of development heaters. Following an extensive requalification program, fabrication of a flight batch of heaters was executed using the qualified process controls. Of the 28 heaters fabricated in this flight batch, a set of six heaters were acceptance and cyclic tested to verify conformance with operational requirements. Upon completion of 200 percent of the NEXT-C cyclic requirement, the heater batch was certified by NASA for use in the flight hollow cathodes. Nine heaters from the batch of 28 were provided to Aerojet Rocketdyne in early 2018 for cathode fabrication. This paper summarizes the acceptance and cyclic life testing of the flight heaters and preliminary findings of post-test analyses.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: NASA/TM-2020-219454 , E-19773 , AIAA Paper–2019–4167 , GRC-E-DAA-TN72218 , Propulsion and Energy Forum and Exposition; Aug 19, 2019 - Aug 22, 2019; Indianapolis, IN; United States
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: NASA is continuing the development of a 12.5-kW Hall thruster system to support a phased exploration concept to expand human presence to cis-lunar space and eventually to Mars. The development team is transitioning knowledge gained from the testing of the government-built Technology Development Unit (TDU) to the contractor-built Engineering Test Unit (ETU). A new laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic was developed to obtain data for validating the Hall thruster models and for comparing the behavior of the ETU and TDU. Analysis of TDU LIF data obtained during initial deployment of the diagnostics revealed evidence of two streams of ions moving in opposite directions near the inner front pole. These two streams of ions were found to intersect the downstream surface of the front pole at large oblique angles. This data points to a possible explanation for why the erosion rate of polished pole covers were observed to decrease over the course of several hundred hours of thruster operation.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: NASA/TM-2020-220452 , GRC-E-DAA-TN72248
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: This paper presents the nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter emissions of a single sector axially staged combustor sector designed and fabricated by United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) in partnership with NASA under a compact low-emissions combustor contract supported by the NASA Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) N+3 project. The test was conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center's CE-5 combustion test facility. The facility provided inlet air temperatures up to 922 K and pressures up to 19.0 bar. The combustor design concept, called Axially Controlled Stoichiometry (ACS), was developed by Pratt & Whitney (P&W) under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program for an N+2 combustor for use in twin-aisle subsonic aircraft engines. Under the N+3 project the ACS combustor was scaled-down for application to small-core N+3 engines for use in single-aisle aircraft. The results show that the NOx and CO emissions characteristics are similar in both the N+2 and N+3 applications. The non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions trends are similar to CO emissions with an exception at high fuel-air ratio, as inlet air temperature and pressure conditions change from taxi to approach. Three NOx correlation equations are generated to describe theNOx emissions of this combustor. The percentage landing and takeoff (LTO) NOx reduction of the N+3 ACS combustor is between 82% and 89% relative to the ICAO CAEP/6 standard, which meets the NASA N+3 goal of exceeding 80% LTO NOx reduction.
    Keywords: Aeronautics (General)
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN75694 , AIAA Scitech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: Presented are simulation and experimental results that provide duplex optical-free space communication links with minimal power and pointing requirements by using a modulated retro-reflector (MRR) for planetary communications. The design is the MRR resides on the surface of a planet or moon, where energy is scarce, while the source of the communication laser resides on an orbiter to achieve satellite-to-ground communications. Also, a simulated scenario using the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is provided for real world potential results. The information sent through this communication path can range from raw scientific data to multimedia files such as videos and pictures. Bidirectional communications is established with the MRR by using a nested pulse position modulation (PPM) structure. This modulation scheme is then evaluated for its validity in a proof-of-concept experiment. Initial results indicate a promising return-link performance of at least 300 kbps in the nested arrangement.
    Keywords: Space Communications, Spacecraft Communications, Command and Tracking; Optics
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN75680 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 46
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: Summer 2019 brought 70 interns from Puerto Rico, 44 continental US states, Sweden, and the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago into the NASA Ames Aeromechanics Branch. Some were high school students learning engineering for the first time, while most were mechanical and aerospace engineering students, though two physics majors and a math major jumped into the mix to provide balance. This years interns completed work on 30 different projects with a collective of 30,000 dedicated hours of work. The projects this year were on urban air mobility (UAM), search and rescue vehicle design, all things Mars, Titan exploration concept designs, 3D modeling (i.e. computer aided design, CAD), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and much more. Last year we addressed the question of what to do with an army of interns. This year, we are following its path to change the world.
