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  • 1
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    In:  Strategies for Sustainability of the Earth System | Strategies for Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2021-09-27
    Description: Humankind is confronted with two types of risks: conventional and systemic risks. Conventional risks can be contained in space and time, follow linear cause–effect relationships, and require effective and pointed interventions into the cause–effect chain. Systemic risks, however, are characterized by high complexity, transboundary effects, stochastic relationships, and nonlinear cause–effect patterns with tipping points and often associated with less public attention than they deserve. Systemic risks range from natural hazards, environmental threats, and financial crisis to cybersecurity. Due to their special features, systemic risks are overextending established risk management and creating new, unsolved challenges for policy making in risk governance. Their negative effects are often pervasive, impacting fields beyond the obvious primary areas of harm. The following chapter describes the distinct features of systemic risks and explains their properties. It focuses on the issue of risk perception and the likelihood of insufficient attention by policymakers and the public at large to systemic risks. The main argument is that a graphic representation and simulation of evolving systemic risks and a participatory deliberative approach of inclusive risk governance are needed in order to prevent, mitigate, or control systemic risks.
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    In:  The Routledge Handbook of Democracy and Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2021-12-22
    Description: We live in a social world whose pace is accelerating. While the focus of most aspects of our intensified social life is narrowing down to the present, the futures we create on a daily basis cast ever-longer shadows. In this situation a chasm is opening up between the technological production of increasingly expanding futures and a horizon of political concern, action and predictive capacity that is getting ever shorter. This drifting apart of knowledge and practice has impacts for the possibility of achieving a politics sensitive to the long-term future. The chapter explores the resulting difficulties and considers potential openings for change.
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    In:  IASS Blog, 07.01.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-01-20
    Description: According to the statistical evidence there is no doubt that vaccinations significantly benefit people across all population groups. So why is it that around 20% of people over the age of 18 are still unvaccinated in Germany?
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    In:  WortMelder – Der Forschungsblog der Universität Erfurt, 03.01.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-01-20
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2022-02-01
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    In:  Führung in Zeiten der Krise : deutsch-israelische Perspektiven | Edition Rainer Hampp
    Publication Date: 2022-02-01
    Language: German
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2022-03-03
    Description: The Joint Task Force, Science Monitoring And Reliable Telecommunications (JTF SMART) Subsea Cables, is working to integrate environmental sensors for ocean bottom temperature, pressure, and seismic acceleration into submarine telecommunications cables. The purpose of SMART Cables is to support climate and ocean observation, sea level monitoring, observations of Earth structure, and tsunami and earthquake early warning and disaster risk reduction, including hazard quantification. Recent advances include regional SMART pilot systems that are the first steps to trans-ocean and global implementation. Examples of pilots include: InSEA wet demonstration project off Sicily at the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory Western Ionian Facility; New Caledonia and Vanuatu; French Polynesia Natitua South system connecting Tahiti to Tubaui to the south; Indonesia starting with short pilot systems working toward systems for the Sumatra-Java megathrust zone; and the CAM-2 ring system connecting Lisbon, Azores, and Madeira. This paper describes observing system simulations for these and other regions. Funding reflects a blend of government, development bank, philanthropic foundation, and commercial contributions. In addition to notable scientific and societal benefits, the telecommunications enterprise’s mission of global connectivity will benefit directly, as environmental awareness improves both the integrity of individual cable systems as well as the resilience of the overall global communications network. SMART cables support the outcomes of a predicted, safe, and transparent ocean as envisioned by the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development and the Blue Economy. As a continuation of the OceanObs’19 conference and community white paper (Howe et al., 2019, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00424), an overview of the SMART programme and a description of the status of ongoing projects are given.
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    In:  Business and Policy Solutions to Climate Change : From Mitigation to Adaptation | Palgrave Studies in Sustainable Business In Association with Future Earth
    Publication Date: 2022-03-24
    Description: The climate is already changing, making climate change adaptation (CCA) an essential component of any sustainable development strategy. Similarly, the capacities of different actors to adapt to climate change are significantly affected by social and economic factors including nutrition, health, and employment. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) characterize progress toward the aforementioned factors as well as CCA through targets under SDG 13 (Climate Action). More recently, the 2019 Global Sustainable Development Report (GSDR) illustrates the interactions within and between SDGs, showing how many other SDGs influence progress toward CCA and vice versa. Businesses need to be mindful of these complex interdependencies when developing risk management, supply chain management, and sustainability strategies to make effective contributions to CCA while avoiding ineffective or maladaptive strategies. In this chapter, we demonstrate these interdependencies by modeling the interactions defined in the 2019 GSDR using the cross-impact balances (CIB) method, which identifies self-reinforcing scenarios and traces the systemic effects of interventions. We focus our analysis on how existing global business priorities may push the system toward certain scenarios over others, centering the implications for CCA. Through our analysis, we find six self-reinforcing scenarios for global SDGs, half of which indicate progress in CCA. We also identify six SDGs that appear critical to achieving all SDGs, highlighting gaps in current business efforts and areas for additional focus. Among these critical SDGs is SDG 13 (Climate Action), reaffirming the importance of CCA in progress toward sustainable development.
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2022-03-31
    Description: Humanity faces an array of grave, long-term challenges, now often labeled “global systemic risks.” While scientific knowledge of the individual risks spawning these crises is deep, our understanding of causal links among risks remains shallow. These observations raise two key questions: What causal processes might be accelerating and amplifying risks within global natural and social systems and synchronizing risks (and their concomitant crises) across these systems? And what might humanity do to mitigate or even reverse these processes? We argue, however, that these trends, by themselves, do not fully explain this moment’s seemingly sharp amplification, acceleration, and synchronization of systemic risks. We offer a novel analytical framework to aid identification of hitherto unrecognized, complex teleconnections and self-reinforcing feedbacks among global systems. Research is urgently needed, because the ultimate result of such unrecognized processes could be a global polycrisis—a single, macro-crisis of interconnected, runaway failures of Earth’s vital natural and social systems that irreversibly degrades humanity’s prospects.
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    In:  Critical policy studies
    Publication Date: 2022-04-01
    Description: Why do exercises in collaborative governance often witness more impasse than advantage? This paper suggests putting power at center stage and focusing the analysis on the micro level. It is by looking at the daily ‘minutiae’ of collaboration, and at the dynamics (here called flows of power) that they set off, that we can gain insights into failures of collaborative arrangements. To enable a power-sensitive and process-oriented analysis of collaborative governance, the paper develops an analytical framework for the empirical exploration of collaborative governance at the micro level. The framework examines how design choices at the outset of collaboration are re-interpreted, challenged, and transformed by micro-dynamics taking place over the course of the arrangement. The article argues that a process-oriented investigation of how collaboration evolves and unfolds over time elucidates the subtleties of power, which may be overlooked if we only consider outcomes rather than the processes that engender these outcomes. The work is based on an abductive research approach and illustrates the analytical possibilities of the framework by zooming in on an exemplar of a collaborative arrangement for planning the route of a high-voltage electricity line in Germany.
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    In:  re|peat Jahrbuch Treasury- und Risiko-Management 2022/2023 | Roland Eller Training
    Publication Date: 2022-04-04
    Language: German
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  • 12
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    In:  Proceedings of 3rd Virtual International Conference : Path to a Knowledge Society-Managing Risks and Innovation : Serbia, Niš, November 15-16, 2021
    Publication Date: 2022-04-04
    Description: Technical innovations of the digitization lead to significant changes in society. From the point of view of computer science, the main focus is at the technical side of innovations or at the clear economical aspects for the clients. Not very often they see the consequences of the created "digital ecosystems" for the people and their living together. The remarks enlighten these topics and propose ethical guidelines for human actions and interactions with the technical innovations.
