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  • 1
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    In:  Strategies for Sustainability of the Earth System | Strategies for Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2021-09-27
    Description: Humankind is confronted with two types of risks: conventional and systemic risks. Conventional risks can be contained in space and time, follow linear cause–effect relationships, and require effective and pointed interventions into the cause–effect chain. Systemic risks, however, are characterized by high complexity, transboundary effects, stochastic relationships, and nonlinear cause–effect patterns with tipping points and often associated with less public attention than they deserve. Systemic risks range from natural hazards, environmental threats, and financial crisis to cybersecurity. Due to their special features, systemic risks are overextending established risk management and creating new, unsolved challenges for policy making in risk governance. Their negative effects are often pervasive, impacting fields beyond the obvious primary areas of harm. The following chapter describes the distinct features of systemic risks and explains their properties. It focuses on the issue of risk perception and the likelihood of insufficient attention by policymakers and the public at large to systemic risks. The main argument is that a graphic representation and simulation of evolving systemic risks and a participatory deliberative approach of inclusive risk governance are needed in order to prevent, mitigate, or control systemic risks.
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2021-10-12
    Description: Aerosols continue to contribute the largest uncertainty in climate change. Over Asia, a global aerosol hotspot, spatial patterns of aerosol emissions are changing mainly because of changes in anthropogenic emissions, producing a dipole in atmospheric aerosol loading between East (decrease in emissions) and South Asia (increase in emissions). The resultant aerosol radiative effects are expected to be different as compared to the last decades of the20thcentury because of this emerging Asian aerosol dipole. The projection and assessments of radiative and cli-mate impacts of aerosols rely on simulating accurately the aerosol properties, thus, making it imperative that current climate models involved in climate assessments including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Reports, simulate well the magnitude and trends in changing aerosol properties. For the first time, in this study we analyze trends in aerosol properties over Asia from satellite and ground-based observations, and simulations from climate models in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) experiment with state-of-the-art treatment of aerosol chemistry, physics and meteorology. The results reveal large inter-model differences in model estimates, and discrepancies between model simulations and observations as most models are not able to capture the recent observed magnitudes and trends in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) over Asia. The absolute and the relative (percent) trends (positive and/or negative) in AOD are significantly higher than the trends in SSA. The aerosol-induced effective radiative forcing within the atmosphere simulated with three CMIP6 models show a positive (increasing) trend over Asia. A positive trend in atmospheric heating due to aerosols in model simulations is consistent with model simulated trends in AOD (positive) and SSA (negative). These results on model-observations comparison need to be taken into account while examining the projected/expected future climate impacts due to aerosols, and potential value of various mitigation measures, in particular on regional and decadal climate change in Asia which is largely uncertain.
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2021-10-14
    Description: Support schemes have been central to the expansion of renewable electricity globally and in the European Union. As technologies mature, individual member states may decide to phase out these policies. While previous research has shown that such policy changes affect investors’ decisions, we investigate how they affect pathways and electricity prices by simulating investment decisions in an agent-based model in two case countries. This paper contributes and applies an adapted investment decision algorithm that incorporates empirically observed technology and return preferences and is calibrated by return observations. The new algorithm yields more refined and stronger effects compared to its predecessor. Results show that the phase-out of auctions in Germany and the Netherlands slows down their deployment of renewable capacity by up to ∼60% and ∼35%, respectively. With the exception of photovoltaics and onshore wind projects in the Netherlands, the targeted capacities can only be reached by continuing support in both countries. Furthermore, ending support in a large country like Germany leads to higher electricity prices and fosters a market-driven but insufficient capacity expansion in smaller neighbours like the Netherlands. As the electricity grids in many countries are strongly interconnected, such cross-border effects are of international relevance. Our findings suggest that continued auctions may be necessary and that countries should coordinate policy changes to stay on track for meeting their renewables targets.
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  • 4
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    In:  IASS Blog, 07.01.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-01-20
    Description: According to the statistical evidence there is no doubt that vaccinations significantly benefit people across all population groups. So why is it that around 20% of people over the age of 18 are still unvaccinated in Germany?