    Keywords: Aeronautics (General)
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76770 , Vertiflite Magazine (ISSN 0042-4455); 36-38
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: Heatshield design for spacecraft entering the atmosphere of Mars may be affected by the presence of atmospheric dust. Particle impacts with sufficient kinetic energy can cause spallation damage to the heatshield that must be estimated. The dust environment in terms of particle size distribution and number density can be inferred from ground-based or atmospheric observations at Mars. Using a Lagrangian approach, the particle trajectories through the shock layer can be computed using a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The dust particles are small enough that non-continuum effects must be accounted for when computing the drag coefficient and heat transfer to the particle surface. Surface damage correlations for impact crater diameter and penetration depth are presented for fused-silica, AVCOAT, Shuttle tiles, cork, and Norcoat Lige. The cork and Norcoat Lige correlations are new and were developed in this study. The modeling equations presented in this paper are applied to compute the heatshield erosion due to dust particle impacts on the ExoMars Schiaparelli entry capsule during dust storm conditions.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76672 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: This paper presents a jig twist optimization study of Mach 0.745 Transonic Truss-Braced Wing (TTBW) aircraft using an in-house developed aero-structural analysis solver VSPAERO coupled to BEAM3D. A vortex-lattice model of the TTBW model is developed, and a transonic and viscous flow correction method is implemented in the VSPAERO model to account for transonic and viscous flow effects. A correction method for the wing-strut interference aerodynamics is developed and applied to the VSPAERO solver. Also, a structural dynamic finite-element model of the TTBW aircraft is developed. This finite-element model includes the geometric nonlinear effect due to the tension in the struts which causes a deflection-dependent nonlinear stiffness. The VSPAERO model is coupled to the corresponding finite-element model to provide a rapid aero-structural analysis. A design flight condition corresponding to Mach 0.745 at 42000 ft is selected for the TTBW aircraft jig twist optimization to reduce the drag coefficient. After the design is implemented, the drag coefficient of the twist optimized TTBW aircraft is reduced about 8 counts. At the end, a high-fidelity CFD solver FUN3D is used to validate the design.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: AIAA 2020-0451 , ARC-E-DAA-TN76389 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: A new, spectrally-resolved, Rayleigh scattering setup at NASA Ames is further developed to measure fluctuations in velocity and temperature. Using a combination of a continuous-wave laser, a stabilized Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI), an EMCCD camera, and a photo-multiplier tube, the setup was demonstrated to provide fairly accurate measurements of time-averaged velocity, temperature, density and spectrum of density fluctuations in a high-speed free jet (Panda & White, 2018). This paper describes further progress in fast measurement of the Rayleigh-Brillouin spectrum via a 16-anode linear-array of photo-multiplier tube and a multi-channel, photo-electron counter. Rayleigh scattered light from a 0.4mm long probe volume was directly imaged through the FPI and was imaged on the linear array. Synchronous photo-electron counting over a series of short, contiguous gates provided time-evolution of the fringes at a 10 kHz sampling rate. Sample spectra collected from a Mach 0.98 jet show spectral content floating on high noise-floor. Efforts to collect longer time series of data and different schemes of extracting velocity and temperature information are now in progress.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: AIAA 2020-0300 , ARC-E-DAA-TN76183 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: The desorption of O/CO from graphitic carbon surfaces is investigated using a one-dimensional model describing the adsorbate interactions with the surface phonon bath. The kinetics of desorption are described through the solution of a master equation for the time-dependent population of the adsorbate in an oscillator state, which is modified through thermal fluctuations at the surface. The interaction of the adsorbate with the surface phonons is explicitly captured by using the computed phonon density Of states (PDOS) of the surface. The coupling of the adsorbate with the phonon bath results in the transition of the adsorbate up and down a vibrational ladder. The adsorbate-surface interaction is represented in the model using a Morse potential, which allows for the desorption process to be directly modeled as a transition from bound to free (continuum) state. The PDOS is a property of the material and the lattice; and is highly sensitive to the presence of defects. The effect of etch pits along with random surface defects on the PDOS is considered in the present work. The presence of defects causes a redshift and broadening of the PDOS, which in turn changes the phonon frequency modes available for adsorbate coupling at the surface. Using the realistic PDOS distributions, the phonon-induced desorption (PID) model was used to compute the transition and desorption rates for both pristine and defective systems. Mathissens rule is used to compute the phonon relaxation time for pristine and defective systems based on the phonon scattering times for each of the different scattering processes. First, the desorption rates of the pristine system is fitted against the experimental values to obtain the Morse potential parameters for each of the observed adatoms. These Morse potential parameters are used along with the defective PDOS and phonon relaxation time to compute the desorption rates for the defective system. The defective system rates (both transition and desorption) were consistently lower in comparison with the pristine system. The difference between the transition rates is more significant at lower initial states due to higher energy spacing between the levels. In the case of the desorption rates, the difference between the defective and pristine system is more significant at higher temperatures. The desorption rates for each of the system shows an order of magnitude decrease with the strongly bound systems exhibiting the greatest reduction in the desorption rates.