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    Institut des Études et de la Recherche sur le Droit et la Justice (IERDJ)
    In:  Rapport de recherche
    Publication Date: 2022-04-15
    Description: Cette étude est le fruit de la collaboration d’une équipe de recherche pluridisciplinaire composée de juristes, de sociologues et de philosophes et s’inscrit en outre dans la transversalité juridique (droit public et droit privé / droit interne et international). Réalisée sur une période de deux années et demie, elle a eu pour objectif d’identifier, dans un premier temps, les idées et les réalisations pouvant être rattachées au transhumanisme. Pour ce faire, des enquêtes de terrain ont été menées auprès d’acteurs divers et aux opinions variées situés en France, en Angleterre et en Espagne : militants transhumanistes, penseurs critiques, « personnes augmentées » (personnes ayant recours sciemment à des modifications technologiques pour « augmenter » leurs capacités physiques et/ou cognitives), professionnels de santé (de diverses spécialités) et chercheurs dans la lutte contre le vieillissement, l’intelligence artificielle et les prothèses. La synthèse de ces échanges permet de conclure, tout d’abord, qu’il n’existe pas un mais des transhumanismes et que les partisans de cette idéologie ne mettent pas tous l’accent sur les mêmes priorités. Elle met ensuite en exergue l’existence de glissements parfois imperceptibles, dans le domaine médical, vers l’augmentation technologique et/ou génétique de l’être humain. Il importe d’ores et déjà de penser le transhumanisme dans sa complexité pour en normer les conséquences ramifiées pouvant conduire à de véritables changements civilisationnels. Un droit de la condition humaine future reste à construire en conscience de responsabilité envers les générations futures. C’est ainsi que, dans un second temps, l’équipe a mis à l’épreuve certaines notions fondamentales du droit – telles que les notions de personne, de responsabilité, de propriété, de patrimoine, de droits humains et de souveraineté – à l’aune du transhumanisme. Cette recherche s’inscrit dans une dynamique résolument prospective et imaginative. Elle vise à éprouver les forces et les faiblesses de ces notions cardinales du droit et à s’interroger sur leur adaptabilité et leur perméabilité aux idées et réalisations transhumanistes.
    Language: French
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2022-04-19
    Language: English
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  • 15
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    In:  IASS Blog, 18.03.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-04-19
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  • 16
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    In:  IASS Blog, 08.03.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-04-19
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    In:  Nachhaltigkeitsrecht : Zeitschrift für das Recht der nachhaltigen Entwicklung
    Publication Date: 2022-04-21
    Description: Für eine evidenzbasierte und handlungsorientierte Erforschung der Nachhaltigkeit ist eine Integration von analytischem, zielorientiertem und katalytischem Wissen eine wesentliche Voraussetzung. Analytisches Wissen schafft die Grundlage für ein besseres Verständnis der Wechselwirkungen zwischen menschlichen Interventionen in die natürliche Umwelt und deren Konsequenzen. Zielorientiertes Wissen umfasst die normativen Leitkonzepte sowie die darauf aufbauenden Szenarien und Optionen, um bestimmte Ziele, wie etwa die Energiewende, effektiv, effizient, resilient und sozial gerecht zu erreichen. Katalytisches Wissen hilft den Akteur*innen von Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft die wesentlichen kommunikativen und politischen Entscheidungsprozesse so zu gestalten, dass die ausgewählten Szenarien und Ziele im Kontext demokratischer Institutionen und Regeln umgesetzt werden können. Besonderes Augenmerk liegt dabei auf der Verknüpfung von Sachwissen zur multi-dimensionalen Charakterisierung der Handlungsfolgen mit dem normativen Orientierungswissen zur Bestimmung der Akzeptabilität dieser Folgen im Sinne der Kompatibilität mit den geltenden Rechtnormen, der ethischen Bewertung dieser Folgen und der notwendigen prozeduralen Legitimation durch demokratische Prozesse.
    Language: German
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  • 18
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    In:  National Science Review
    Publication Date: 2022-05-02
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2022-05-02
    Description: Drastic measures are required to meet the standards of the Paris Agreement and limit the increase of global average temperatures well below 2°C compared to pre-industrial levels. Mining activities are typically considered as unsustainable but, at the same time, metals such as cobalt and lithium are essential to sustain the energy transition. Several sustainability goals defined by the United Nations (UN) require large quantities of raw materials. Exploration and extractives activities are required in order to contribute to meeting sustainability standards. Future sourcing of metals will need to implement procedures that go well beyond current ecological, economic, and social requirements and practices. In this paper we assess the usual sustainability criteria and how they apply to the extractives sector. Sustainability can only be achieved if one accepts that the natural capital can be substituted by other forms of capital (so called weak concept of sustainability). Sourcing the raw materials increasingly demanded by our societies will need transparent and inclusive stakeholder participation as well as a holistic understanding of the impact of extractives activities to reach this weak sustainability status. Our analysis shows that the sustainability of mining cannot be reached without harmonized political instruments and investment policies that take the three pillars of environmental, economic, and social sustainability as a major priority.
    Language: English
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: We analyze long-term aerosol and precipitable water vapour (PWV) properties at two high-altitude sites (Nainital and Hanle) over the central Himalayan and western Trans-Himalayan region from 2008 to 2018. First-time assessment of the seasonality and variation in combined aerosol and water vapour radiative effects are also attempted, aiming to investigate the atmospheric effect on solar radiation over the Himalayan range that is especially important for the regional climate. A synergy of ground-based measurements from sun photometers, GPS (Global Positioning Systems) observations, radiosondes, along with satellite and reanalysis data was used to examine inter-annual and seasonal variability of PWV and specific humidity over both sites. The PWV is highest in monsoon and much lower during the dry winter season with slightly higher values at Nainital compared to Hanle. This is due to the lower altitude (∼2 km amsl) of Nainital, which is also directly affected by the Indian summer monsoon, compared to the Trans-Himalayan region. The vertical profiles of PWV from satellite and reanalysis data reveal a great consistency on a seasonal basis. The PWV is considered as one of the main greenhouse gases that exhibits a positive radiative effect at the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) in the order of about 10 W m−2 at Nainital and 7.4 W m−2 at Hanle. The atmospheric radiative effect due to water vapour is about 3–4 times higher compared to aerosols, resulting in atmospheric heating rates of 0.94 and 0.96 K Day−1 at Nainital and Hanle, respectively. The results highlight the importance of water vapour and aerosol radiative effects in the climate sensitive Himalayan range.
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  • 21
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    In:  Aus Russland-Analysen, 15.02.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Language: German
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  • 22
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    Routledge
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: This handbook provides comprehensive and critical coverage of the dynamic and complex relationship between democracy and sustainability in contemporary theory, discourse, and practice. Distinguished scholars from different disciplines, such as political science, sociology, philosophy, international relations, look at the present state of this relationship, asking how it has evolved and where it is likely to go in the future. They examine compatibilities and tensions, continuities and changes, as well as challenges and potentials across theoretical, empirical and practical contexts. This wide-spanning collection brings together multiple established and emerging viewpoints on the debate between democracy and sustainability which have, until now, been fragmented and diffuse. It comprises diverse theoretical and methodological perspectives discussing democracy’s role in, and potential for, coping with environmental issues at the local and global scales. This handbook provides a comprehensive overview of arguments, claims, questions, and insights that are put forward regarding the relationship between democracy and sustainability. In the process, it not only consolidates and condenses, but also broadens and captures the many nuances of the debate. By showing how theoretical, empirical and practical accounts are interrelated, focusing on diverse problem areas and spheres of action, it serves as a knowledge source for professionals who seek to develop action strategies that do justice to both sustainability and democracy, as well as providing a valuable reference for academic researchers, lecturers and students.
