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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-09-22
    Description: This study reports comprehensive analysis of seasonal and inter-annual variations of aerosol optical and physical properties over the Pokhara Valley in the foothills of central Himalayas in Nepal utilizing the high-quality multi-year columnar aerosol data observed recently from January 2010 to December 2017. The influence of forest fires and agro-residue fires on aerosol properties is also investigated. Seasonal mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) over Pokhara is ≥0.3 during the year, highest in pre-monsoon and lowest in monsoon season. AOD exhibits a consistent seasonal cycle every year with a peak in pre-monsoon. Fine mode fraction contributing to AOD and Ångström exponent (α) corroborate seasonal pattern of AODs. AODs show good correlation with fire counts in the Pokhara Valley and surrounding region. The aerosol volume size distributions are bimodal. The peaks in volume size distribution and volume concentrations obtained in 2016 pre-monsoon are the highest during the 8-year observation period which coincided with peaks in the occurrence of highest number of fires in the Pokhara Valley and surrounding region. Effective radius of coarse mode aerosols is an order of magnitude larger than fine mode aerosols. The analysis of optical and physical properties of aerosols over the Pokhara Valley suggest that the aerosols observed over the Himalayan foothills are of urban/industrial, biomass burning and dust origin with proportional contributions varying in different seasons. The study provides observational constraints on aerosol physical and optical properties that can serve as inputs for model simulation of aerosol physiochemical processes and quantification of impacts on air quality, climate and sensitive ecosystems in this data-sparse region.
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    In:  Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk
    Publication Date: 2021-01-14
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2021-01-12
    Description: Am 20. Januar tritt Joseph Biden sein Amt als 46. Präsident der USA an. Dies weckt große Hoffnungen für die internationalen Klimaschutzbemühungen. Doch die jüngsten Unruhen in Washington haben nochmals verdeutlicht: Biden übernimmt die Führung eines tief gespaltenen Landes – der Klimaschutz ist da keine Ausnahme. Während 87 Prozent der Demokratinnen und Demokraten den Klimawandel als wichtige Bedrohung wahrnehmen, ist dies nur bei 31 Prozent der Republikanerinnen und Republikaner der Fall. Unter den republikanischen Kongressabgeordneten sitzen auch im neuen Kongress etwa 130 Klimawandelleugner. Wie sehen Bidens klimapolitische Ambitionen aus und kann er sie angesichts dieser Herausforderungen umsetzen?
    Language: German
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  • 4
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    In:  Wiener Zeitung, 06.01.2021
    Publication Date: 2021-01-16
    Description: Die Krise bietet die Chance, grundlegend über die menschliche Wirtschaftsweise nachzudenken nachhaltigere und sinnvollere Modelle zu entwickeln.
    Language: German
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2021-01-26
    Description: Insights from complexity science can be applied to the analysis of social processes in heterogeneous societies. Many features that characterize and influence complex structures in nearly every domain of nature, technology, and society can be derived from simple modeling processes in physics and chemistry. If one applies these features to the structure of social risks, a number of insights are gained that can be subject to further empirical analysis. In particular, they add—to the well‐known steering mechanisms of hierarchy, competition, and cooperation—the contribution of self‐organization, the effect of which is underestimated in almost all theories of social science. But in view of the crises facing modern democracy, such as migration and populism, it is precisely this mechanism of dynamic structure generation that is decisive for an effective and fair risk governance. In this article, we analyze the threat to societal diversity and coherence on the basis of complexity science.
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    In:  IASS Blog, 13.01.2021
    Publication Date: 2021-02-04
    Description: Mit Erstaunen und Erschrecken hat die Weltöffentlichkeit die Tumulte um das Kapitol bei der entscheidenden Sitzung über den Wahlausgang der US-Präsidentenwahl beobachtet. Wie kann es sein, dass ein Land mit einer mehr als zweihundertdreißigjährigen Tradition demokratischer Willensbildung und Herrschaft in ein solches Chaos verfällt?
    Language: German
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  • 7
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    In:  The Source - A blog providing insight and discussion on publishing in the academic world, 26.01.2021
    Publication Date: 2021-02-04
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    In:  Technological forecasting and social change : an international journal
    Publication Date: 2021-02-01
    Description: Generally, sociotechnical change requires that agency is exercised across multiple, connected levels or contexts. Yet there is very little work in the sociotechnical sustainability transitions literature that theorises these connections in ways that acknowledge the individual-level processes involved. Here we show how identity theory can connect macro- and micro-levels of analysis, with identity construction being a social psychological process that is also involved in institutional work. For empirical illustration we use the case of emerging mobility transitions in Berlin, Germany, in particular aspects of institutional work for infrastructural change in favor of cycling. The study shows how the construction of a common identity among varied actor groups has been key to a citizen campaign for safe cycling infrastructure. The construction of a socially inclusive identity relating to cycling has been made possible by prioritizing the development of a campaign network comprised of weak ties among stakeholders, rather than a closer-knit network based on a more exclusive group of sporty cyclists. The findings are discussed in the light of both social psychological models and sociotechnical transitions theory. The implications for scaling niche practices for sustainability are considered.
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    transcript Verlag
    Publication Date: 2021-02-02
    Description: Richard Sennett bereichert seit Jahrzehnten als Soziologe und öffentlicher Intellektueller die gesellschaftlichen Zeitdiagnosen. Mit dem Buch »Die offene Stadt« hat er seine Homo Faber-Trilogie abgeschlossen, die eine Selbstreflexion seines Schaffens widerspiegelt. Die Beiträger*innen werfen daher einen Blick zurück auf sein Werk und diskutieren dessen aktuelle Relevanz. Sie widmen sich jeweils einem zentralen Thema seiner Arbeiten – Charakter, Öffentlichkeit, Kultur, Demokratie, Stadt, Arbeit, Soziale Arbeit, Schreiben, Pragmatismus und Ethik – und liefern damit ein wichtiges Referenzwerk der deutschsprachigen Sennett-Rezeption.
    Language: German
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2021-02-02
    Language: German
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2021-02-02
    Description: To understand the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) and other air pollutants in Xinjiang, a region with one of the largest sand-shifting deserts in the world and significant natural dust emissions, the concentrations of six air pollutants monitored in 16 cities were analyzed for the period January 2013–June 2019. The annual mean PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3 concentrations ranged from 51.44 to 59.54 μg m−3, 128.43–155.28 μg m−3, 10.99–17.99 μg m−3, 26.27–31.71 μg m−3, 1.04–1.32 mg m−3, and 55.27–65.26 μg m−3, respectively. The highest PM concentrations were recorded in cities surrounding the Taklimakan Desert during the spring season and caused by higher amounts of wind-blown dust from the desert. Coarse PM (PM10-2.5) was predominant, particularly during the spring and summer seasons. The highest PM2.5/PM10 ratio was recorded in most cities during the winter months, indicating the influence of anthropogenic emissions in winters. The annual mean PM2.5 (PM10) concentrations in the study area exceeded the annual mean guidelines recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) by a factor of ca. ∼5–6 (∼7–8). Very high ambient PM concentrations were recorded during March 19–22, 2019, that gradually influenced the air quality across four different cities, with daily mean PM2.5 (PM10) concentrations ∼8–54 (∼26–115) times higher than the WHO guidelines for daily mean concentrations, and the daily mean coarse PM concentration reaching 4.4 mg m−3. Such high PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations pose a significant risk to public health. These findings call for the formulation of various policies and action plans, including controlling the land degradation and desertification and reducing the concentrations of PM and other air pollutants in the region.
    Language: English
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2021-02-02
    Description: This report explores the challenges of address-ing emerging activities in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) through a case study – a hy-pothetical proposal to develop commercial fish-eries in the mesopelagic zone. The case study considers how such a proposal might be ad-dressed by existing global and regional bodies and processes and the potential future role of the BBNJ Agreement.