    Keywords: Aeronautics (General); Chemistry and Materials (General)
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76131 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: Pterodactyl is a NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) project focused on developing a design capabilityfor optimal, scalable, Guidance and Control (G&C) solutions that enable precision targeting for Deployable Entry Vehicles(DEVs). This feasibility study is unique in that it focuses on the rapid integration of targeting performance analysis withstructural &packaging analysis, which is especially challenging for new vehicle and mission designs. This paper will detailthe guidance development and trajectory design process for a lunar return mission, selected to stress the vehicle designsand encourage future scalability. For the five G&C configurations considered, the Fully Numerical Predictor-CorrectorEntry Guidance (FNPEG) was selected for configurations requiring bank angle guidance and FNPEG with Uncoupled
    Keywords: Spacecraft Instrumentation and Astrionics
    Type: JSC-E-DAA-TN76681 , AIAA SciTech 2019; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The need for precision landing of high mass payloads on Mars and the return of sensitive samples from other planetary bodies to specific locations on Earth is driving the development of an innovative NASA technology referred to as the Deployable Entry Vehicle (DEV). A DEV has the potential to deliver an equivalent science payload with a stowed diameter 3 to 4 times smaller than a traditional rigid capsule configuration. However, the DEV design does not easily lend itself to traditional methods of directional control. The NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD)s Pterodactyl project is currently investigating the effectiveness of three different Guidance and Control (G&C) systems actuated flaps, Center of Gravity (CG) or mass movement, and Reaction Control System (RCS) for use with a DEV using the Adaptable, Deployable, Entry, and Placement Technology (ADEPT) design. This paper details the Thermal Protection System (TPS) design and associated mass estimation efforts for each of the G&C systems. TPS is needed for the nose cap of the DEV and the flaps of the actuated flap control system. The development of a TPS selection, sizing, and mass estimation method designed to deal with the varying requirements for the G&C options throughout the trajectory is presented. The paper discusses the methods used to i) obtain heating environments throughout the trajectory with respect to the chosen control system and resulting geometry; ii) determine a suitable TPS material; iii) produce TPS thickness estimations; and, iv) determine the final TPS mass estimation based on TPS thickness, vehicle control system, vehicle structure, and vehicle payload.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance; Launch Vehicles and Launch Operations
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76172 , AIAA Sci Tech; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Heatshield design for spacecraft entering the atmosphere of Mars may be affected by the presence of atmospheric dust. Particle impacts with sufficient kinetic energy can cause spallation damage to the heatshield that must be estimated. The dust environment in terms of particle size distribution and number density can be inferred from ground-based or atmospheric observations at Mars. Using a Lagrangian approach, the particle trajectories through the shock layer can be computed using a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The dust particles are small enough that non-continuum effects must be accounted for when computing the drag coefficient and heat transfer to the particle surface. Surface damage correlations for impact crater diameter and penetration depth are presented for fused-silica, AVCOAT, Shuttle tiles, cork, and Norcoat Lige. The cork and Norcoat Lige correlations are new and were developed in this study. The modeling equations presented in this paper are applied to compute the heatshield erosion due to dust particle impacts on the ExoMars Schiaparelli entry capsule during dust storm conditions.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: AIAA 2020-0254 , ARC-E-DAA-TN75805 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: This paper investigates using machine learning to rapidly develop empirical models suitable for system-level aircraft noise studies. In particular, machine learning is used to train a neural network to predict the noise spectra produced by a round jet near a surface over a range of surface lengths, surface standoff distances, jet Mach numbers, and observer angles. These spectra include two sources, jet-mixing noise and jet-surface interaction (JSI) noise, with different scale factors as well as surface shielding and reflection effects to create a multi- dimensional problem. A second model is then trained using data from three rectangular nozzles to include nozzle aspect ratio in the spectral prediction. The training and validation data are from an extensive jet-surface interaction noise database acquired at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory. Although the number of training and validation points is small compared a typical machine learning application, the results of this investigation show that this approach is viable if the underlying data are well behaved.