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    In:  WortMelder – Der Forschungsblog der Universität Erfurt, 03.01.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-01-20
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    In:  Internationale Politik : IP, 03.01.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-01-20
    Language: German
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2021-12-01
    Description: Despite geopolitics play a pivotal role in the energy sector, geopolitical aspects are often not considered in the quantitative assessment models aimed at supporting the energy investment decision-making process. To address this issue, this work proposes an Extended Multi-regional Input-Output model (EMRIO) that incorporates import dependence and governance along the value chain. As case study, two alternative energy investments in Mexico – a Natural Gas Power plant (NG) and a Concentrated Solar Power plant (CSP) – are assessed. The method quantifies the geographical diversification of suppliers and the quality of governance. The assessment of the case study shows that the supply chain of the CSP plant includes more countries and with better governance levels than the supply chain of the NG power plant. That means, a priori, that the supply risks of investing in CSP power plants will be lower, as will suppliers' endogenous geopolitical risk. However, a sensitivity analysis considering different providers of the solar plant components reveals that CSP plant value chain could also entail similar or even higher governance risks levels as the NG plant. The scenario where China provides some of the components entails a much higher governance risks, even higher than the NG base case. In consequence, we have proved that the method proposed allows the identification of hidden geopolitical risks that would otherwise go unnoticed. This paper enlarges the existing knowledge on assessment methodologies for energy policy decision-support by measuring diversification and imports dependence from countries with different levels of governance along the whole value chain.
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    In:  Renewable & sustainable energy reviews
    Publication Date: 2021-12-02
    Description: Solar technology diffuses across the globe as countries transition from fossil to renewable energy. Little solar-specific experience and capacity in newly adopting countries can result in technical failures and lower solar plant performance. This contributes to making the investment in solar plants in newcomer countries risky and may undermine political targets of solar energy deployment. One solution suggested by international organizations is for policymakers in adopting countries to include international quality standards as technical requirements in public auctions. Here, we develop a conceptual framework on how international quality standards could help build a solar sector. As a case study, we analyze the explanatory factors of technical requirements in 100 public auctions of utility-scale solar photovoltaic plants carried out in India between 2013 and 2019. Our findings suggest that more international quality standards are required in auctions in which the government rather than a private actor ultimately carries the commercial risk. On the other hand, local content requirements and attracting foreign investors do not correlate with technical requirements. We argue that using minimal quality standards is unlikely to promote local technological catch-up or attract long-term foreign investments but transfers the techno-commercial risk from the government to the private sector.
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2021-12-09
    Description: Area-Based Management Tools (ABMTs) are spatial instruments for conservation and managing different forms of ocean use. A multitude of ABMTs exists in marine areas within and beyond national jurisdiction, ranging from tools for the regulation of specific human activities (e.g. fisheries, shipping, or mining) to cross-sectoral tools (e.g. such as marine protected areas, MPAs, and marine spatial planning, MSP). By applying expert elicitation and reviewing scientific and grey literature we evaluate the contribution of ABMTs to sustainable development goals (SDGs) as set out under the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including for SDG 14 that directly addresses the conservation and sustainable use of oceans, seas, and marine resources. We find that fisheries-related and conservation-related ABMTs, and MSP offer the greatest potential contributions to SDG 14 and to SDGs in general. Moreover, there is high complementarity and synergy among different ABMTs for most SDG 14 targets and other SDGs, with the exception of SDG target 14.6 Prohibit fisheries subsidies and SDG 7 Affordable and clean energy. We find that some ABMTs contribute directly to goal attainment, while others contribute in more nuanced or even unexpected ways. Furthermore, context-specific factors that relate to political and legal factors, enforceability, transparency, governance structure, and inclusivity are crucial for unlocking the full potential of ABMTs of attaining multiple SDGs, as shown through examples. The major challenge to face in the next decade is ensuring durable and equitable outcomes from ABMT implementation by coordinating ABMT initiatives established by different organisations and responsible authorities. It is also critical that outcomes are monitored and evaluated across environmental, social, economic, governance, and health dimensions, with indicators addressing management effectiveness and not only ABMT area coverage.