    Language: English
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2021-02-02
    Description: We estimated the individual contributions of black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) to the aerosol absorption coefficient (σap) and absorption aerosol optical depth (AAOD) in the highly polluted Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, by applying the absorption Ångström exponent (AÅE) method to multi-wavelength aethalometer and AERONET sun/sky radiometer measurements. The elevated σap levels observed during the winter and pre-monsoon periods were primarily due to increased usage of diesel generators and low-grade fuel/coal. The AAODBC and AAODBrC values were substantially higher during the pre-monsoon period, almost two-fold higher than winter levels, due to seasonally increased biomass-burning activities from agricultural residue burning and forest fires. The overall contribution of BC to σap was approximately 80%–95%, whereas BrC accounted for 5%–20% at 520 nm. However, the BrC contribution to σap at 370 nm was substantially higher during the winter, ranging from 29.3% to 34.0%. The portioning of AERONET measurements indicates that BC contributed 80% (69%) while BrC contributed 20% (31%) to AAOD of carbonaceous aerosols at 520 nm (370 nm). Although the observation principles and techniques are completely independent, the BC and BrC absorption for simultaneous daytime data points shows a strong correlation between surface aethalometer-based and column AERONET-based estimates. The contributions of BC and BrC to absorption in Kathmandu Valley are similar to those observed under open biomass and garbage-burning conditions; however, the BrC absorption at both 370 and 520 nm is approximately 2- to 3-fold higher than those observed for urban areas in East Asia.
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    In:  The lancet. Planetary health
    Publication Date: 2021-02-02
    Language: English
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  • 15
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    In:  Die Mediation : Fachmagazin für Konfliktlösung - Enscheidungsfindung - Kommunikation
    Publication Date: 2021-02-02
    Language: German
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2021-02-02
    Description: The rising share of renewable energy in the European grid creates a demand for long-length, high-power transmission lines. Superconducting cables represent an attractive option for such connections, offering considerable savings in energy and space for installation. Due to its low cost, the MgB2 superconductor might be an interesting choice, but it requires to be operated at very low temperature. In this paper, a simple thermo-hydraulic model is developed, which allows for a fast assessment of the main dimensions of a four-wall cryogenic envelope around a high-power MgB2 cable as well as the achievable distance between two cooling stations. This model is then expanded to provide the budgetary cost of such a link including the components of the cryostat and the necessary cooling stations. A significant cost reduction as compared to a resistive link can be found for a transmitted power of 6.4 GW. Different optimizations are investigated, which result in further savings.
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    In:  IASS Blog, 21.01.2021
    Publication Date: 2021-02-02
    Description: Mit dem raschen Wachstum des Technologiesektors in den vergangen zehn Jahren ist die Nachfrage nach Metallen wie Kupfer, Mangan oder Kobalt und weiteren seltenen Erdmineralien um ein Vielfaches gestiegen. Der Tiefseeboden als potenzielle Quelle dieser Mineralien scheint vor diesem Hintergrund besonders attraktiv, insbesondere weil der industrielle Tiefseebodenbergbau nun kurz vor der Operationalisierung steht.
    Language: German
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  • 18
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    In:  Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte: APuZ
    Publication Date: 2021-02-02
    Description: Im Abstand von zehn Jahren sind Proteste in Stuttgart zweimal zu einem bundesweiten Gesprächsthema geworden. Zweimal drehte sich die Diskussion darum, welche Rolle Proteste in der Demokratie spielen und wo die Grenzen legitimer Einmischung verlaufen. Im Herbst 2010 war es der heftige Widerspruch gegen das Infrastrukturprojekt "Stuttgart 21", der eine Diskussion darüber auslöste, in welchem Verhältnis Straßenproteste und durch demokratische Verfahren legitimierte Entscheidungen stünden. Ein Jahrzehnt später, im Sommer 2020, führte die Initiative "Querdenken 711" zu ähnlichen, aber etwas anders akzentuierten Debatten. Die Fragen lauteten hier: Was sind die Grundlagen und die Maßstäbe der Kritik an den Maßnahmen zur Eindämmung der Covid-19- beziehungsweise der Corona-Pandemie? Ist es legitim, die Einschränkungen mit totalitären Systemen zu vergleichen und den Schulterschluss mit Demokratiefeinden zu suchen? Mit diesen beiden Protestserien stand Stuttgart in einem Jahrzehnt gleich zweimal für grundsätzliche Diskussionen über demokratische Verfahren und das Recht der Bürger*innen auf Widerspruch. Beide Konflikte sind aber auch Wegmarken für größere Veränderungen in der deutschen Protestlandschaft.
    Language: German
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  • 19
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    In:  Frontiers in climate
    Publication Date: 2021-02-02
    Description: Societal issues involving policies and publics are generally understudied in research on ocean-based Negative Emission Technologies (NETs), yet will be crucial if novel techniques are ever to function at scale. Public attitudes are vital for emerging technologies: publics influence political mandates, help determine the degree of uptake by market actors, and are key to realizing broader ambitions for robust decision-making and responsible incentivization. Discourses surrounding ocean NETs will also have fundamental effects on how governance for the techniques emerges, shaping how they are defined as an object of governance, who is assigned the authority to govern, and what instruments are deemed appropriate. This Perspective brings together key insights on the societal dimensions of ocean NETs, drawing on existing work on public acceptability, policy assessment, governance, and discourse. Ocean iron fertilization is the only ocean NET on which there exists considerable social science research thus far, and we show that much evidence points against its social desirability. Taken in conjunction with considerable natural science uncertainties, this leads us to question whether further research is actually necessary in order to rule out ocean iron fertilization as an option. For other ocean NETs, there is a need for further research into social dimensions, yet research on analogous technologies shows that ocean interventions will likely evoke strong risk perceptions, and evidence suggests that the majority of ocean NETs may face a greater public acceptability challenge than terrestrial NETs. Ocean NETs also raise complex challenges around governance, which pose questions well-beyond the remit of the natural sciences and engineering. Using a conceptual exploration of the ways in which different types of discourse may shape emerging ocean NETs governance, we show that the very idea of ocean NETs is likely to set the stage for a whole new range of contested futures.
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS)
    In:  IASS Discussion Paper
    Publication Date: 2021-02-10
    Description: Post-pandemic recovery plans will play an important role in strengthening healthcare systems and rebuilding economies. These stimulus packages and policy responses present a unique opportunity to steer the global economy towards sustainable growth, increase resilience and bolster efforts to tackle the challenge of climate change. This IASS Discussion Paper shows how policymakers could align post-pandemic recovery planning with existing climate goals to unlock co-benefits for sustainable development and climate change mitigation and adaptation.
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  • 21
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    In:  Demokratie gegen Menschenfeindlichkeit
    Publication Date: 2021-02-17
    Description: Als „demokratischer Widerstand" und als „Querdenker" verstehen sich Initiativen, die in der Corona-Krise neu entstanden sind, um einer weitreichenden Kritik an den Regierungsmaßnahmen in der Pandemie einen Raum zu geben. Seit den Kontaktbeschränkungen und damit einhergehenden Einschränkungen des öffentlichen Lebens im März 2020 wurde diese Kritik bei Kundgebungen, später auch bei Protestmärschen auf die Straße getragen. Sie reihten sich damit zunächst in eine Vielzahl kleinerer Proteste ein, die die staatlichen Eingriffe und die sozialen Zuspitzungen in der Krise problematisierten und unter anderem die Versammlungsfreiheit für sich einforderten. Darüber hinaus beklagten die Demonstrierenden auf den Berliner „Hygienedemos" oder den Kundgebungen von „Querdenken 711" in Stuttgart die beschränkte Meinungsvielfalt in der öffentlichen Debatte und die Entstehung einer „Corona-Diktatur". Wie wurden Proteste, die mit zunächst nachvollziehbaren Motivationen ins Leben gerufen wurden, zur Bühne von Verschwörungsunternehmer*innen und Reichsbürger*innen? Und was waren die Bedingungen, unter denen sich die Proteste bundesweit verbreiteten und vernetzten?