    Keywords: Aircraft Propulsion and Power; Computer Programming and Software
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN75937 , AIAA SciTech 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 55
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN76656 , Fernbank Science Center Planatarium; Jan 11, 2020; Atlanta, GA; United States
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: The key measurement to acquire for understanding unsteady flow is surface pressure. Unsteady Pressure-Sensitive Paint (uPSP) is an emerging optical technique used in wind tunnel testing to measure fluctuating surface pressures. Recently, tests were conducted on NASAs Space Launch System in NASA Ames Research Centers Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel to determine the aeroacoustics environment and assist in developing the buffet forcing functions. Unsteady PSP data was collected during this test campaign. Steady state PSP data, infrared thermography, shadowgraph, accelerometer data, and dynamic pressure transducer data were also collected. In all 50 TB of data were collected during the three days of testing. During these three days of testing, a repeating transonic and supersonic alpha sweep condition was acquired. This paper presents these two wind tunnel conditions and examines how the temperature influences the PSP data. In the first large demonstration of uPSP in 2015 on an NESC-, AETC-sponsored wind tunnel test, lifetime PSP results highlighted the influence the model temperature had on the PSP data. A best practice of heat soaking the model before acquiring calibration images was followed during the test campaign presented in this paper. An infrared thermography camera and thermocouples were installed in the model to collect more details of the model surface temperature. Data processing schemes for uPSP are still in development but will be briefly presented here as well.
    Keywords: Aerodynamics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76119 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Defining a feasible vehicle design and mission architecture capable of reliably delivering apayload of 20 metric tons (mt) or more is a great challenge for landing humans on Mars. TheMid Lift-to-Drag Rigid Vehicle (MRV), a rigid decelerator studied in NASAs Entry, Descent,and Landing Architecture Study (EDLAS), has shown to be a viable vehicle candidate forfuture human Mars missions. As the vehicle concept matures, models of increasing fidelity areadded to the six-degree-of-freedom (6DoF) EDL simulation. This paper presents 6DoFsimulation results using model updates for vehicle mass properties, fineness ratio, andaerodynamic-propulsive interactions. Additionally, an assessment of the Fractional-Polynomial Powered Descent Guidance (FP2DG) performance is presented, and the vehicleperformance is compared with the Tunable Apollo Powered Descent Guidance (TAPDG).Finally, Monte Carlo results of the vehicle design trades are presented.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: JSC-E-DAA-TN75777 , AIAA SciTech 2020; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Geosciences (General); Social and Information Sciences (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76920 , 2020 ESIP Winter Meeting; Jan 07, 2020 - Jan 09, 2020; Bethesda, MD; United States
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: This is an update to the ongoing series of presentations tracking the state of domestic proton facility access for the purpose of single event effects (SEE) testing of microelectronics devices and systems. This includes proton research facilities and oncology therapy centers.
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76820 , JEDEC JC-13; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 09, 2020; New Orleans, LA; United States
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: Pterodactyl is a NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) project focused on developing a design capability for optimal, scalable, Guidance and Control (G&C) solutions that enable precision targeting for Deployable Entry Vehicles (DEVs). This feasibility study is unique in that it focuses on the rapid integration of targeting performance analysis with structural & packaging analysis, which is especially challenging for new vehicle and mission designs. This paper will detail the guidance development and trajectory design process for a lunar return mission, selected to stress the vehicle designs and encourage future scalability. For the five G&C configurations considered, the Fully Numerical Predictor-Corrector Entry Guidance (FNPEG) was selected for configurations requiring bank angle guidance and FNPEG with Uncoupled Range Control (URC) was developed for configurations requiring angle of attack and sideslip angle guidance. Successful G&C configurations are defined as those that can deliver payloads to the intended descent and landing initiation point, while abiding by trajectory constraints for nominal and dispersed trajectories.