    Language: English
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Language: English
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  • 24
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    Stiftung Arbeit und Umwelt der IG BCE
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika erleben seit dem Amtsantritt Joe Bidens eine Kehrtwende in der Klimapolitik. Biden erklärte die Klimapolitik zum Fokus seiner Präsidentschaft. Mit exekutiven Verordnungen und einem Whole-of-government-Ansatz des „Klima-Mainstreamings" in allen politischen Aktivitäten setzt er neue Impulse für den Klimaschutz. Seine Regierung gründete neue internationale Dialogformate und beteiligt sich wieder an multilateralen Klimaschutzinitiativen. Auch der Kongress diskutiert nach Jahren wieder den Klimaschutz - wenn auch kontrovers. Bidens klimapolitisches Programm, so zeigt diese Studie, ist gleichsam Wirtschafts-, Arbeitsmarkt- und Industriepolitik. Es soll auch der Stärkung von Wertschöpfungsketten in den USA dienen. Dabei ist der Klimaschutz weiterhin kein Konsensthema in Kongress, Wirtschaft und Bevölkerung. Dies erschwert die klimapolitische Arbeit der Regierung Biden deutlich und wird Auswirkungen auf deren erfolgreiche Umsetzung haben. Die US-Staaten nehmen weiterhin eine Rolle als Stabilitätsanker der Klimapolitik ein, verzeichnen aber große Unterschiede beim klimapolitischen Fortschritt. Etwa die Hälfte aller Staaten führte in den vergangenen Jahren klimapolitische Maßnahmen ein und engagierte sich in internationalen Bündnissen für den Klimaschutz. Viele Staaten bleiben jedoch weiterhin komplett inaktiv. Die Studie blickt besonders auf Kalifornien, Texas, Wyoming, Louisiana und Indiana, um die Fortschritte und immensen Herausforderungen der Staaten bei der Klimatransformation zu verdeutlichen. Mit Blick auf die transatlantischen Beziehungen etabliert sich der Klimaschutz als gemeinsames politisches Querschnittsthema, allerdings oftmals mit unterschiedlichen Herangehensweisen in den USA und der Europäischen Union. Ein abweichendes Verständnis von sauberer Energie könnte die EU und die USA auf unterschiedliche Dekarbonisierungspfade führen. Es dominieren gemeinsame Interessen und Potenziale für die transatlantische Kooperation in Bereichen wie Forschung und Innovationen zu grünen Technologien, sauberem Wasserstoff, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) und dem Aufbau eines nachhaltigen Finanzsystems. Konfliktpotenzial könnte gleichzeitig durch die Politik der USA entstehen, die eigene Industrie für grüne Technologien zu fördern: Auch unter Biden bestehen protektionistische Tendenzen fort. Zudem kristallisiert sich der Umgang mit China als Herausforderung heraus. Die geplante Schaffung eines Grenzausgleichsmechanismus für Kohlenstoffdioxid (CO2) in der EU ist gleichsam Anreiz für die US-Debatte zur CO2-Bepreisung und potenzielles Konfliktfeld.
    Language: German
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Language: English
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  • 26
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    In:  Berliner Zeitung, 17.01.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Language: German
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  • 27
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    In:  The Routledge Handbook of Democracy and Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: This chapter gives an overview of the scholarship on the general tensed relationship between political representation and sustainable futures. It covers the problems of long-term futures for democratic politics and how standard representation theory’s proposals to solve these problems look like. The chapter further proceeds with the most recent debates on constructivist approaches in representation theory and explore how they can help to think about repertoires of political representation in global environmental politics. Finally, the chapter will zoom into the more concrete questions of representation practices in the age of the Anthropocene.
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: The state of air pollution has historically been tightly linked to how we produce and use energy. Air pollutant emissions over Asia are now changing rapidly due to cleaner energy transitions; however, magnitudes of benefits for climate and air quality remain poorly quantified. The associated risks involve adverse health impacts, reduced agricultural yields, reduced freshwater availability, contributions to climate change, and economic costs. We focus particularly on climate benefits of energy transitions by making first-time use of two decades of high quality observations of atmospheric loading of light-absorbing black carbon (BC) over Kanpur (South Asia) and Beijing (East Asia) and relating these observations to changing energy, emissions, and economic trends in India and China. Our analysis reveals that absorption aerosol optical depth (AAOD) due to BC has decreased substantially, by 40% over Kanpur and 60% over Beijing between 2001 and 2017, and thus became decoupled from regional economic growth. Furthermore, the resultant decrease in BC emissions and BC AAOD over Asia is regionally coherent and occurs primarily due to transitions into cleaner energies (both renewables and fossil fuels) and not due to the decrease in primary energy supply or decrease in use of fossil use and biofuels and waste. Model simulations show that BC aerosols alone contribute about half of the surface temperature change (warming) of the total forcing due to greenhouse gases, natural and internal variability, and aerosols, thus clearly revealing the climate benefits due to a reduction in BC emissions, which would significantly reduce global warming. However, this modeling study excludes responses from natural variability, circulation, and sea ice responses, which cause relatively strong temperature fluctuations that may mask signals from BC aerosols. Our findings show additional benefits for climate (beyond benefits of CO2 reduction) and for several other issues of sustainability over South and East Asia, provide motivation for ongoing cleaner energy production, and consumption transitions, especially when they are associated with reduced emissions of air pollutants. Such an analysis connecting the trends in energy transitions and aerosol absorption loading, unavailable so far, is crucial for simulating the aerosol climate impacts over Asia which is quite uncertain.
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Le professeur de politique publique Andreas Goldthau et l’économiste Simone Tagliapietra expliquent, dans une tribune au « Monde », comment un club climatique ouvert pourrait contribuer à la justice climatique et aider les pays pauvres.
    Language: French
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: As a major contributor to climate change, the cement sector urgently needs to develop and implement greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation technologies to drastically lower its emissions to reach carbon neutrality by 2050. Among the most promising technologies is CO2 mineralisation in which CO2 is transformed into a thermodynamically stable carbonate. CO2 mineralisation not only offers permanent storage of CO2 but also potentially avoids emissions by partially substituting conventional cement with the obtained carbonation products. Besides overcoming technical barriers, successful development and implementation of CO2 mineralisation require support from key stakeholders. While existing studies already provide technology-related data and assess CO2 mineralisation pathways, knowledge remains scarce about stakeholder priorities and perceptions. Using a multi-stakeholder expert survey, the present study examines: a) the priorities of different stakeholders in supporting CO2 mineralisation, b) their perceptions on the performance of CO2 mineralisation concepts, and c) their priorities if tasked with communicating CO2 mineralisation technologies to other groups. Hereby, we follow a multi-criteria decision analysis approach, based on an analytical hierarchy process, by comparing indicators from the three common sustainability pillars (i.e., environmental, economic, and social impacts). Our results indicate that key stakeholders strongly prioritise the health implications of CO2 mineralisation technologies and generally value social impacts highly. Hence, an in-depth research is needed to provide knowledge-based guidance on health issues and ways to fairly distribute costs and create positive employment outcomes. Additionally, stakeholders of all affiliations give second priority to reducing carbon footprint of cement, showing that they discount potential environmental and economic trade-offs associated with emission reduction goals. The results reveal that these concepts are perceived as compatible with other GHG mitigation approaches, such as carbon capture and storage. Moreover, if tasked with convincing different target groups to support CO2 mineralisation, stakeholders prioritise diverse themes, recognising that communication strategies must address the specific concerns of each group. Overall, the results can help investors, managers, and policymakers to ensure that upcoming decisions in R&D, investments, and the design of support mechanisms align with the priorities of key stakeholders. Our results facilitate communicating technological potentials and risks and can foster successful development and implementation of CO2 mineralisation pathways.
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  • 31
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    In:  Internationale Politik : IP, 03.01.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Language: German
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: This study reports for the first time a comprehensive analysis of nitrogenous and carbonaceous aerosols in simultaneously collected PM2.5 and TSP during pre-monsoon (March–May 2018) from a highly polluted urban Kathmandu Valley (KV) of the Himalayan foothills. The mean mass concentration of PM2.5 (129.8 µg/m3) was only ~25% of TSP mass (558.7 µg/ m3) indicating the dominance of coarser mode aerosols. However, the mean concentration as well as fractional contributions of water-soluble total nitrogen (WSTN) and carbonaceous species reveal their predominance in find-mode aerosols. The mean mass concentration of WSTN was 17.43±4.70 µg/m3 (14%) in PM2.5 and 24.64±8.07 µg/m3 (5%) in TSP. Moreover, the fractional contribution of total carbonaceous aerosols (TCA) is much higher in PM2.5 (~34%) than that in TSP (~20%). The relatively low OC/EC ratio in PM2.5 (3.03 ± 1.47) and TSP (4.64 ± 1.73) suggests fossil fuel combustion as the major sources of carbonaceous aerosols with contributions from secondary organic aerosols. Five-day air mass back trajectories simulated with the HYSPLIT model, together with MODIS fire counts indicate the influence of local emissions as well as transported pollutants from the Indo-Gangetic Plain region to the south of the Himalayan foothills. Principal component analysis (PCA) also suggests a mixed contribution from other local anthropogenic, biomass burning, and crustal sources. Our results highlight that it is necessary to control local emissions as well as regional transport while designing mitigation measures to reduce the KV's air pollution.