    Language: German
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2021-02-19
    Language: English
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  • 23
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    In:  Öffentliche Mobilität : Voraussetzungen für eine menschengerechte Verkehrsplanung
    Publication Date: 2021-02-15
    Description: Der Anstoß für Deutschlands erstes Fahrradgesetz kam aus der Zivilgesellschaft. Der Impuls entstand aus dem weiterhin ungeklärten Konflikt zwischen der Autofixierung der konservativen deutschen Verkehrspolitik und dem progressiven Wunsch nach einer nachhaltigen Mobilität, die sich an den Bedürfnissen der Bürger*innen orientieren soll und eine Umverteilung des Straßenraumes zugunsten des Radverkehrs erforderte. Dass Verkehr nachhaltiger gestaltet werden muss, war Konsens. Über das Wie gingen die Meinungen stark auseinander.
    Language: German
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2021-02-26
    Description: Three major global processes in ocean governance under the umbrella of the United Nations are currently underway: negotiations for an international legally binding agreement under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ); the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets adopted in 2010 as part of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 are coming to an end and new and updated biodiversity targets will be adopted as part of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework in 2020; and many of the targets set under the Sustainable Development Goal 14 (SDG 14) as part of the ocean United Nations 2030 Agenda, which includes focuses on 17 Sustainable Development Goals, to holistically address current global challenges are set to expire and are expected to be updated or renewed. This Chapter highlights the need to ensure coherence across these global processes for marine conservation and provides ways in which ocean governance can be strengthened to support global processes and marine conservation goals.
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2021-02-23
    Description: The economic context for renewable power in Europe is shifting: feed-in tariffs are replaced by auctioned premiums as the main support schemes. As renewables approach competitiveness, political pressure mounts to phase out support, whereas some other actors perceive a need for continued fixed-price support. We investigate how the phase-out of support or the reintroduction of feed-in tariffs would affect investors’ choices for renewables through a conjoint analysis. In particular, we analyse the impact of coordination – the simultaneousness – of policy changes across countries and technologies. We find that investment choices are not strongly affected if policy changes are coordinated and returns unaffected. However, if policy changes are uncoordinated, investments shift to still supported – less mature and costlier – technologies or countries where support remains or is reintroduced. This shift is particularly strong for large investors and could potentially skew the European power mix towards an over-reliance on a single, less mature technology or specific generation region, resulting in a more expensive power system. If European countries want to change their renewable power support policies, and especially if they phase out support and expose renewables to market competition, it is important that they coordinate their actions.
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2021-02-22
    Description: Since 2015 there has been a surge of international agendas to address a range of global challenges: climate change (Paris Agreement), sustainable development (Agenda 2030), disaster risk reduction (Sendai Framework) and sustainable urban transformation (New Urban Agenda). Health is relevant to all of these agendas. Policymakers must now translate these global agendas into national level policies to implement the agreed goals in a coherent manner. However, approaches to synergise health activities within and across these agendas are needed, in order to achieve better coherence and maximise national level implementation. This research evaluated the framing of human health within these agendas. A content analysis of the agendas was conducted. Findings indicate (i) the importance of increased awareness of health systems strengthening as a helpful framework to guide the integration of health issues across the agendas, (ii) only two health themes had synergies across the agendas, (iii) the lack of a governance mechanism to support the integration of these four agendas to enable national (and sub-national) governments to more feasibly implement their ambitions, and (iv) the vital component of health leadership. Finally, planetary health is a relevant and timely concept that can support the urgent shift to a healthy planet and people.
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2021-02-22
    Description: The Salas y Gómez and Nazca ridges are two seamount chains of volcanic origin, which include over 110 seamounts that collectively stretch across over 2,900 km in the southeastern Pacific. Ecosystems in this region are isolated by the Atacama Trench, the Humboldt Current System, and an extreme oxygen minimum zone. This isolation has produced a unique biodiversity that is marked by one of the highest levels of marine endemism on Earth. These areas also provide important habitats and ecological stepping stones for whales, sea turtles, corals, and a multitude of other ecologically important species, including 82 species that are threatened or endangered. Recent explorations in this region have documented one of the deepest light-dependent marine ecosystems on Earth, as well as numerous species that are new to science. Waters surrounding the Salas y Gómez and Nazca ridges are mostly located in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ), with smaller portions located in the national waters of Chile and Peru. Within this region, Chile has already protected all the ridge features that fall within its jurisdiction, and Peru is evaluating a proposal that would protect the seafloor that falls within its national waters. However, all of the ABNJ in the region, which cover over 73% of the Salas y Gómez and Nazca ridges, are unprotected and under threat from a variety of stressors, including climate change, plastic pollution, overfishing, and potential deep-sea mining in the future. Importantly, fishing and other commercial activities are at low levels in international waters of this region, so there is a time-sensitive opportunity to protect its unique natural and cultural resources before they are degraded. This study provides a synthesis of the relevant science that has been conducted on the Salas y Gómez and Nazca ridges, and discusses the opportunities and challenges for protecting this unique region via existing sectoral organizations and through the emerging international agreement on biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ). Given its exceptional natural and cultural significance, the Salas y Gómez and Nazca ridges should be comprehensively protected from exploitation, pollution and other anthropogenic threats using the best available conservation measures.
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2021-03-04
    Description: Environmental issues still tend to be studied and publicly debated from a natural science perspective. However, many ecological problems arise from the direct use of ecosystem resources or less obviously from the indirect consequences of social processes that need to be integrated into socio-ecological research. Using expertise from social and natural sciences in a dialogical way will highlight where shared concepts are necessary and what they could look like. This will emerge from the collaborative research process without the need to come up with a unifying theory in advance. This article promotes the concepts of ‘socioindicators’ and ‘sociodiversity’ – as counterparts to ‘bioindicators’ and ‘biodiversity’ – in order to allow for better communication between the social and natural sciences. The honeybees are a particularly good test case for this socio-ecological communication.
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  • 29
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    In:  Climanosco Research Articles
    Publication Date: 2021-03-04
    Description: Climate change mitigation is about more than just CO2. Mitigating a suite of additional pollutants is important for limiting climate change: in particular, taking action on what are known as "short-lived climate-forcing pollutants" (SLCPs). Although it is common to report the effect of non-CO2 climate warmers in terms of "CO2 equivalence" they aren't simply "equivalent" – their effects on climate and ecosystem are distinct. In the case of SLCPs, one important difference is in the time horizon: SLCPs have the largest impact on near-term climate whereas CO2 has the largest impact on long-term climate. This article explores the reasons for these differences and examines why it is important to consider them when designing effective climate mitigation policies. It argues that clear communication on the different time horizons relevant for CO2 vs. SLCP mitigation is important for clarifying climate policy discussions and ethical decisions regarding the relative importance of near-term vs. long-term effects. It also argues that using a 100-year time horizon as primary basis for evaluating climate effects undervalues the positive near-term effects that can be achieved via SLCP mitigation –including for health, food security and sustainable development – and thus fails to take full advantage of near-term interests to motivate action.
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2021-03-04
    Description: Research software has become a central asset in academic research. It optimizes existing and enables new research methods, implements and embeds research knowledge, and constitutes an essential research product in itself. Research software must be sustainable in order to understand, replicate, reproduce, and build upon existing research or conduct new research effectively. In other words, software must be available, discoverable, usable, and adaptable to new needs, both now and in the future. Research software therefore requires an environment that supports sustainability. Hence, a change is needed in the way research software development and maintenance are currently motivated, incentivized, funded, structurally and infrastructurally supported, and legally treated. Failing to do so will threaten the quality and validity of research. In this paper, we identify challenges for research software sustainability in Germany and beyond, in terms of motivation, selection, research software engineering personnel, funding, infrastructure, and legal aspects. Besides researchers, we specifically address political and academic decision-makers to increase awareness of the importance and needs of sustainable research software practices. In particular, we recommend strategies and measures to create an environment for sustainable research software, with the ultimate goal to ensure that software-driven research is valid, reproducible and sustainable, and that software is recognized as a first class citizen in research. This paper is the outcome of two workshops run in Germany in 2019, at deRSE19 - the first International Conference of Research Software Engineers in Germany - and a dedicated DFG-supported follow-up workshop in Berlin.