    Keywords: Space Communications, Spacecraft Communications, Command and Tracking
    Type: JSC-E-DAA-TN75574 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 09, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: A novel conversion algorithm is presented that combines the fidelity of indirect optimization methods with the generality of direct methods to more easily solve time-optimal, finite-burn pseudo-rendezvous problems. An algorithm is described that converts a set of multiple-impulses, representing the entirety or a portion of a high- or low-thrust maneuver, to an exact time optimal finite-burn trajectory for a thrust limited, constant exhaust velocity spacecraft. A pseudo-rendezvous problem is one that yields a solution whose final time, position and velocity state is equal to that of the original post-impulsive trajectory. An iterative adjoint-control transformation is used to initialize the optimal control two-point boundary value problem. Examples are shown for both high and low-thrust non-coplanar Earth orbit transfers, as well as a low-thrust Hohmann-type Earth-Mars transfer.
    Keywords: Astrodynamics
    Type: JSC-E-DAA-TN69253 , AIAA/AAS Space Flight Mechanics Meeting; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2020-01-16
    Description: This paper presents the trade study method used to evaluate and downselect from a set of guidance and control (G&C) system designs for a mechanically Deployable Entry Vehicle (DEV). The Pterodactyl project was prompted by the challenge to develop an effective G&C system for a vehicle without a backshell, which is the case for DEVs. For the DEV, the project assumed a specific aeroshell geometry pertaining to an Adaptable, Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) vehicle, which was successfully developed by NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) prior to this study. The Pterodactyl project designed three different entry G&C systems for precision targeting. This paper details the Figures of Merit (FOMs) and metrics used during the course of the projects G&C system assessment. The relative importance of the FOMs was determined from the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), which was used to develop weights that were combined with quantitative design metrics and engineering judgement to rank the G&C systems against one another. This systematic method takes into consideration the projects input while simultaneously reducing unintentional judgement bias and ultimately was used to select a single G&C design for the project to pursue in the next design phase.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN75944 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, Fl; United States
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  • 63
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: We present a brief overview of select NASA radiation hardness assurance guideline update activities as well as cross-agency workforce development efforts.
    Keywords: Electronics and Electrical Engineering
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN76819 , JEDEC JC-13; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 09, 2020; New Orleans, LA; United States
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN76756 , American Astronomical Society Meeting; Jan 04, 2020 - Jan 08, 2020; Honolulu, HI; United States
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2020-01-14
    Description: Benefits of the Integrated Demand Management (IDM) concept were assessed utilizing a newly developed automated simulation capability called Traffic Management Initiative Automated Simulation (TMIAutoSim). The IDM concept focuses on improving traffic flow management (TFM) by coordinating the FAAs strategic Traffic Flow Management System (TFMS) with its more tactical Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system. The IDM concept leverages a new TFMS capability called Collaborative Trajectory Options Program (CTOP) to strategically pre-condition traffic demand flowing into a TBFM-managed arrival environment, where TBFM is responsible for tactically managing traffic by generating precise arrival schedules. The IDM concept was developed over a multi-year effort, focusing on solving New York metroplex airport arrival problems. TMIAutoSim closely mimics NASAs high-fidelity simulation capabilities while enabling more data to be collected at higher speed. Using this new capability, the IDM concept was evaluated using realistic traffic across various weather scenarios. Six representative weather days were selected after clustering three months of historical data. For those selected six days, Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) and LaGuardia Airport (LGA) arrival traffic scenarios were developed. For each selected day, the historical data were analyzed to accurately simulate actual operations and the weather impact of the day. The current day operations and the IDM concept operations were simulated for the same weather scenarios and the results were compared. The selected six days were categorized into two groups: clear weather for days without Ground Delay Programs (GDP) and convective weather for days with GDP and significant weather around New York metroplex airports. For the clear weather scenarios, IDM operations reduced last minute, unanticipated departure delays for short-haul flights within TBFM control boundaries with minimal to no impact on throughput and total delay. For the convective weather scenarios, IDM significantly reduced delays and increased throughput to the destination airports.