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: From 21 March to 1 April 2022 governments will continue negotiations of international regulations for deep seabed at the International Seabed Authority (ISA). Scientists from IASS will attend the 27th Session of the ISA Council as part of research on environmental standards for deep seabed mining.
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  • 35
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    In:  EURACTIV Media network, 21.02.2022 / 30.03.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: The G7 Summit in June offers an opportunity to provide tangible funding commitments to developing countries in the fight against climate change. If offers fall short, the world faces the risk that rising global inequality will derail international climate efforts, writes Dr Rainer Quitzow.
    Description: Der G7-Gipfel im Juni bietet die Gelegenheit, den Entwicklungsländern konkrete Finanzierungszusagen für die Bekämpfung des Klimawandels zu machen. Wenn die Angebote nicht ausreichen, besteht die Gefahr, dass die zunehmende globale Ungleichheit die internationalen Klimabemühungen zunichtemacht, schreibt Rainer Quitzow.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Comparisons of emerging carbon capture and utilization (CCU) technologies with equivalent incumbent technologies are necessary to support technology developers and to help policy-makers design appropriate long-term incentives to mitigate climate change through the deployment of CCU. In particular, early-stage CCU technologies must prove their economic viability and environmental reduction potential compared to already-deployed technologies. These comparisons can be misleading, as emerging technologies typically experience a drastic increase in performance and decrease in cost and greenhouse gas emissions as they develop from research to mass-market deployment due to various forms of learning. These changes complicate the interpretation of early techno-economic assessments (TEAs) and life cycle assessments (LCAs) of emerging CCU technologies. The effects of learning over time or cumulative production themselves can be quantitatively described using technology learning curves (TLCs). While learning curve approaches have been developed for various technologies, a harmonized methodology for using TLCs in TEA and LCA for CCU in particular is required. To address this, we describe a methodology that incorporates TLCs into TEA and LCA to forecast the environmental and economic performance of emerging CCU technologies. This methodology is based on both an evaluation of the state of the art of learning curve assessment and a literature review of TLC approaches developed in various manufacturing and energy generation sectors. Additionally, we demonstrate how to implement this methodology using a case study on a CO2 mineralization pathway. Finally, commentary is provided on how researchers, technology developers, and LCA and TEA practitioners can advance the use of TLCs to allow for consistent, high-resolution modeling of technological learning for CCU going forward and enable holistic assessments and fairer comparisons with other climate technologies.
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: This article enriches the existing literature on the importance and role of the social sciences and humanities (SSH) in renewable energy sources research by providing a novel approach to instigating the future research agenda in this field. Employing a series of in-depth interviews, deliberative focus group workshops and a systematic horizon scanning process, which utilised the expert knowledge of 85 researchers from the field with diverse disciplinary backgrounds and expertise, the paper develops a set of 100 priority questions for future research within SSH scholarship on renewable energy sources. These questions were aggregated into four main directions: (i) deep transformations and connections to the broader economic system (i.e. radical ways of (re)arranging socio-technical, political and economic relations), (ii) cultural and geographical diversity (i.e. contextual cultural, historical, political and socio-economic factors influencing citizen support for energy transitions), (iii) complexifying energy governance (i.e. understanding energy systems from a systems dynamics perspective) and (iv) shifting from instrumental acceptance to value-based objectives (i.e. public support for energy transitions as a normative notion linked to trust-building and citizen engagement). While this agenda is not intended to be—and cannot be—exhaustive or exclusive, we argue that it advances the understanding of SSH research on renewable energy sources and may have important value in the prioritisation of SSH themes needed to enrich dialogues between policymakers, funding institutions and researchers. SSH scholarship should not be treated as instrumental to other research on renewable energy but as intrinsic and of the same hierarchical importance.
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  • 38
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    In:  Israel Public Policy Institute (IPPI) - Environment & Sustainability, 09.02.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Language: English
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  • 39
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    In:  The Routledge Handbook of Democracy and Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Democracy and sustainability are political ideas that have shaped the course of human history and continue to do so today. On a very general level, these ideas have multiple commonalities. Both have strong, universal normative implications (Dobson 1998; Sen 1999). They develop an image of the good society and, thus, also critically refer to a negatively evaluated other. The concept of democracy is oriented toward an equal and free society in which collective problems and conflicts are resolved by a demos consisting of equals in an ordered process of interest articulation and decision-making; it is the counter-model to highly asymmetrical authoritarian forms of rule, in which the suppression of freedom and autonomy of many members of society prevails (Dahl 2000; Saward 2007). Sustainability, on the other hand, refers to the negative consequences of the “unsustainable” (predominantly Western) model of development for the environment and equity of societies around the world (Christen and Schmidt 2012; Dryzek 2013). A sustainable society is imagined as one in which all present and future people have equal opportunities to satisfy their needs or even a good life in the long term (WCED 1987; Jackson 2017). The prerequisite for this is shaping human development in such a way that it remains within planetary boundaries, i.e., below tipping points for potentially sudden and severe environmental change (Meadowcroft 2012; Steffen et al. 2015). Another commonality is that democracy and sustainability are both fundamentally contested and dynamic concepts. This means that they have two levels of meaning: a relatively stable and universal first-level meaning, below which controversial debates about their respective meanings unfold on a second level (Jacobs 1999). Thus, there is general agreement that democracy means rule by the people and that sustainability requires compliance with ecosystem boundaries. However, how exactly the rule of the people and the compliance with ecosystem boundaries are to be realized and organized in concrete terms is subject to an ongoing debate. The empirical implication of this is that both democracy and sustainability do not exist in any kind of pure form but in manifold discursive, institutional, and practical manifestations that are subject to ongoing change (Hopwood, Mellor, and O’Brien 2005; Saward 2007).
    Language: English
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Of all the interconnected threats facing the planet, the top two are the climate and the biodiversity crises. Neither problem will be solved if we ignore the ocean. To turn the tide in favour of humanity and a habitable planet, we need to recognize and better value the fundamental role that the ocean plays in the earth system, and prioritize the urgent action needed to heal and protect the ocean at the ‘Earthscape’ level – the planetary scale at which processes to support life operate. The countries gathering at COP26 have unparalleled political capacity and leadership to make this happen. COP26 could be the turning point, but there must be commitment to united action for the ocean, as well as planning to meet those commitments, based on science-led solutions that address the interconnectivity of the ocean, climate, and biodiversity. Key ways in which the ocean both contributes to and acts as the major buffer for climate change are summarized, focusing on temperature, but not forgetting the role of storing carbon. It is noted with ‘high confidence’ that the ocean has stored 91% of the excess heat from global warming, with land, melting ice, and the atmosphere only taking up approximately 5, 3, and 1%, respectively. We also highlight the impact of the recent large release of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere during the 2015–2016 El Niño. We then present six science-based policy actions that form a recovery stimulus package for people, climate, nature, and the planet. Our proposals highlight what is needed to view, value, and treat the planet, including the ocean, for the benefit and future of all life.
    Language: English
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Upon entering office in 2021, Joe Biden declared climate policy to be the focal topic of his presidency. The U.S. subsequently set new ambitious impulses for climate protection and made a spirited return to international climate engagement. It rejoined the Paris Agreement, established new international dialogue formats, and once again participates in multilateral climate protection initiatives. The president demonstrated his willingness to pursue an ample range of policy and regulatory options to bring his country back on track towards achieving the Paris Agreement's goals. This article aims at highlighting how the new U.S. climate governance approach combines climate and industrial policy elements to achieve climate goals while fostering green technologies that benefit 'all of America'. The first part of this article examines some major elements of the Biden Administration's new climate policy approach. The second part provides a glimpse into what the potentials of this approach are for the transatlantic relations. The article is based on the analysis of relevant legal documents as well as academic and gray literature. It aims at providing a qualitative case study and update on recent U.S. climate policy developments.
    Language: English
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Language: English
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  • 43
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    In:  Tagesspiegel Background: Energie & Klima, 11. März 2022
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Der Angriff auf die Ukraine macht schnelle Energieeinsparungen notwendig. Sophia Becker und Ortwin Renn vom IASS richten in ihrem Standpunkt den Blick auf den Energiekonsum. Mit den richtigen Anreizen lasse sich der Verbrauch senken, ohne dass dabei problematische soziale Belastungen entstünden. Dafür brauche es aber Maßnahmen wie zum Beispiel die Unterscheidung in eine Komfort- und eine Grundversorgung.