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    In:  The Routledge Handbook of Democracy and Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2021-12-22
    Description: We live in a social world whose pace is accelerating. While the focus of most aspects of our intensified social life is narrowing down to the present, the futures we create on a daily basis cast ever-longer shadows. In this situation a chasm is opening up between the technological production of increasingly expanding futures and a horizon of political concern, action and predictive capacity that is getting ever shorter. This drifting apart of knowledge and practice has impacts for the possibility of achieving a politics sensitive to the long-term future. The chapter explores the resulting difficulties and considers potential openings for change.
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    In:  The Routledge Handbook of Democracy and Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2021-12-22
    Description: Ideas of temporality are of key importance for understanding the relationship between democracy and sustainability. Moreover, engaging with different conceptions of temporality brings the centrality of issues of social and intergenerational justice for democratic sustainability transformations to the fore. As normative ideas, sustainability and democracy advocate for the possibility of an open future – a future that is formable and more just and ecologically feasible. However, for both concepts it is important to understand the lasting effects of historical inequalities and unsustainable practices on our material and institutional present environments. The past is here considered as not just preceding the present but as an integral part of any present and future politics. This chapter will compare teleological and non-linear notions of history, with the aim of developing a more inclusive understanding of different temporal experiences of democracy, justice, and sustainability. With reference to the notion of Kair ós the chapter further argues that the present can be understood not just as a bridge between past and future but as a space of opportunities that needs to be politically negotiated.
    Language: English
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  • 12
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    Routledge
    Publication Date: 2021-12-22
    Description: This handbook provides comprehensive and critical coverage of the dynamic and complex relationship between democracy and sustainability in contemporary theory, discourse, and practice. Distinguished scholars from different disciplines, such as political science, sociology, philosophy, international relations, look at the present state of this relationship, asking how it has evolved and where it is likely to go in the future. They examine compatibilities and tensions, continuities and changes, as well as challenges and potentials across theoretical, empirical and practical contexts. This wide-spanning collection brings together multiple established and emerging viewpoints on the debate between democracy and sustainability which have, until now, been fragmented and diffuse. It comprises diverse theoretical and methodological perspectives discussing democracy’s role in, and potential for, coping with environmental issues at the local and global scales. This handbook provides a comprehensive overview of arguments, claims, questions, and insights that are put forward regarding the relationship between democracy and sustainability. In the process, it not only consolidates and condenses, but also broadens and captures the many nuances of the debate. By showing how theoretical, empirical and practical accounts are interrelated, focusing on diverse problem areas and spheres of action, it serves as a knowledge source for professionals who seek to develop action strategies that do justice to both sustainability and democracy, as well as providing a valuable reference for academic researchers, lecturers and students.
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    In:  The Routledge Handbook of Democracy and Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2021-12-22
    Description: This chapter gives an overview of the scholarship on the general tensed relationship between political representation and sustainable futures. It covers the problems of long-term futures for democratic politics and how standard representation theory’s proposals to solve these problems look like. The chapter further proceeds with the most recent debates on constructivist approaches in representation theory and explore how they can help to think about repertoires of political representation in global environmental politics. Finally, the chapter will zoom into the more concrete questions of representation practices in the age of the Anthropocene.