    Keywords: Air Transportation and Safety
    Type: AIAA 2020-1400 , ARC-E-DAA-TN75814 , AIAA SciTech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2020-01-25
    Description: In 2018, a full-scale isolated proprotor test was conducted in the USAF National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) at NASA Ames. The test article was the 3-bladed Bell 699 research rotor derived from the AW609 rotor. For this test, the NASA Tiltrotor Test Rig (TTR) and rotor were installed in the 40- by 80-foot test section. Correlations between the 2018 test data and predictions from the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II for blade and yoke (flexbeam) loads and rotor torque are presented. The full range of conversion to helicopter modes is covered: conversion 30-, 45-, and 60-deg TTR yaw, and helicopter 75- and 90-deg TTR yaw. The flap moment correlation is reasonable to good; the pitch link load and torsion moment are uniformly underpredicted. The measured 2P lag moment and 2P torque are not captured by the analysis. The inability to predict the 2P component is currently attributed to the analytical assumption of a perfect gimbal, whereas the actual test gimbal may be operating imperfectly and thus introducing the 2P harmonic. A new analytical model that accounts for non-ideal gimbal operation is needed.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76446 , Transformative Vertical Flight 2020; Jan 21, 2020 - Jan 23, 2020; San Jose, CA; United States
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2020-01-25
    Description: Film cooling is used in a wide variety of engineering applications for protection of surfaces from hot or combusting gases. The design of more efficient film cooling geometries/configurations could be facilitated by an ability to accurately model and predict the effectiveness of current designs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code predictions. Hence, a benchmark set of flow field property data was obtained to assess current CFD capabilities and develop better modeling approaches for these turbulent flow fields where accurate calculation of turbulent heat flux is important. Both Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and spontaneous rotational Raman scattering (SRS) spectroscopy were used to acquire high quality, spatially-resolved measurements of the mean and root mean square (rms) velocities as well as the mean and rms temperatures in a film cooling flow field. In addition to off-body flow field measurements, infrared thermography (IR) and thermocouple measurements on the plate surface enabled estimates of the film effectiveness. Raman spectra in air were obtained across a matrix of axial locations downstream from a 68.07 mm square nozzle blowing heated air over a range of temperatures (up to TR = 2.7) and Mach numbers (up to Mach 0.9), across a 30.48 cm long plate equipped with three patches of 45 small (~1 mm) diameter cooling holes arranged in a staggered configuration. In addition, both streamwise 2-component PIV (on the plate centerline) and cross-stream 3-component Stereo PIV data at 14 axial stations were collected in the same flows. Only a subset of the data collected in the test program is included in this Part I report. The rest of the data will be published in a future report, Part II, along with planned CFD predictions of the complex cooling film flow. The entire data set of Raman temperature data, PIV velocity data and IR camera data covering the Set Points 23 and 49 in the test matrix in Table 1 is available in an accompanying DVD (available online from www.sti.nasa.gov) for those interested in further analysis.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN75668 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2020-01-25
    Description: Geometric and aerodynamic design factors were studied for the design of two-dimensional, external-compression inlets operating at a freestream Mach number of Mach 1.7. Computational simulations of the inlet flows were performed to obtain the inlet performance metrics consisting of the inlet flow rates, total pressure recovery, and total pressure distortion at the engine face. The key design factors identified included the external diffuser Mach number, cowl lip interior angle, bleed slot length, throat section aft centerbody slope, and subsonic diffuser length. Using the results of the Mach 1.7 inlet study, inlets were designed for Mach 1.4 and 2.0. The results provide useful insight on the significance of the design factors for the design of such inlets for commercial supersonic aircraft.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: AIAA 2020-2090 , GRC-E-DAA-TN75997 , AIAA Scitech 2020 Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2020-01-25
    Description: The International Civil Aviation Organization is considering new environmental standards for future supersonic civil aircraft. NASA is supporting this effort by analyzing several notional, near-term supersonic transports. NASAs performance, noise, and exhaust emission predictions for these transports are being used to inform a larger study that will determine the global environmental and economic impact of adding supersonic aircraft to the fleet beginning this decade. A supersonic business jet with a maximum takeoff gross weight of 55 tonnes is the focus of this paper. A smaller business jet weighing 45 tonnes is also discussed. Both airplanes use supersonic engines derived from a common contemporary commercial subsonic turbofan core. Aircraft performance, airport-vicinity noise, and exhaust emissions are predicted using NASA tools. Also investigated are some of the anticipated behaviors and requirements of these aircraft in the commercial airspace. The sensitivity of noise to system uncertainties is presented and alternative engine studies are discussed.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN75510 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2020-01-25