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  • 31
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    Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS)
    In:  IASS Study
    Publication Date: 2021-03-05
    Description: This analysis addresses the question which role regional level governance plays as part of a multi-layered approach addressing marine plastic pollution. It looks at what regional organisations have achieved so far and offers recommendations for policymakers on how these efforts can be leveraged, supported and linked to a proposed new global agreement on marine plastic litter. The research aims to inform international discussions and efforts to prevent plastic pollution, including further work under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Assembly.
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  • 32
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    Boston University, Global Development Policy Center, Global Economic Governance Initiative
    In:  GEGI Study
    Publication Date: 2021-03-03
    Description: This study conceptualizes international monetary hierarchy by focusing on different mechanisms to supply emergency US-Dollar (USD) liquidity from the Federal Reserve (Fed) to non-US central banks. To this end, it takes on board insights of critical macrofinance and develops a model of the global financial architecture as a web of interlocking balance sheets.
    Language: English
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2021-03-03
    Description: Das DiDaT Weißbuch ist das Ergebnis eines zweijährigen transdisziplinären Prozesses der Identifikation, Erkundung und Analyse der Probleme und Lösungsoptionen bei der Erfassung, Behandlung, Verwertung und Nutzung digitaler Daten. Das Projekt DiDaT hat sich zum Ziel gesetzt, die zentralen Auswirkungen und Nebenwirkungen („Unseens“ genannt), die sich aus den „Wechselwirkungen des Besitzes/Eigentums, des ökonomischen Wertes, der Nutzung und dem Zugang zu digitalen Daten“ ergeben, zu erforschen, deren Wirkungen zu bewerten und Orientierungen zur Entwicklung von Strategien zu entwickeln, die Personen, Unternehmen, und anderen sozialen Akteuren einen angemessenen Umgang mit möglichen unerwünschten Effekten zu ermöglichen.
    Language: German
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2021-03-03
    Description: Der vorliegende Band „Supplementarischen Informationen zum DiDaT Weißbuch“ beinhaltet 24 Kurzpapiere. In jedem dieser Kurzpapiere wird jeweils eine Sozial Robuste Orientierung (SoRO) zu den fünf Vulnerabilitätsräumen Mobilität, Gesundheit, KMU, Landwirtschaft und Soziale Medien abgeleitet und beschrieben.
    Language: German
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  • 35
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    In:  In Gesellschaft Richard Sennetts : Perspektiven auf ein Lebenswerk
    Publication Date: 2021-03-03
    Language: German
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  • 36
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    In:  DiDaT Weißbuch : Verantwortungsvoller Umgang mit digitalen Daten – Orientierungen eines transdisziplinären Prozesses
    Publication Date: 2021-03-03
    Description: Das DiDaT Weißbuch liefert Orientierungen, Wegweiser und Leitplanken für einen verantwortungsvollen Umgang mit digitalen Daten und Infrastruktursystemen. Sozial Robuste Orientierungen (SoRO) für die vier Vulnerabilitätsräume Mobilität, Gesundheit, Landwirtschaft, sowie die Zukunft der KMU sind das Hauptprodukt von DiDaT. Zudem betrachten wir in einem werteorientierten Vulnerabilitätsraum die Auswirkung der Nutzung von sozialen Medien auf das Wohlbefinden und die Demokratiefähigkeit des/der Einzelnen. Dabei wird auch das Datengeschäftsmodell hinter Sozialen Medien in Betracht gezogen. Vulnerabilitätsräume werden in diesem Weißbuch als Teilsysteme von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft begriffen, in denen Maßnahmen zu einer Verminderung der negativen Folgen der digitalen Transformationen und eine teilweise erhebliche Anpassung durch die Akteure dieser Bereiche notwendig sind. Alle Ergebnisse sind von rund 150 ExpertInnen aus Wissenschaft und Praxis in einem zweijährigen transdisziplinären Prozess erarbeitet worden. Das Einführungskapitel präsentiert Ziele, Vorgehen im Projekt, Grundaussagen zur Digitalen Transformation, die für alle betrachteten Vulnerabilitätsräume Gültigkeit besitzen, sowie vier Perspektiven für nachhaltige Nutzungsregeln digitaler Daten in Deutschland und Europa.
    Language: German
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  • 37
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    In:  Historical traces and future pathways of poststructuralism : aesthetics, ethics, politics
    Publication Date: 2021-03-08
    Description: Temporality has played a central role in poststructuralist thought, where the human experience of living in time has been understood as having profound ethical and political consequences. In this chapter, I seek to approach questions posed by poststructuralist notions of temporality via Judith Butler's discussion of the role accounting for one's personal past plays in moral philosophy. I compare Butler's understanding of selfhood, where the past constitutes the self but remains only partially knowable and aporetic, with approaches by 'narrativity' theorists, who argue that a cohesive narrative of the past is central to the notion of agency. While agreeing with Butler's argument that one's relationship to one's own past does not need to take the form of a cohesive narrative, I argue that her account could benefit from a closer engagement with phenomenological notions of time-experience. I draw on Thomas Fuchs's discussion of the role of time experience in psychological pathologies, and also explore Denise Riley's description of mourning as a form of altered time experience. In closing, I seek to point towards possible connections and disconnections between 'personal' temporality and 'historical' time. I argue that a critique of cohesiveness enables a post-foundational account of the political, which can enable a rethinking of the role futurity plays for political thought.
    Language: English
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2021-03-08
    Description: In this article, we review the main impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global energy sector and evaluate the implications of related policy responses on prospects for a transition to a climate-friendly energy system. In doing so, we differentiate between different types of countries and different dimensions of energy supply. Firstly, we assess the impacts on leaders and laggards in the transformation of the power sector, in terms of renewable power deployment and the phase-out of coal-fired power generation. Secondly, we consider impacts of the crisis on major exporters of oil and gas resources, focusing on a selection of G20 countries. We find that the impact of the COVID-19 crisis and related policy responses vary across different types of countries but also within large countries, such as the US and China. We conclude that the COVID-19 crisis deepens the gulf between leaders and laggards of the global energy transition and will exacerbate existing imbalances in an uneven energy transition landscape. This threatens the achievement of international climate targets and points to the need for concerted international action aimed at the phase-out of fossil energy resources.
    Language: English
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2021-03-16
    Description: Taking the early tissue culture experiments of Alexis Carrel in the 1910s–1930s as its example, the article explores the relationship between advances in biotechnological control over living matter and a holistic ontology of life, which stresses the temporal specificity of living things. With reference to Henri Bergson, Carrel argued that physiological time depends on an organism’s relationship to its milieu. By developing a laboratory apparatus and culture media, new objects of investigation could be made to live outside the organism and be brought to behave in novel temporal ways. In difference to recent biotechnological advances, like for example genome editing, which seek to ‘engineer’ living organisms by rebuilding them from their DNA up, then, early twentieth century interventionist laboratory practices were often linked to an understanding that biological plasticity results from organismic complexity and interactions between organism and milieu. These notions contributed to shaping laboratory apparatuses and techniques; they also helped to establish an understanding of environmental control that would allow for the production of novel ‘living things’.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2021-03-16
    Description: We analyse the potential for industry entry and catching up by latecomer countries or firms in formative sectors, by deriving a framework that builds on the concept of windows of opportunity for catching up. This framework highlights differences in technological, market, and institutional characteristics between formative and mature sectors, and elaborates how this may affect opportunities for catching up. We apply this framework to the global Concentrated Solar Power sector, in which China has rapidly narrowed the gap to the global forefront in terms of technological capabilities and market competitiveness. We find that the formative nature of the sector resulted in turbulent development of the technological, market, and institutional dimensions, making it more difficult for early leaders to retain leadership, and therefore easier for latecomer firms or countries to catch up. This signals an increased role in early-stage technology development in the next phase of the energy transition.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2021-03-16
    Description: The economy for the common good (ECG) has been developed as a practical economic model, starting in Austria, Bavaria, and South Tyrol in 2010. Nowadays, ECG is considered a viable approach for sustainable transformation across Europe, and also worldwide. Within economic policy, ECG expands social market economy concepts; from a theoretical perspective of economics the question arises, of whether the implicit theoretical model refines the neoclassical paradigm or actually transcends it. During the first scientific conference on the ECG, at the end of 2019 at the University of Applied Sciences Bremen, some 150 participants concluded that an investigation of ECG practices was necessary, and that the fundamental theory needs to be developed in an explicit and systematic way. This article is a first attempt at contrasting the theoretical basis of the ECG model with neoclassical economics, using core concepts and cornerstones of the latter’s paradigm. The outcome is the cornerstone of common good economics.