    Language: German
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Durch die ambitionierten Klimaschutzziele Deutschlands und der EU nimmt der Dekarbonisierungsdruck auf die ganze Gesellschaft zu, insbesondere auf die Industrie. Liefer- und Wertschöpfungsketten ändern sich und müssen gleichzeitig angepasst werden. Das Diskussionspapier fasst die Ergebnisse einer Workshopreihe zusammen, die die dena gemeinsam mit dem IASS Potsdam und der Stiftung Arbeit und Umwelt der IGBCE im Herbst 2021 zu diesem Thema durchgeführt hat. Es analysiert Chancen und Herausforderungen der anstehenden Veränderungen und identifiziert relevante Handlungsfelder für die Politik.
    Language: German
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: The struggle for agrarian and environmental justice by the farmers movement in Northwest India was the second lecture in this year’s IASS Focal Topic series “Justice in Sustainability.” Our guest, Navdeep Boora, is a graduate student at the Indian Institute of Science Education & Research (IISER) Mohali. In his presentation, Navdeep gave us insights into the farmers’ protest against the Indian government’s attempt to further liberalize the country’s agricultural sector in 2021. While India’s farmers’ protests are a rare success story of grassroots mobilization against the powerful in India, they also touch on important aspects of justice in sustainability such as food production, food security, and land rights.
    Language: English
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  • 46
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    In:  F1000 - blognetwork, 27.01.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Policymakers must take action to make the European Union climate-neutral by 2050. But how can we achieve a climate-neutral energy system in Europe which is sustainable, secure, affordable, and socially acceptable? Here, Diana Süsser explores how energy modelling can enable informed decision-making for the energy transition.
    Language: English
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Dieses Positionspapier analysiert die Chancen und Risiken, die mit der Entwicklung von grünem Wasserstoff und der Power-to-X-Technik verbunden sind, sowie die Ausgangslage und Trends auf dem Kontinent. Eine abschließende Stellungnahme empfiehlt Maßnahmen, um mögliche Ungerechtigkeiten und negative Auswirkungen zu minimieren und den Nutzen für die grüne, sozioökonomische Entwicklung des Kontinents zu maximieren.
    Language: English
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: From 7 to 18 March 2022, governments will continue negotiations on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction under the auspices of the United Nations. After a break of nearly two years due to the coronavirus pandemic, a binding UN instrument should be ready this year.
    Language: English
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: The Paris Agreement expresses far-reaching commitments to combat climate change, but its translation into national contexts faces severe confrontation by populist movements and individuals worldwide. We unpack and compare how differently right-wing populist leaders translate rhetoric into climate policymaking and institutional change. We do so by investigating three areas of contestation: (1) the economic marginalization of the left behind, (2) conflicts between globalism and nationalist priorities, and (3) tensions between universalized science and situated experiences. We offer an analytical framework to study how right-wing populist leaders shape climate policymaking and test the approach with empirical observations from three democratically elected right-wing populists in the US, the Philippines, and Brazil. Populists severely affect climate policies in the long run, but these effects are highly context-specific. Engaging with populist climate politics needs to more seriously respond to local contexts and distinguish between the economic, anti-elitist, and knowledge foundations it is intertwined with.
    Language: English
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Carbon capture and utilization (CCU) or CO2 utilization technologies attract researchers, policy makers, and industry actors in search of sustainable solutions for industrial processes. This increasing interest can be explained by the fact that these processes comprise the capturing of CO2 – the most relevant greenhouse gas (GHG) – from the air or industrial point sources, and promote its use as a feedstock for the production of goods. CCU processes are expected to contribute to the greenhouse gas neutrality targets of several industrial sectors and the development of a circular economy. Therefore, understanding the environmental impacts and economics of CO2 utilization routes is essential for decision makers from relevant fields, such as technology developers, entrepreneurs, funding agencies, policy makers, administrators and more. A deep understanding of the specific implications of CO2 utilization technologies is needed to make decisions in line with sustainability strategies, and to discard inappropriate solutions. The ‘Techno-Economic Assessment & Life Cycle Assessment Guidelines for CO2 Utilization’1 (henceforth TEA and LCA Guidelines) published by the Global CO2 Initiative (GCI) in October 2018, represent a milestone in the harmonization of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Techno-Economic Assessment (TEA) for evaluating CCU technologies. Henceforth, we refer to this document as TEA and LCA Guidelines. The TEA and LCA Guidelines provide a guide to overcoming methodological discrepancies that lead to confusion among practitioners, concerning how to conduct assessments, and which often lead to contradictory results.2 3 Documents with a similar focus have also been published by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).4 The success of the GCI publication and the demand for such guidelines is evidenced by the strong response that the authors registered in the months following its publication: more than 2,000 copies of the TEA and LCA Guidelines have been distributed in digital form or hard copy, and a growing community of practitioners, and decision makers from science, industry, and public administration are learning how to generate robust and comparable assessments when evaluating CCU technologies. In addition to the guidelines and the present report, the same research group has recently released five illustrative worked examples5 to support the application of the TEA and LCA Guidelines, and three accompanying peer-reviewed articles.6 At the same time, policy officers at national and international levels have frequently signaled the urgency of further developing these tools, to enable evaluation of innovative technologies as a basis for decision making in funding and policy design (e.g., the EU Innovation Fund). Despite the urgent need to address planetary climate change, the development and diffusion of new technologies often takes considerable time. Consequently, leveraging the current momentum amongst all involved actors that CCU has achieved to date is paramount and is an opportunity that must not be missed. Despite demands for aligned assessment methods from the industrial and policy spheres,7 there are evident challenges in dealing with the practical application of such methods in commissioning, reading, and interpreting LCA and TEA studies. There is also a risk of insufficient transfer into policy or other decision-making processes, in cases where the involved actors do not possess disciplinary expertise in the relevant methodology.
    Language: English
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  • 51
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    In:  EURACTIV Media network, 10.01.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Germany-led G7 can boost decarbonisation together with climate justice, write Andreas Goldthau and Simone Tagliapietra.
    Language: English
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  • 52
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    In:  ISPI (Istituto per gli Studi di Politica Internazionale), 04.04.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: The transition to low-carbon energy systems has the potential to shift geopolitical power, as it will create winners and losers across countries. The clean energy business is certainly lucrative for its winners: the IEA estimates that the transition would create a $1.2 trillion market for clean energy. Although there have been vivid debates in the past years among policymakers and scholars alike, the factors determining who will win and who will lose are still hotly debated[i]. Many scholars see physical resources as important, from solar radiation levels to critical materials. We argue that what matters for ‘winning’ transition processes are political and economic factors, such as investments in renewables and technological development, as well as relative timing of transition processes.
    Language: English
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  • 53
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    In:  The Routledge Handbook of Democracy and Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Ideas of temporality are of key importance for understanding the relationship between democracy and sustainability. Moreover, engaging with different conceptions of temporality brings the centrality of issues of social and intergenerational justice for democratic sustainability transformations to the fore. As normative ideas, sustainability and democracy advocate for the possibility of an open future – a future that is formable and more just and ecologically feasible. However, for both concepts it is important to understand the lasting effects of historical inequalities and unsustainable practices on our material and institutional present environments. The past is here considered as not just preceding the present but as an integral part of any present and future politics. This chapter will compare teleological and non-linear notions of history, with the aim of developing a more inclusive understanding of different temporal experiences of democracy, justice, and sustainability. With reference to the notion of Kair ós the chapter further argues that the present can be understood not just as a bridge between past and future but as a space of opportunities that needs to be politically negotiated.
    Language: English
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: This Briefing Note represents an integrated perspective of climate, environmental and disaster risk science and practice regarding systemic risk. It provides an overview of the concepts of systemic risk that have evolved over time and identifies commonalities across terminologies and perspectives associated with systemic risk used in different contexts. Key attributes of systemic risk are outlined without prescribing a single definition, and information and data requirements that are essential for a better and more actionable understanding of the systemic nature of risk are discussed. Finally, the opportunities to connect research and policy for addressing systemic risk are highlighted, followed by recommendations for future work in science, policy and practice on systemic risk. The Briefing Note is based on insights and knowledge gained from an expert workshop, literature review and expert elicitation.