    Description: The Tiltrotor Test Rig (TTR) is a new NASA facility for testing full-scale proprotors. The first test campaign in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Facility (NFAC) concluded in November 2018. The wind-tunnel test included vertical climb conditions; that is, axial flow at low airspeeds (true hover is not possible in the NFAC). The rotor tested was the Bell Model 699, a 609 rotor modified specifically for wind-tunnel testing. The rotor was tested under a variety of NFAC configurations, some unprecedented and unique to vertical climb. Researchers must understand the differences in configuration if they are to make proper use of the data. This paper presents results for several different test configurations, including assessments of data quality. Comparisons with earlier tests of a similar rotor, the 0.656- scale Joint Vertical Experimental (JVX) rotor, are included to provide additional insights into rotor and wind tunnel behavior.
    Keywords: Research and Support Facilities (Air)
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76769 , Transformative Vertical Flight 2020; Jan 21, 2020 - Jan 23, 2020; San Jose, CA; United States
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  • 71
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2020-01-25
    Description: NASA is exploring rotorcraft designs for VTOL air taxi operations, also known as urban air mobility (UAM) or on-demand mobility (ODM) applications. Several concept vehicles have been developed, intended to focus and guide NASA research activities in support of aircraft development for this emerging market. This paper examines a single main-rotor helicopter designed specifically for low-noise air taxi operations. Based on demonstrated technology, the aircraft uses a turboshaft engine with a sound-absorbing installation, and the NOTAR anti-torque system to eliminate tail-rotor noise, consequently the noise and annoyance of the aircraft are dominated by the main rotor. Several design parameters are explored to reduce the noise, including rotor tip speed, blade geometry, and higher-harmonic control. Commensurate with the level of design detail, the noise is calculated for compact loading and thickness sources on the rotating blades. The metric is the reduction of the noise for the helicopter certification conditions (takeoff, flyover, and approach), relative a baseline aircraft with typical (high) tip speed, conventional blade planform, and no higher-harmonic control.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN76202 , Aeromechanics for Advanced Vertical Flight Technical Meeting; Jan 21, 2020 - Jan 23, 2020; San Jose, CA; United States
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2020-01-25
    Description: This paper presents a jig twist optimization study of Mach 0.745 Transonic Truss-Braced Wing (TTBW) aircraft using an in-house developed aero-structural analysis solver VSPAERO coupled to BEAM3D. A vortex-lattice model of the TTBW model is developed, and a transonic and viscous flow correction method is implemented in the VSPAERO model to account for transonic and viscous flow effects. A correction method for the wing-strut interference aerodynamics is developed and applied to the VSPAERO solver. Also, a structural dynamic finite-element model of the TTBW aircraft is developed. This finite-element model includes the geometric nonlinear effect due to the tension in the struts which causes a deflection-dependent nonlinear stiffness. The VSPAERO model is coupled to the corresponding finite-element model to provide a rapid aero-structural analysis. A flight condition corresponding to Mach 0.745 at 42000 ft is selected for the TTBW aircraft jig twist optimization to reduce the drag coefficient. After the design is implemented, the drag coefficient of the twist optimized TTBW aircraft is reduced about 8 counts. At the end, a high-fidelity CFD solver FUN3D is used to validate the design.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN69854 , AIAA SciTech Forum; Jan 06, 2020 - Jan 10, 2020; Orlando, FL; United States
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2020-01-25
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN77096
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  • 74
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2020-01-25
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Aeronautics (General)
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN76719
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2020-01-25
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN77017
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2020-01-25
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN76778 , AMS Annual Meeting; Jan 12, 2020 - Jan 16, 2020; Boston, MA; United States
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  • 77
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