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  • 42
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    In:  Prokla: Zeitschrift für kritische Sozialwissenschaft
    Publication Date: 2021-03-16
    Description: Gegen das Projekt eines (Europäischen) Green Deal beschwört die populistische Rechte die Dystopie einer drohenden Öko-Diktatur. Welche Rolle spielt diese dystopische Denkfigur im politischen Diskurs? Für wen ist dieses Zukunftsbild glaubwürdig? Wie lässt sich die darin ausgedrückte Zukunftsangst kritisieren? Der Beitrag behandelt diese Fragen aus ideologiekritischer, utopietheoretischer und diskursanalytischer Perspektive.
    Language: German
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2021-03-26
    Description: Kopenhagen ist eine der Städte mit der besten Fahrradinfrastruktur weltweit. Um zu verstehen, wie die dänische Hauptstadt das erreicht hat, lohnt sich ein Blick in ihre Vergangenheit. Nach Jahrzehnten der autogerechten Stadtplanung, vor der auch Kopenhagen nicht gefeit war, demonstrierten in den späten 1970er und frühen 1980er Jahren Zehntausende für mehr Radwege – mit Erfolg. Welche Rolle haben Diskurse und Erzählungen über das Fahrrad im Dänemark dieser Zeit gespielt, damit aus Kopenhagen die Fahrradstadt werden konnte, die sie heute ist? Und was können wir daraus lernen, um selbst die politische Förderung des Fahrrads als nachhaltiges Verkehrsmittel kommunikativ zu befördern? Diesen Fragen widmet sich das vorliegende Discussion Paper. Es untersucht drei repräsentative Korpora der auflagenstärksten Tageszeitungen Dänemarks aus den Jahren 1977, 1980 und 1983 mithilfe der im Projekt „Narrative der Nachhaltigkeit“ entwickelten „pentadischen“ Narrativanalyse. Das Ziel ist es, erfolgreiche Narrative für die Verkehrswende hin zu einer nachhaltigen urbanen Mobilität zu identifizieren.
    Language: German
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Language: German
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Description: We investigate whether political ideology has an observable effect on decarbonization ambition, renewable power aims, and preferences for power system balancing technologies in four European countries. Based on the Energy Logics framework, we identify ideologically different transition strategies (state-centered, market-centered, grassroots-centered) contained in government policies and opposition party programs valid in 2019. We compare these policies and programs with citizen poll data. We find that ideology has a small effect: governments and political parties across the spectrum have similar, and relatively ambitious, decarbonization and renewables targets. This mirrors citizens’ strong support for ambitious action regardless of their ideological self-description. However, whereas political positions on phasing out fossil fuel power are clear across the policy space, positions on phasing in new flexibility options to balance intermittent renewables are vague or non-existent. As parties and citizens agree on strong climate and renewable power aims, the policy ambition is likely to remain high, even if governments change.
    Language: English
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  • 46
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    Zenodo
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Description: The APExpose_DE dataset is a long-term (2010-2019) dataset providing ambient air pollution metrics at yearly time resolution for NO2, NO, O3, PM10 and PM2.5 at the NUTS-3 spatial resolution level (corresponding to the Landkreis/Kreisfreie Stadt in Germany). The sources used for the production of the dataset were Airbase, from the European Environmental Agency (https://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/air/explore-air-pollution-data) and the CAMS global reanalysis EAC4 (https://www.ecmwf.int/en/forecasts/dataset/cams-global-reanalysis). Stations of the types "Traffic" and "Industrial" were left out for being considered unrepresentative to long-term exposure, those of the type "Background" were included. Each station was geo-located within, and each computed yearly value associated to, a NUTS-3 unit. Within each NUTS-3 unit and for each metric, the yearly values per station were averaged in three ways, giving preference to different station sitings, each representing a different scenario: average, urban, remote. The monitoring data were produced for the NUTS-3 units and the years where monitoring data for a given pollutant is available. In order to complete the dataset for the NUTS-3 units where no monitoring data for a given pollutant is available, the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS) EAC4 reanalysis (https://www.ecmwf.int/en/forecasts/dataset/cams-global-reanalysis) was used. The yearly-averaged rasters from CAMS were vectorized and scaled to available monitoring data to obtain values for each NUTS-3 units. As a final step, the Airbase and CAMS derived data were combined to produce the APExpose_DE dataset.
    Language: English
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Description: As energy models become more and more powerful, they are increasingly used to support energy policymaking. Although modelling has been used for policy advice for many years, there is little knowledge about how computer-based models actually influence policymaking, and to what extent policymakers influence the modelling process. Here, we empirically investigate (i) whether, how and when models influence the policymaking process, and (ii) whether, how and when policymakers influence the design, use and results of energy modelling. We analysed modelling and policy documents and conducted thirty-two interviews with different stakeholder groups in five different European jurisdictions. We show that models are used and have an impact on policymaking, especially by assessing impacts and supporting target setting, and sometimes by exploring policy options to reach these targets. We also show that policymakers influence models and modellers, especially by affecting data and assumptions, as well as the study scope, and by deciding how the modelling results are used. Hence, energy modelling and policymaking influence each other. In their exploratory mode, models can help investigate policy options and ambitious target setting. However, models can also be instrumentalised to justify already decided policies and targets. Our study implies that greater transparency, including open-source code and open data, and transdisciplinary elements in modelling could increase model legitimacy and impact in policymaking.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Description: Sustainable electricity systems need renewable and dispatchable energy sources. Solar energy is an abundant source of renewable energy globally which is, though, by nature only available during the day, and especially in clear weather conditions. We compare three technology configurations able to provide dispatchable solar power at times without sunshine: Photovoltaics (PV) combined with battery (BESS) or thermal energy storage (TES) and concentrating solar power (CSP) with TES. Modeling different periods without sunshine, we find that PV+BESS is competitive for shorter storage durations while CSP+TES gains economic advantages for longer storage periods (also over PV+TES). The corresponding tipping points lie at 2–3 hours (current cost), and 4–10 hours if expectations on future cost developments are taken into consideration. PV+TES becomes only more competitive than CSP+TES with immense additional cost reductions of PV. Hence, there remain distinct niches for two technologies: PV+BESS for short storage durations and CSP+TES for longer ones.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Description: This is the third version of CSP.guru produced during the openCSP project and reflects the state of play at the beginning of 2021.
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  • 50
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    In:  Wir machen das schon: Lausitz im Wandel
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Description: In ihrer Jugend wollte Silke Butzlaff eigentlich nicht in den Bergbau. Nun steuert sie seit 37 den ältesten noch im Betrieb befindlichen Eimerkettenbagger in der Lausitz und ist doch Bergarbeiterin geworden. Seitdem die Gesellschaft der Kohle zunehmend kritisch gegenübersteht, engagiert sie sich in zahlreichen öffentlichen Aktionen und mit eigenen Fotos für einen respektvollen Umgang mit dem Bergbau und für ganz unterschiedliche Personengruppen unserer Gesellschaft.