    Language: English
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: New particle formation (NPF) induces a sharp increase in ultrafine particle number concentrations and potentially acts as an important source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). As the densely populated area of China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region shows a high frequency of observed NPF events at the ground level, especially in spring. Although recent observational studies suggested a possible connection between NPF at the higher altitudes and ground level, the role played by vertical mixing, particularly in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is not fully understood. Here we integrate measurements in Nanjing on 15–20 April 2018, and the NPF-explicit Weather Research and Forecast coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) model simulations to better understand the governing mechanisms of the NPF and CCN. Our results indicate that newly formed particles at the boundary layer top could be transported downward by vertical mixing as the PBL develops. A numerical sensitivity simulation created by eliminating aerosol vertical mixing suppresses both the downward transport of particles formed at a higher altitude and the dilution of particles at the ground level. The resulting higher Fuchs surface area at the ground level, together with the lack of downward transport, yields a sharp weakening of NPF strength and delayed start of NPF therein. The aerosol vertical mixing, therefore, leads to a more than double increase of surface CN10–40 and a one third decrease of boundary layer top CN10–40. Additionally, the continuous growth of nucleated ultrafine particles at the boundary layer top is strongly steered by the upward transport of condensable gases, with close to half increase of particle number concentrations in Aitken mode and CCN at a supersaturation rate of 0.75%. The findings may bridge the gap in understanding the complex interaction between PBL dynamics and NPF events, reducing the uncertainty in assessing the climate impact of aerosols.
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  • 56
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    In:  Communications earth & environment
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: The cement industry, an industry characterised by low margins, is responsible for approximately 7% of anthropogenic CO2 equivalent (CO2e) emissions and holds the highest carbon intensity of any industry per unit of revenue. To encourage complete decarbonisation of the cement industry, strategies must be found in which CO2e emission reductions are incentivised. Here we show through integrated techno-economic modelling that CO2 mineralisation of silicate minerals, aiming to store CO2 in solid form, results in CO2e emission reductions of 8–33% while generating additional profit of up to €32 per tonne of cement. To create positive CO2 mineralisation business cases two conditions are paramount: the resulting products must be used as a supplementary material in cement blends in the construction industry (e.g., for bridges or buildings) and the storage of CO2 in minerals must be eligible for emission certificates or similar. Additionally, mineral transport and composition of the product are decisive.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a major challenge in India. The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India has launched the National Clean Air Programme for monitoring, assessment and control of air pollution. The action plan envisions reduction in air pollution on the basis of source apportionment studies in all the non-attainment cities. Source apportionment (SA) using receptor modelling is important for understanding the PM sources, pollution outflow and larger scale regional impacts. This review presents current status of offline and online measurement based SA studies focusing on PM10 and finer fractions of PM, where receptor modelling on chemical species has been used to apportion contributions from different sources. While a good database is available on chemical characterization of ambient aerosols, only 49 offline and 16 online SA studies could qualify this criterion. Out of all offline studies reviewed here, only 41% studies measured all chemical signatures. State of the SA studies over different geographical divisions [Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), Delhi NCR, western, eastern and central India] over India reveal that more than 50% of the studies are focused on the Delhi National Capital Region (NCR) and IGP. The most studied size fractions are PM10 (34%) and PM2.5 (28%) followed by 11% studies on PM1 and only 5% on size segregated SA of aerosols. The meta-analysis of available data on percentage contribution of major sources viz. secondary sources, biomass burning, combustion, vehicular emissions, industrial sources from these locations present a composite picture of major sources of ambient aerosols in India. This work also presents detailed discussion on different steps of SA viz. sampling design, analytical techniques and receptor modelling. The evolution from offline filter-based techniques to real time SA techniques has been discussed and recommendations for robust SA studies have been proposed.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: The expansion of renewable energies not only lowers carbon emissions, it also redistributes resources among actors. This article argues that green industrialization – specifically, manufacturing and the development of renewable energy technologies — creates economic gains that impact political processes and increase renewable energy policy ambition. Building on a combined framework of policy feedback and global value chain literature, we see domestic value creation as a key determinant of coalition strength and learning effects for policymakers. We analyze the relationship of value chain involvement to policy ambition using panel data on countries’ manufacturing and innovation activities in the wind and solar industry from 2010 to 2018. The results show a positive technology policy feedback mechanism, implying that higher local value creation leads to more ambitious renewable energy policies. These first large-N findings support previous case studies on the importance of green growth for raising policy ambition; it implies that transformative policies fostering value creation could create a virtuous cycle for policy ambition. We further propose an interdisciplinary research agenda to shed light on the role of value chain dynamics for policy feedback mechanisms across different political economies.
    Language: English
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: How to finance the Green Transition towards net-zero carbon emissions remains an open question. The literature either operates within a market-failure paradigm that calls for a Pigou tax to help markets correct themselves, or via war finance analogies that offer a ‘triad’ of state intervention possibilities: taxation, treasury borrowing, and central bank money creation. These frameworks often lack a thorough conceptualisation of endogenous credit money creation, for instance when resorting to loanable funds theory, and disregard the systemic and procedural dimensions of financing the Green Transition. We propose that ‘monetary architecture’, which perceives the monetary and financial system as a constantly evolving and historically specific hierarchical web of interlocking balance sheets, offers a more comprehensive framework to conceptualize the systemic and procedural financing challenges. Using the US as an example, we draw implications of a systemic financing view while considering a division of labor between ‘firefighting’ institutions such as the Federal Reserve and the Treasury, and ‘workhorse’ institutions such as off-balance-sheet fiscal agencies, commercial banks, and shadow banks. We argue further that financing the Green Transition must undergo three ideal-typical phases—initial balance sheet expansion, long-term funding, and possibly final contraction—that require diligent macro-financial management to avoid financial instability.
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  • 60
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    In:  Sustainability science
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: The concept of sustainable lifestyles is said to have reached the limits of its usefulness. As commonly understood, it impedes an effective response to our increasingly complex world, and the associated societal challenges. In this context, the emerging paradigm of relationality might offer a way forward to renew our current understanding and approach. We explore this possibility in this study. First, we systematize if, and how, the current dominant social paradigm represents a barrier to sustainable lifestyles. Second, we analyze how a relational approach could help to overcome these barriers. On the basis of our findings, we develop a Relational Lifestyle Framework (RLF). Our aim is to advance the current knowledge by illustrating how sustainable lifestyles are a manifestation of identified patterns of thinking, being, and acting that are embedded in today’s “socioecological” realities. The RLF revitalizes the field of sustainable lifestyle change, as it offers a new understanding for further reflection, and provides new directions for policy and transformation research.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Despite geopolitics play a pivotal role in the energy sector, geopolitical aspects are often not considered in the quantitative assessment models aimed at supporting the energy investment decision-making process. To address this issue, this work proposes an Extended Multi-regional Input-Output model (EMRIO) that incorporates import dependence and governance along the value chain. As case study, two alternative energy investments in Mexico – a Natural Gas Power plant (NG) and a Concentrated Solar Power plant (CSP) – are assessed. The method quantifies the geographical diversification of suppliers and the quality of governance. The assessment of the case study shows that the supply chain of the CSP plant includes more countries and with better governance levels than the supply chain of the NG power plant. That means, a priori, that the supply risks of investing in CSP power plants will be lower, as will suppliers' endogenous geopolitical risk. However, a sensitivity analysis considering different providers of the solar plant components reveals that CSP plant value chain could also entail similar or even higher governance risks levels as the NG plant. The scenario where China provides some of the components entails a much higher governance risks, even higher than the NG base case. In consequence, we have proved that the method proposed allows the identification of hidden geopolitical risks that would otherwise go unnoticed. This paper enlarges the existing knowledge on assessment methodologies for energy policy decision-support by measuring diversification and imports dependence from countries with different levels of governance along the whole value chain.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Area-Based Management Tools (ABMTs) are spatial instruments for conservation and managing different forms of ocean use. A multitude of ABMTs exists in marine areas within and beyond national jurisdiction, ranging from tools for the regulation of specific human activities (e.g. fisheries, shipping, or mining) to cross-sectoral tools (e.g. such as marine protected areas, MPAs, and marine spatial planning, MSP). By applying expert elicitation and reviewing scientific and grey literature we evaluate the contribution of ABMTs to sustainable development goals (SDGs) as set out under the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including for SDG 14 that directly addresses the conservation and sustainable use of oceans, seas, and marine resources. We find that fisheries-related and conservation-related ABMTs, and MSP offer the greatest potential contributions to SDG 14 and to SDGs in general. Moreover, there is high complementarity and synergy among different ABMTs for most SDG 14 targets and other SDGs, with the exception of SDG target 14.6 Prohibit fisheries subsidies and SDG 7 Affordable and clean energy. We find that some ABMTs contribute directly to goal attainment, while others contribute in more nuanced or even unexpected ways. Furthermore, context-specific factors that relate to political and legal factors, enforceability, transparency, governance structure, and inclusivity are crucial for unlocking the full potential of ABMTs of attaining multiple SDGs, as shown through examples. The major challenge to face in the next decade is ensuring durable and equitable outcomes from ABMT implementation by coordinating ABMT initiatives established by different organisations and responsible authorities. It is also critical that outcomes are monitored and evaluated across environmental, social, economic, governance, and health dimensions, with indicators addressing management effectiveness and not only ABMT area coverage.