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    In:  The Routledge Handbook of Democracy and Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2021-12-22
    Description: Democracy and sustainability are political ideas that have shaped the course of human history and continue to do so today. On a very general level, these ideas have multiple commonalities. Both have strong, universal normative implications (Dobson 1998; Sen 1999). They develop an image of the good society and, thus, also critically refer to a negatively evaluated other. The concept of democracy is oriented toward an equal and free society in which collective problems and conflicts are resolved by a demos consisting of equals in an ordered process of interest articulation and decision-making; it is the counter-model to highly asymmetrical authoritarian forms of rule, in which the suppression of freedom and autonomy of many members of society prevails (Dahl 2000; Saward 2007). Sustainability, on the other hand, refers to the negative consequences of the “unsustainable” (predominantly Western) model of development for the environment and equity of societies around the world (Christen and Schmidt 2012; Dryzek 2013). A sustainable society is imagined as one in which all present and future people have equal opportunities to satisfy their needs or even a good life in the long term (WCED 1987; Jackson 2017). The prerequisite for this is shaping human development in such a way that it remains within planetary boundaries, i.e., below tipping points for potentially sudden and severe environmental change (Meadowcroft 2012; Steffen et al. 2015). Another commonality is that democracy and sustainability are both fundamentally contested and dynamic concepts. This means that they have two levels of meaning: a relatively stable and universal first-level meaning, below which controversial debates about their respective meanings unfold on a second level (Jacobs 1999). Thus, there is general agreement that democracy means rule by the people and that sustainability requires compliance with ecosystem boundaries. However, how exactly the rule of the people and the compliance with ecosystem boundaries are to be realized and organized in concrete terms is subject to an ongoing debate. The empirical implication of this is that both democracy and sustainability do not exist in any kind of pure form but in manifold discursive, institutional, and practical manifestations that are subject to ongoing change (Hopwood, Mellor, and O’Brien 2005; Saward 2007).
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2022-01-11
    Description: We investigated the role of the passive volcanic plume of Mount Etna (Italy) in the formation of new particles in the size range of 2.5–10 nm through the gas-to-particle nucleation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) precursors, formed from the oxidation of SO2, and their evolution to particles with diameters larger than 100 nm. Two simulations were performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) under the same configuration, except for the nucleation parameterization implemented in the model: the activation nucleation parameterization (JS1 = 2.0 × 10−6 × (H2SO4)) in the first simulation (S1) and a new parameterization for nucleation (NPN) (JS2 = 1.844 × 10−8 × (H2SO4)1.12) in the second simulation (S2). The comparison of the numerical results with the observations shows that, on average, NPN improves the performance of the model in the prediction of the H2SO4 concentrations, newly-formed particles (~2.5–10 nm), and their growth into larger particles (10–100 nm) by decreasing the rates of H2SO4 consumption and nucleation relative to S1. In addition, particles formed in the plume do not grow into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sizes (100–215 nm) within a few hours of the vent (tens of km). However, tracking the size evolution of simulated particles along the passive plume indicates the downwind formation of particles larger than 100 nm more than 100 km far from the vent with relatively high concentrations relative to the background (more than 1500 cm−3) in S2. These particles, originating in the volcanic source, could affect the chemical and microphysical properties of clouds and exert regional climatic effects over time.
    Language: English
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2022-01-11
    Language: English
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2022-01-12
    Description: Aviation and shipping currently contribute approximately 8% of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, with growth in tourism and global trade projected to increase this contribution further1–3. Carbon-neutral transportation is feasible with electric motors powered by rechargeable batteries, though challenging if not impossible for long-haul commercial travel, particularly air travel4. A promising solution are drop-in fuels (synthetic alternatives for petroleum-derived liquid hydrocarbon fuels such as kerosene, gasoline or diesel) made from H2O and CO2 by solar-driven processes5–7. Among the many possible approaches, the thermochemical path using concentrated solar radiation as the source of high-temperature process heat offers potentially high production rates and efficiencies8 and can deliver truly carbon-neutral fuels if the required CO2 is obtained directly from atmospheric air9. If H2O is also co-extracted from air10, feedstock sourcing and fuel production can be co-located in desert regions with high solar irradiation and limited access to water resources. While individual steps of such a scheme have been implemented, we now demonstrate operation of the entire thermochemical solar fuel production chain, from H2O and CO2 captured directly from ambient air to the synthesis of drop-in transportation fuels (e.g. methanol, kerosene), with a modular 5-kWthermal pilot-scale solar system operated under real field conditions. We further identify the R&D efforts and discuss the economic viability and policies required to bring these solar fuels to market.