    Language: German
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  • 51
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    Christoph Links Verlag
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Description: Die Lausitz hat einen Strukturbruch hinter und einen Strukturwandel vor sich. Der wirtschaftliche Umbau nach der deutschen Vereinigung hat nicht viel von der Industrie, die vor allem auf Braunkohle setzte, übrig gelassen. Tausende Menschen wanderten ab. Mit dem Kohleausstieg bis 2038 stehen erneut fundamentale Veränderungen bevor. Wie unterscheidet sich der aktuelle Strukturwandel von den Brüchen der Nachwendejahre? Wer sind die Menschen in der Lausitz? Warum bleiben viele skeptisch, wenn Milliardenhilfen ins Gesetz geschrieben werden? Was hoffen die Lausitzer*innen, was unternehmen sie? Die Erfahrungen sind vielfältiger und positiver als Arbeitsplatzverlust, Abwanderung und ländliche Peripherie. Das Buch versammelt 15 Gesichter und Geschichten, die für die Vielschichtigkeit des Landstrichs in Brandenburg und Sachsen stehen. Es stellt der Erzählung über die Lausitz eine Vielfalt von Perspektiven aus der Lausitz gegenüber. Nachdenkliche Töne klingen ebenso an wie hoffnungsvolle.
    Language: German
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Description: The history of concentrating solar power (CSP) is characterized by a boom-bust pattern caused by policy support changes. Following the 2014–2016 bust phase, the combination of Chinese support and several low-cost projects triggered a new boom phase. We investigate the near- to mid-term cost, industry, market and policy outlook for the global CSP sector and show that CSP costs have decreased strongly and approach cost-competitiveness with new conventional generation. Industry has been strengthened through the entry of numerous new companies. However, the project pipeline is thin: no project broke ground in 2019 and only four projects are under construction in 2020. The only remaining large support scheme, in China, has been canceled. Without additional support soon creating a new market, the value chain may collapse and recent cost and technological advances may be undone. If policy support is renewed, however, the global CSP sector is prepared for a bright future.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Language: German
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2021-03-23
    Description: Fisheries management has to deal with uncertainty about the genetic composition and the location of fish stocks. If institutions are inert, i.e. unable to adapt to new insights, management may not be effective. This paper analyses fisheries management in Europe which relies on scientific advice feeding into the management decision process. The spatial boundaries of fish stocks define the scientific areas and management areas, which are not necessarily aligned. Even if new scientific information on the stock composition and location leads to changes in scientific areas, the management areas are usually not adjusted. This causes an institutional mismatch which violates the self-imposed good governance principles of the EU. We use the North Sea and the Western horse mackerel stocks to gain some insights in the process of renegotiating new management areas and national fisheries quotas. We find that distributional concerns around allocating quota are a key obstacle for an adjustment of management areas. We suggest to pre-define a transparent mechanism to facilitate adapting management areas to scientific areas.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2021-03-23
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  • 56
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    In:  nachhaltig.digital - Blog, 24.02.2021
    Publication Date: 2021-03-23
    Description: Die Digitalisierung in der Wirtschaft ist seit einigen Jahren in vollem Gange und lässt sich durch drei prägnante Veränderungsprozesse charakterisieren: neben ganzen Wertschöpfungsmodellen verändern sich auch Informations- und Ressourcenflüsse, was im Folgenden näher betrachtet werden soll.
    Language: German
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2021-03-23
    Description: Transitioning German road transport partially to hydrogen energy is among the possibilities being discussed to help meet national climate targets. This study investigates impacts of a hypothetical, complete transition from conventionally-fueled to hydrogen-powered German transport through representative scenarios. Our results show that German emissions change between −179 and +95 MtCO2eq annually, depending on the scenario, with renewable-powered electrolysis leading to the greatest emissions reduction, while electrolysis using the fossil-intense current electricity mix leads to the greatest increase. German energy emissions of regulated pollutants decrease significantly, indicating the potential for simultaneous air quality improvements. Vehicular hydrogen demand is 1000 PJ annually, requiring 446–525 TWh for electrolysis, hydrogen transport and storage, which could be supplied by future German renewable generation, supporting the potential for CO2-free hydrogen traffic and increased energy security. Thus hydrogen-powered transport could contribute significantly to climate and air quality goals, warranting further research and political discussion about this possibility.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2021-03-23
    Description: Air pollution is a pressing issue that is associated with adverse effects on human health, ecosystems, and climate. Despite many years of effort to improve air quality, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) limit values are still regularly exceeded in Europe, particularly in cities and along streets. This study explores how concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) in European urban areas have changed over the last decades and how this relates to changes in emissions. To do so, the incremental approach was used, comparing urban increments (i.e. urban background minus rural concentrations) to total emissions, and roadside increments (i.e. urban roadside concentrations minus urban background concentrations) to traffic emissions. In total, nine European cities were assessed. The study revealed that potentially confounding factors like the impact of urban pollution at rural monitoring sites through atmospheric transport are generally negligible for NOx. The approach proves therefore particularly useful for this pollutant. The estimated urban increments all showed downward trends, and for the majority of the cities the trends aligned well with the total emissions. However, it was found that factors like a very densely populated surrounding or local emission sources in the rural area such as shipping traffic on inland waterways restrict the application of the approach for some cities. The roadside increments showed an overall very diverse picture in their absolute values and trends and also in their relation to traffic emissions. This variability and the discrepancies between roadside increments and emissions could be attributed to a combination of local influencing factors at the street level and different aspects introducing inaccuracies to the trends of the emission inventories used, including deficient emission factors. Applying the incremental approach was evaluated as useful for long-term pan-European studies, but at the same time it was found to be restricted to certain regions and cities due to data availability issues. The results also highlight that using emission inventories for the prediction of future health impacts and compliance with limit values needs to consider the distinct variability in the concentrations not only across but also within cities.
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  • 59
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    In:  Gewissheit : Beiträge und Debatten zum 3. Sektionskongress der Wissenssoziologie
    Publication Date: 2021-03-30
    Language: German
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2021-03-30
    Description: 2011 trat der Nawis-Verbund mit dem Vorhaben an, transdisziplinäre Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaft institutionell zu etablieren und einen Wandel im Wissenschaftssystem anzu stoßen. Damit verbunden ist die neu gedachte Wissenschaftspraxis der transformativen Forschung, die eine analytische Komponente und einen normativen Auftrag umfasst.
    Language: German
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  • 61
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    In:  GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society
    Publication Date: 2021-03-30
    Description: Digitalisation can drive the sustainable transformation of society and industry. Many of the opportunities are, however, closely linked with risks. The use of a systemic risk-benefit perspective can help with the review and categorisation of the major impacts and trade-offs regarding the ecological, economic, and social dimensions of sustainability. The dynamics and uncertainties of digitalisation are complex ‐ to make digitalisation a sustainable success, all involved actors should be engaged in a co-design process to develop a governance structure that is in line with sustainability.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2021-03-29
    Description: The rapid uptake of renewable energy technologies in recent decades has increased the demand of energyresearchers, policymakers and energy planners for reliable data on the spatial distribution of their costs and potentials. For onshore wind energy this has resulted in an active research field devoted to analysing these resources for regions, countries or globally. A particular thread of this research attempts to go beyond purely technical or spatial restrictions and determine the realistic, feasible or actual potential for wind energy. Motivated by these developments, this paper reviews methods and assumptions for analysing geographical, technical, economic and, finally, feasible onshore wind potentials. We address each of these potentials in turn, including aspects related to land eligibility criteria, energy meteorology, and technical developments relating to wind turbine characteristics such as power density, specific rotor power and spacing aspects. Economic aspects of potential assessments are central to future deployment and are discussed on a turbine and system level covering levelized costs depending on locations, and the system integration costs which are often overlooked in such analyses. Non-technical approaches include scenicness assessments of the landscape, expert and stakeholder workshops, willingness to pay / accept elicitations and socioeconomic cost-benefit studies. For each of these different potential estimations, the state of the art is critically discussed, with an attempt to derive best practice recommendations and highlight avenues for future research.