    Language: English
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Language: English
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2022-05-20
    Description: Translating the agricultural eco(logical)-intensification model to European aquaculture hosts the potential for sustainably providing local food for local communities. Using online and printed surveys, we investigated the relationship between social factors such as age, gender, and education to seafood consumption behavior and the perception of aquaculture production. The frequency of seafood consumption was significantly lower in young and female respondents, whereas respondents with a higher level of education consume more frequently. Furthermore, high-frequency seafood consumers had a significant preference for wild-caught fish. Young and female respondents also perceived sustainability of aquaculture lower, whereas the level of education had a significantly positive relation to the attitude towards aquaculture. To foster the acceptance of eco-intensified aquaculture production, we suggest that communication efforts need to be group-tailored, focusing on the reduced environmental impacts, increased animal welfare, and novel products like seaweed to meet the values of the German consumer groups.
    Language: English
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2022-05-20
    Description: Energy models are used to explore decarbonisation pathways and potential future energy systems. In this editorial, we comment on the importance of energy system modelling and open tools to inform policymaking in the context of the European Green Deal. We also summarise the seven contributions to the special collection on Energy Systems Modelling, among which are papers that have been presented at the Energy Modelling Platform for Europe (EMP-E) 2021 conference. The presented research advances current modelling approaches and supports energy modelling with open tools and datasets.
    Language: English
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  • 66
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    In:  Innovation : the European journal of social science research
    Publication Date: 2022-05-30
    Description: As advances in scientific, technological, economic and policy dimensions of sustainability challenges fail to produce widespread transformative change, an awareness of their ultimate insufficiency grows. In response, sustainability scholarship and activism are increasingly focused on sustainability’s normative dimensions, identity, belief, meaning, purpose, etc. With this recognition comes a growing turn towards narrative as the expressive vehicles of our normativity. In this paper, we aim to build on (Fløttum and Gjerstand. 2017. ‘Narratives in Climate Change Discourse.’ WIREs climate change. 8.) efforts to develop more precise and structured relationships between sustainability and narratives by looking at what the field can learn from storytelling more specifically. We explore this first by exploring story structure as our society’s ubiquitous theory of change; and second, how the story constructs its protagonist to activate the transformative dynamics inherent in story structure. We then conclude by exploring the implications these observations have for sustainability research more broadly.
    Language: English
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  • 67
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    In:  CSR und Kirche: Die unternehmerische Verantwortung der Kirchen für die ökologisch-soziale Zukunftsgestaltung | Management-Reihe Corporate Social Responsibility
    Publication Date: 2022-05-30
    Description: Die Perspektive der Nachhaltigkeit bezieht sich auf die Dauerhaftigkeit humaner Lebensbedingungen sowie den Erhalt der dazu notwendigen natürlichen Lebensgrundlagen für die heutigen Menschen weltweit und künftigen Generationen. Ein Streben nach nachhaltiger Entwicklung fordert von den heute lebenden Menschen eine Lebensweise, die berücksichtigt, dass auch ihre Nachkommen berechtigte Ansprüche an ihre Leben haben werden. Wenn sich eine Gesellschaft zu einer nachhaltigen Lebens- und Wirtschaftsweise verpflichtet und sich darauf festlegt, nicht auf Kosten der nachfolgenden Generationen zu leben, dann hat das Konsequenzen für Wirtschaft, Politik und eigene Lebensgestaltung. Nachhaltigkeit nicht nur zu predigen, sondern auch zu leben, muss das gemeinsame Ziel sein. Dazu kann die Enzyklika Laudato si‘ ein wichtiger Impuls, Ratgeber und Motivator sein.
    Language: German
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  • 68
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    In:  SOLARPACES 2020: 26th International Conference on Concentrating Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems | AIP Conference Proceedings
    Publication Date: 2022-06-01
    Description: For three consecutive five-year plans since 2006, China has worked on building up an internationally competitive CSP industry and value chain. One big milestone in commercializing proprietary Chinese CSP technology was the 2016 demonstration program of 20 commercial-scale projects. China sought to increase and demonstrate capacities for domestic CSP technology development and deployment. At the end of the 13th five-year period, we take stock of the demonstrated progress of the Chinese CSP industry towards delivering internationally competitive CSP projects. We find that in January 2021, eight commercial-scale projects, in total 500 MW, have been completed and three others were under construction in China. In addition, Chinese EPC’s have participated in three international CSP projects, although proprietary Chinese CSP designs have not been applied outside China. The largest progress has been made in molten-salt tower technology, with several projects by different companies completed and operating successfully: here, the aims were met, and Chinese companies are now at the global forefront of this segment. Further efforts for large-scale demonstration are needed, however, for other CSP technologies, including parabolic trough - with additional demonstration hindered by a lack of further deployment policies. In the near future, Chinese companies seek to employ the demonstrated capabilities in the tower segment abroad and are developing projects using Chinese technology, financing, and components in several overseas markets. If successful, this will likely lead to increasing competition and further cost reductions for the global CSP sector.
    Language: English
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  • 69
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    In:  Handbuch der kommunalen Verkehrsplanung – Strategien, Konzepte, Maßnahmen für eine integrierte und nachhaltige Mobilität
    Publication Date: 2022-06-01
    Description: Studien legen nahe, dass die lokale Wirtschaft von einer Flächenumverteilung, die eine Reduzierung des Motorverkehrs zugunsten von Fuß- und Radverkehr sowie ÖPNV anstrebt, profitiert. Dennoch stoßen Politik und Verwaltung bei der Umverteilung von Verkehrsflächen häufig auf den Widerstand von Wirtschaftsakteuren. In dieser Studie fasse ich Literatur und Daten über Auswirkungen der Mobilität auf die lokale Wirtschaft zusammen und präsentiere die Ergebnisse einer Befragung von Besucher:innen (N = 2021) zweier Einkaufsstraßen in Berlin und von lokalen Unternehmen (N = 145), die an eben diesen Einkaufsstraßen angesiedelt sind. Ich stelle fest, dass Gewerbetreibende die Nutzung des Autos bei ihren Kund:innen überschätzen und den Fuß- und Radverkehr sowie den ÖPNV unterschätzen.
    Description: The literature suggests that local business more likely stands to profit from infrastructure shifts allotting more space to pedestrians, cyclists, and transit riders, even when space for motor traffic is reduced. Nonetheless, local governments often face opposition from business actors when redistributing traffic space. In this study I summarize literature and available data on mobility as it can impact local business, and present the findings of a survey of visitors (N = 2021) to two shopping streets in Berlin and local businesses (N = 145). I find that business owners overestimate automobile use by their customers and underestimate walking, cycling, and transit use.
    Language: German
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  • 70
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    In:  IDEES magazine (Centre d'estudis de temes contemporanis (CETC)) - Rethinking Development Cooperation to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century, 12.05.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-06-02
    Language: English
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  • 71
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    In:  Gehört werden : Neue Wege der Bürgerbeteiligung
    Publication Date: 2022-06-02
    Language: German
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  • 72
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    Danish Board of Technology (Fonden Teknologirådet), DIALOGIK gemeinnützige Gesellschaft für Kommunikations- und Kooperationsforschung mbH
    Publication Date: 2022-06-02
    Description: The RECIPES guidance advises on how to deal responsibly with uncertain risks in the development and implementation of technology in the EU. It helps EU risk regulation and innovation policy to use the precautionary principle for responsible technological innovation. Target groups of this guidance are primarily EU policy makers, EU agencies, and EU policy support organisations and bodies that are concerned with risk regulation or the governance of science, technology and innovation. The guidance offers them ideas about how to further improve addressing uncertain risks in EU risk regulation and innovation policy. The guidance also addresses researchers and innovators and the multitude of societal actors who can contribute to a society-wide innovation system. The guidance illustrates these target groups that their contributions are needed for applying the precautionary principle for responsible technological innovation.