    Language: English
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2021-03-31
    Description: We are facing an unprecedented environmental crisis. How can we communicate and act more effectively to make the political and economic changes required to survive and even thrive within the life-support capacities of our planet? This is the question at the heart of W. Lance Bennett's much-anticipated book. Bennett challenges readers to consider how best to approach the environmental crisis by changing how we think about the relationships between environment, economy, and democracy. He introduces a framework that citizens, practitioners, and scholars can use to evaluate common but unproductive communication that blocks thinking about change; develop more effective ways to define and approach problems; and design communication processes to engage diverse publics and organizations in developing understandings, goals, and political strategies. Until advocates develop economic programs with built-in environmental solutions, they will continue to lose policy fights. Putting "intersectional" communication into action requires acknowledging that communication is not only an exchange of messages, but an organizational process. Communicating the Future is important reading for students and scholars of media and communication, as well as general readers concerned about the environmental crisis.
    Language: English
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2021-03-31
    Description: This statement makes practical proposals to address serious environmental issues raised by the EU-Mercosur Association Agreement (EUMAA). It was developed by an interdisciplinary group of academic experts.
    Language: English
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2021-04-07
    Description: Due to the strong temperature dependence of surface ozone concentrations (O3), future warmer conditions may worsen ozone pollution levels despite continued efforts on emission controls of ozone precursors. Using long-term measurements of hourly O3 concentrations co-located with NOx concentrations in stations distributed throughout Germany, we assess changes in the climate penalty in summertime, defined as the slope of ozone-temperature relationship during the period 1999–2018. We find a stronger temperature sensitivity in the urban stations over the southwestern regions, especially in the first period of the study (1999–2008). We show a decrease in the climate penalty in most of stations during the second period of the study (2009–2018), with some exceptions (e.g. Berlin) where the climate penalty did not show significant changes. A key motivation of this study is to provide further insights into the impacts of NOx reductions in the O3-temperature relationship. For that, we propose a statisti-cal approach based on Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) to describe ozone production rates, inferred from hourly observations, as a function of NOx and temperature, among other variables relevant during the O3 production. The GAMs confirm lower O3 production rates during the second period (2009–2018) at most of the stations and a decreasing sensitivity to temperature. We observe that a large number of stations are transitioning to NOx-limited chemistry, consistent with a decreasing temperature dependence of O3 at moderate-high temperatures as a result of sustained NOx reductions. Moreover, the GAMs results showed changes in the shape of the function representing the O3-temperature relationship when comparing the first and second period, which suggest changes in VOC influencing the temperature dependence of O3. From these results, we infer effective VOC reductions over time that have also contributed to the observed decrease of O3 production rates. Thus, our analysis indicates that emissions reductions have been effective in a number of stations, particularly in the southwestern regions. However, we notice that in a few stations (e.g. Berlin) additional emission reductions should be required to effectively mitigate the temperature dependence of O3.
    Language: English
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2021-04-14
    Description: Black carbon (BC) aerosol impacts the air quality, public health, agricultural productivity, weather, monsoon, cryosphere, and climate system from the local to the global scale. However, its distribution over vast Central Asia is poorly known, because it is one of the poorly sampled regions of the world. BC in the soil can be resuspended into the atmosphere and transported to downwind regions with sensitive ecosystems and vulnerable populations, such as from Central Asian countries to the cryospheric regions in the Tianshan Mountain and the Tibetan Plateau, which could accelerate the melting of the snowfields and glaciers. We report the distribution of BC and total organic carbon (TOC) in surface soil with samples collected at multiple sites, for the first time, over three countries in Central Asia (Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan). The mean BC (TOC) concentrations over three countries were 0.06 ± 0.06 (11.86 ± 4.84) mg g−1, 0.15 ± 0.21 (20.35 ± 10.96) mg g−1, and 0.32 ± 0.29 (26.45 ± 20.38) mg g−1, respectively. They were found to be originated from the same or similar sources, at least over Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, as indicated by their high and significant correlation (R2 〉 0.6, p 〈 0.001). The char/soot ratio indicated the diesel and gasoline combustion as dominant BC sources over this region. To gain further insights into the soil BC and its implications to air quality, climate, and cryosphere, future studies should include a wider area over Central Asia with different land-use types and other soil parameters combined with atmospheric simulations for this important yet relatively less studied region of the world.
    Language: English
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2021-04-21
    Description: The water footprint has developed into a widely-used concept to examine water use and resulting local impacts caused during agricultural and industrial production. Building on recent advancements in the water footprint concept, it can be an effective steering instrument to support, inter alia, achieving sustainable development goals (SDGs) - SDG 6 in particular. Within the research program “Water as a Global Resource” (GRoW), an initiative of the Federal Ministry for Education and Research, a number of research projects currently apply and enhance the water footprint concept in order to identify areas where water is being used inefficiently and implement practical optimization measures (see imprint for more information). With this paper, we aim to raise awareness on the potential of the water footprint concept to inform decision-making in the public and private sectors towards improved water management and achieving the SDGs.
    Language: English
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  • 68
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    In:  Politische Studien : Magazin für Politik und Gesellschaft
    Publication Date: 2021-04-28
    Description: Die UN-Klimarahmenkonvention (UNFCCC) bildet seit Jahrzehnten das zentrale multilaterale Steuerungsinstrument internationaler Klimaschutzbemühungen. Doch sie erzielt nicht genügend Fortschritte. „Multidimen-sionale“ Klima-Clubs können den UN-Prozess unterstützen und einen eigenen Beitrag zum Pariser Klimaschutzabkommen leisten.
    Language: German
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  • 69
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    In:  nachhaltig.digital - Blog, 15.04.2021
    Publication Date: 2021-04-28
    Description: Welche Rolle spielen Unternehmen und Haushalte in smarten und klimaneutralen Energiesystemen? Warum stellt das die Energiemodellierung vor Herausforderungen? Das beleuchten Diana Süsser und Andrzej Ceglarz in ihrem Beitrag.
    Language: German
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  • 70
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    In:  Global environmental politics
    Publication Date: 2021-04-28
    Description: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) process aimed to be more inclusive, transparent, and participatory than prior United Nations processes. This article traces the practices of representation that were performed by civil society actors during the SDG process. In doing so, we advance a performative approach in which the very process of making representation is examined. Its aim is to conceptualize and study representation as an aesthetic and political practice. This leads to the two central research questions of this article: How do civil society organizations in global environmental politics make representative claims by picturing their envisioned future? How are future representations (that is, the representation of futures or future beings) related to actor positions during the SDG process? Special emphasis is given to representations of “the future” as an ever-present frame of reference in environmental politics. Based on a systematic content analysis of the statements of two Major Groups—Children, and Youth and Farmers—we discuss the variety of future representations between the Major Groups and how especially more radical future representations are connected to rather precarious actor positions in representative claims.
    Language: English
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2021-04-28
    Description: This brief outlines how the 'Triple R framework’—Response, Recovery and Redesign—can help align different government agency and other stakeholder interests behind the kind of integrated clean air, climate, and health policies that can deliver co-benefits.
    Language: English
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2021-04-28
    Description: In this deliverable, we aim to (i). identify and specify policy-relevant scenarios, along with the respective energy targets, and qualitative narratives to base modelling runs on, and (ii). identify contextual critical issues and challenges in energy system planning, and specific research questions, to which the SENTINEL models will attempt to provide answers, accounting for particularities of diverge spatial scales. The main research questions of our work are: “What scenarios should we apply in each of the SENTINEL case studies?” and “What are the main challenges and research questions by decision- and policymakers that the SENTINEL models should be able to answer?”