    Language: English
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  • 73
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    In:  SOLARPACES 2020: 26th International Conference on Concentrating Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems | AIP Conference Proceedings
    Publication Date: 2022-06-08
    Description: Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) offers flexible and decarbonized power generation and is one of the few dispatchable renewable technologies able to generate renewable electricity on demand. Today (2018) CSP contributes only 5TWh to the European power generation, but it has the potential to become one of the key pillars for European decarbonization pathways. In this paper we investigate how factors and pivotal policy decisions leading to different futures and associated CSP deployment in Europe in the years up to 2050. In a second step we characterize the scenarios with their associated system cost and the costs of support policies. We show that the role of CSP in Europe critically depends on political developments and the success or failure of policies outside renewable power. In particular, the uptake of CSP depends on the overall decarbonization ambition, the degree of cross border trade of renewable electricity and is enabled by the presence of strong grid interconnection between Southern and Norther European Member States as well as by future electricity demand growth. The presence of other baseload technologies, prominently nuclear power in France, reduce the role and need for CSP. Assuming favorable technological development, we find a strong role for CSP in Europe in all modeled scenarios: contributing between 100TWh to 300TWh of electricity to a future European power system. This would require increasing the current European CSP fleet by a factor of 20 to 60 in the next 30 years. To achieve this financial support between € 0.4-2 billion per year into CSP would be needed, representing only a small share of overall support needs for power-system transformation. Cooperation of Member States could further help to reduce this cost.
    Language: English
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2022-06-17
    Description: Research undertaken in Task 2.2 identified a range of governance challenges to ocean-based NETs related to the global ocean governance framework, e.g., linked to the transboundary nature of the ocean, potential effects of ocean-based NETs on the ocean’s condition and marine ecosystem services, as well as the many unknowns and uncertainties linked to NET-deployment. The fragmented approaches and frameworks in place to govern the global ocean further complicate comprehensive governance of these emerging technologies. This deliverable presents results from a workshop that explored how ocean-based NETs should be governed to best confront these challenges and integrate international climate targets as well as global goals for ocean and biodiversity conservation, in addition to global ambitions towards sustainable development. The workshop is part of research undertaken by Task 2.2 to assess how ocean-based NETs are addressed by the current global ocean governance framework and develop governance scenarios and recommendations to policy makers for a “good governance” of NETs in the ocean.
    Language: English
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  • 75
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    In:  Routledge handbook of marine governance and global environmental change
    Publication Date: 2022-06-27
    Description: This chapter analyses the challenges of extreme change in the Arctic and Southern Oceans. In both regions, warming seas, declining sea ice and acidification of waters are adversely affecting the distribution of marine species. The specific long-term impacts on fisheries are uncertain, but the generally increasing pace and scale of change appear to be inevitable. Due to the loss of sea ice, human activities in polar seas, such as shipping, fishing, tourism, and exploration for (and extraction of) hydrocarbons, are increasing and will accelerate in the future. The chapter describes existing governance frameworks for polar seas and notes that ecosystem-based approaches are being promoted by the Arctic Council and the Antarctic Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. Existing barriers to effective conservation of polar marine ecosystems include the desire among actors to exploit newly accessible resources, a lack of international cooperation, and a shortage of scientific information. The use of more collaborative processes and the implementation of new management schemes, including area-based management measures, may help to overcome those barriers.
    Language: English
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2022-06-27
    Description: To realize their full sustainability potential, carbon dioxide utilization technologies (carbon capture and utilization/CCU) presently require policy support. Consequently, they require acceptance among a variety of stakeholders in industry, policy making, and in the public sphere alike. While CO2 utilization is already a topic of discourse among these stakeholders, there is a lack of common terminology to describe such technologies. On the contrary: The present article shows that terminology in the field of CO2 utilization technologies is currently used inconsistently, and that different designations such as CCU, CCUS, or CDR convey different meanings and contexts. These ambiguities may cause communication problems with regard to policy making, funding proposals, and especially in public discourse. In order to initiate and accompany a goal-oriented and knowledge-based debate on CO2 utilization technologies in the future, actors in the field are asked to question their own choices of terminology and to assess its accuracy. Acronyms and technical abbreviations are the chief cause of potential misunderstandings, and so should be avoided whenever possible or else include a brief explanation. Consistent and precise use of terminology will facilitate transparent dialogue concerning CO2 utilization in the future.
    Language: English
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  • 77
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    Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), Playing History UG & Co.KG
    Publication Date: 2022-06-29
    Description: Torfitz – Das Planspiel zum Strukturwandel kann in der schulischen und außerschulischen Bildungsarbeit eingesetzt werden. Es richtet sich an Schüler:innen ab Klasse 9, Auszubildende und Studierende. Torfitz spielt in einer fiktiven Region mit fiktiven Kommunen. Es orientiert sich dabei an der Lausitz, wobei viele Regionen und Kommunen an anderen Orten vor ähnlichen Herausforderungen stehen. Die Arbeitsplatzsituation verändert sich und Menschen sehen sich existenziellen Fragen gegenüber. Daraus entstehen Unsicherheiten, aus denen Zukunftsangst erwachsen kann. Torfitz – Das Planspiel zum Strukturwandel schafft einen Rahmen, in dem sich die Spielenden auf kreative und kooperative Weise mit Veränderungen auseinandersetzen. Die Spieler:innen übernehmen unterschiedliche Rollen (z.B. Bürgermeister:in, Bewohner:in, Jugendliche:r, Unternehmer:in, Naturschützer:in) in verschiedenen Kommunen, die sich mit spezifischen Herausforderungen konfrontiert sehen, z.B. wie kann der Jugendclub leichter erreicht werden? Wie können sich neue Bewohner:innen schnell willkommen fühlen? Soll sich ein Unternehmen mit einem kontroversen Geschäftsmodell ansiedeln dürfen? Im gemeinsamen Gespräch werden Abwägungen getroffen und konkrete Projektideen erarbeitet. Die Ideen werden anschließend einem Gremium präsentiert, das anhand bestimmter Kriterien die besten Projekte auswählt. Dabei vollzieht der Großteil der Schüler:innen einen Perspektivwechsel. Nachdem sie zunächst verschiedene Rollen in den Kommunen hatten, sind sie später Teil dieses Gremiums und müssen entscheiden, welche Projekte gefördert werden sollen. Der Austausch mit anderen, das konstruktive Streiten um die besten Ideen und das Entwickeln von Lösungsansätzen stärkt nicht nur die Kompetenzen der Spielenden im Sozialen, in Bezug auf Demokratie und Nachhaltigkeit, sondern vermittelt zugleich das Gefühl, dass Veränderungen auch Chancen sind, Dinge besser zu machen. Torfitz ermöglicht den Spielenden, gemeinsames Engagement zu erleben und eröffnet Perspektiven, die sowohl im schulischen als auch persönlichen Alltag von Bedeutung sind beziehungsweise sein können: Es liegt auch an mir, mein Lebensumfeld zu gestalten. Das Spiel ist für 6-30 Spieler:innen konzipiert und kann in drei Varianten gespielt werden. Diese sind unterschiedlich komplex und benötigen 45, 60 oder 90 Minuten. Torfitz wurde bereits erfolgreich an Schulen und Hochschulen getestet. Ab Juli kann Torfitz kostenlos von Lehrkräften und anderen Bildungsanbietenden bei der Brandenburgischen Landeszentrale für politische Bildung bestellt werden. Spiel und Begleitheft sind so aufbereitet, dass sie ohne Vorkenntnisse und mit minimalem Vorbereitungsaufwand eingesetzt werden können. Bei Bedarf stehen Hintergrundinformationen zur Verfügung.
    Language: German
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  • 78
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    In:  Politikum : Analysen, Kontroversen, Bildung
    Publication Date: 2022-06-29
    Language: German
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