    Language: English
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2021-05-13
    Description: Die Legitimität von Expert*innenkommissionen in Demokratien ist stets umstritten, weil Aushandlungsprozesse verlagert werden, die eigentlich in demokratisch legitimierten Gremien stattfinden sollten. Zugleich wird ihre Problemlösungsfähigkeit häufig gelobt. Die bisherige politikwissenschaftliche Forschung zur Legitimität von Expert*innenkommissionen konzentriert sich vor allem auf eine Beurteilung ihrer Funktionen im politischen System sowie auf einzelne Aspekte oder Dimensionen von Legitimität. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird ein umfassendes Kriteriensystem zur Beurteilung der Legitimität der Kommission Wachstum, Strukturwandel und Beschäftigung („Kohlekommission“, KWSB) entwickelt. Es beinhaltet die Input- (Inklusivität, politische Verantwortlichkeit), Throughput- (Accountability im Prozess, Transparenz, deliberative Arbeitsqualität, Inklusivität und Offenheit) und Outputlegitimität (Problemlösungsfähigkeit und Gemeinwohlorientierung). Dabei wird die Legitimität der KWSB auf Basis von Dokumentenanalysen und Interviews mit 14 der 28 Kommissionsmitglieder bzw. deren Stellvertreter*innen beurteilt. Durch die Kommission wurde ein Vorschlag entwickelt, wie ein schrittweiser Kohleausstieg mit erheblichen Unterstützungsleistungen für die betroffenen Regionen, Beschäftigten und Unternehmen aussehen kann. Über den gesamten Kommissionsprozess sind allerdings intransparente Verantwortlichkeiten, eine Privilegierung der Positionen einzelner Mitglieder sowie ein Ergebnis zu bemängeln, dessen Gemeinwohlorientierung wegen der hohen Kosten des Beschlusses und der geringen klimapolitischen Ambition umstritten ist. Zum Schluss des Aufsatzes wird diskutiert, wie die Legitimität vergleichbarer Kommissionen durch Regulierung sowie direktdemokratische Elemente erhöht werden könnte.
    Description: The legitimacy of expert commissions in democracies is always disputed, given that negotiation processes are shifted that should actually take place in democratically legitimized bodies. At the same time, their problem-solving capacity is often appreciated. Previous political science research on the legitimacy of expert commissions has focused primarily on an assessment of their functions in the political system and on individual aspects or dimensions of legitimacy. In this paper, we develop a comprehensive set of criteria for assessing the legitimacy of the Commission on Growth, Structural Change and Employment (“Coal Commission”, KWSB). It includes input (inclusiveness, political accountability), throughput (accountability in the process, transparency, deliberative quality of work, inclusiveness and openness) and output legitimacy (problem-solving capacity and public good orientation). The legitimacy of the KWSB is assessed on the basis of document analyses as well as interviews with 14 of the 28 commission members or their deputies. The commission developed a proposal for a gradual coal phase-out with considerable support for the affected regions, employees and companies. Throughout the entire commission process, however, non-transparent responsibilities and a privileging of the positions of individual members should be critized. The orientation of the result toward the common good is controversial due to the high costs of the decision and the low climate policy ambition. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the legitimacy of comparable commissions could be increased through regulation as well as elements of direct democracy.
    Language: German
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  • 74
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    Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS)
    In:  IASS Policy Brief
    Publication Date: 2021-05-12
    Description: Wenn die EU einen CO2-Grenzausgleich (Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism, CBAM) einführt, könnten Länder, denen die Ressourcen für die Dekarbonisierung fehlen, schwerwiegende wirtschaftliche Folgen zu spüren bekommen. Die EU sollte daher mögliche politische Risiken berücksichtigen und Stakeholder aus Drittstaaten in die Gestaltung des CBAM einbeziehen. Sie sollte mit den CBAM-Einnahmen die Dekarbonisierung in den von Risiken betroff enen Ländern fördern und die Emissionsberichterstattung mit bestehenden internationalen Vorgaben verknüpfen.
    Language: German
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  • 75
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    Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e. V.
    In:  Analysen & Argumente
    Publication Date: 2021-05-19
    Description: In seinen ersten 100 Tagen im Amt hat Joe Biden bewiesen, dass die USA eine Führungsrolle in der internationalen Klimapolitik übernehmen wollen. Die Chancen dafür stehen gut, trotz seines begrenzten innenpolitischen Spielraums. Auf der internationalen Bühne kann Biden bereits erste Erfolge vorweisen und es gibt wichtige Potenziale für die transatlantische Kooperation, die genutzt werden können, um das Pariser Klimaabkommen zum Erfolg zu führen.
    Language: German
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2021-05-19
    Description: Climate change mitigation triggers both spatial and moral complexities, as demonstrated by the contentious issue of phasing out coal power. The success of the Paris Agreement depends on, among other things, the acceptability of climate policy measures and thus, from a moral perspective, on the ability to organize transition processes in ways that do not damage the livelihoods of workers, communities, and entire regions. Spatially, the unequal distributions of burdens and advantages of both climate change and respective mitigation measures provoke struggles over their legitimacy in contexts ranging from local to global. Phasing out coal mining and the respective power generation capacity thus triggers processes of structural transformation that cut across geographic scales, vertical levels of policy and politics, as well as sectoral boundaries. In light of the urgency of the climate crisis, countries such as Canada and Germany have established stakeholder-driven commissions to develop proposals for just transition pathways for phasing out coal production and consumption. We argue that these commissions are arenas in which spatial, moral, and sectoral (re-)negotiations materialize. Comparing the Canadian and German stakeholder commissions through expert interviews with their members, the article traces how governments use commissions to legitimize their transition policies. Expectations at different levels and from different actors in turn place commission members under pressure to justify their involvement and the outputs of the commissions. We find that the Canadian task force showed greater commitment to collecting and reflecting the needs of communities in its coal regions, and to communicating these to the federal government. In the German coal commission, legitimation strategies focused mainly on a broad representation of interests, and on government spending for affected regions, workers, and industries. In that case, a compromise was reached that satisfied most, but not all, of the diverse requirements.
    Language: English
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2021-05-20
    Description: In late February 2021, Japanese trading company Mitsubishi Corporation decided to pull out of the Vinh Tan 3 coal-fired power plant project in Vietnam after facing considerable pressure from investors and activists over the company's fossil fuel investments. This decision follows in the footsteps of HSBC's withdrawal one year previously. Scheduled to go on-grid in 2024, the 2-gigawatt plant was expected to feature ultra-supercritical technology. This is the first time that Mitsubishi has pulled out of a coal development project. Work on Vinh Tan 3 will now continue under the aegis of China Southern Power Grid, which is also a major investor in the Vinh Tan 1 power plant. However, this outcome will not serve the interests of Vietnam in terms of job creation, air quality, and achieving climate targets.
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  • 78
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    In:  IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine
    Publication Date: 2021-05-20
    Language: English
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  • 79
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    In:  Wissenschaft im Strukturwandel: Die paradoxe Praxis engagierter Transformationsforschung
    Publication Date: 2021-05-20
    Language: German
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2021-05-20
    Description: Can ambitious climate policies in the European Green Deal succeed when faced with rising societal divisions between Europeans? This paper undertakes an empirical analysis using data from the European Social Survey to see whether the divisions between cosmopolitan and communitarian Europeans evident in other policy fields like migration are also found in relation to climate and energy. The results show that political ideology is most important determinant of individual attitudes, and that differences in attitudes between Eastern and Western Europe may be explained by energy security and economic development issues. The EU has maintained an ambitious policy since the mid-2010s, and with the Green Deal appears to be framing climate ambition in ways that the data suggests may reduce communitarian opposition, but not the differences between EU Member States resulting from security concerns.
    Language: English
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2021-05-20
    Description: Gesellschaftliche Veränderungen speisen sich oft aus wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen. Gerade der Klimawandel zeigt dies eindrücklich. Wissenschaft ist aber immer auch Teil der Phänomene, die sie beobachtet. Jene Forscher*innen, die sich aktiv an einem Wandel beteiligen, sind mit besonders vielfältigen Erwartungen konfrontiert. Sie sollen Wissen bereitstellen, Lösungen vorschlagen und passgenau an Politik und Öffentlichkeit kommunizieren. Wie die wechselseitige Einbettung von Wissenschaft und Gesellschaft auch die Forschungspraxis verändert, zeigen 14 Beiträge u. a. am Beispiel des Strukturwandels im Rheinland, im Ruhrgebiet und in der Lausitz. Engagierte Forschung befördert die demokratische Auseinandersetzung mit Transformationskonflikten. Sie strukturiert die Suche nach Lösungen in Politik und Praxis und hinterfragt wirkmächtige Annahmen. Für die involvierten Wissenschaftler*innen bedeutet das eine Ausweitung ihres Selbstverständnisses und ihrer Methoden.
    Language: German
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