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2022-01-12
    Description: Energy system models are advancing rapidly. However, it is not clear whether models are becoming better, in the sense that they address the questions that decision-makers need answered to make well-informed decisions. Therefore, we investigate the gap between model improvements relevant from the perspective of modellers compared to what users of model results think models should address. Thus, we ask: What are the differences between energy model improvements as perceived by modellers, and the actual needs of users of model results? To answer this question, we conducted a literature review, 32 interviews, and an online survey. Our results show that user needs and ongoing improvements of energy system models align to a large degree, so that future models are indeed likely to be better than current models. We also find mismatches between the needs of modellers and users, especially in modelling of social, behavioural and political aspects, the trade-off between model complexity and understandability, and the ways that model results should be communicated. Our findings suggest that a better understanding of user needs and closer cooperation between modellers and users is imperative to truly improve models and unlock their full potential to support the transition towards climate neutrality in Europe.
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2022-01-12
    Description: Computer-based models provide decision-makers with techno-economic insights into transition pathways for decarbonising energy systems. Such models mainly focus on techno-economic aspects and do not adequately represent the social aspects of the energy transition, although there is broad consensus that these non-technical factors are important drivers and constraints. To map the current integration and identify perspectives for future research, we ask: Which model types are particularly good at integrating social aspects? What social aspects are represented in energy models? How are these social aspects integrated? We analysed publications that apply these energy models to investigate which and how models integrate social aspects within three main modelling steps: (i) storyline, scenario, and input parameter, (ii) optimisation/simulation process and (iii) model output discussion. Results show that social aspects are mainly integrated through exogenous assumptions and output discussions. We also identify models that go beyond technical potential and pure cost optimisation/simulation. All model types integrate behaviour and lifestyle; some address public acceptance, but not transformation dynamics. Only agent-based models integrate heterogeneity of actors and public ownership. We conclude that a better representation of social aspects in energy models is needed, and that there is a high potential to improve this by combining different model types and conducting interdisciplinary research.
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2022-01-13
    Description: The dataset presented in this article contains information about marine Area-Based Management Tools (ABMTs) used to assess their contribution to the United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. Following the scope of the analysis, ABMTs were identified by scrutinizing international and regional legal sources related to ocean management in the fields of marine conservation, fisheries, deep sea bed mining, underwater natural and cultural heritage, environmental conservation, and marine spatial planning. Legal sources were screened to depict the following characteristics of individual ABMTs: i) management objectives; ii) authorities responsible for delivering such objectives; iii) the system of management and planning entailed in the ABMT including the zoning type; and iv) the specific spatial scope and domain each ABMT refer to in vertical depth and horizontal domain. Data were generated through an internal expert elicitation. Experts, initially trained in the data analysis and related protocol, contributed to the data production because of their specific knowledge and experience in ocean management. This dataset represents a unique source of information for advancing research about monitoring and assessment of the achievement of sustainable development goals that encompasses different types of ABMTs.
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  • 21
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    Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)
    In:  IASS Study | COBENEFITS Study
    Publication Date: 2022-01-18
    Description: This study builds on a unique and hitherto confidential, unpublished set of employee data for Eskom and coal mines, provided by Eskom (under a non-disclosure agreement) and the Mining Quality Authority (MQA). The sourced data sets connect gender, qualification levels, and years of service, thereby enabling analysis of the skills and gender balance in the coal industry, and assessment of the potential for transferring expertise to the renewable energy sector. In addition, interviews were conducted with enterprise development (ED) managers to understand barriers and opportunities for women in the renewables sector. Based on these valuable data sets and economic modelling, the study analyses and quantifies the socio-economic implications of repurposing coal-fired plants in Mpumalanga via deployment of renewable energy. The analysis emphasises opportunities related to job creation, necessary skill development with a focus on gender questions, and regional value creation and industrial opportunities in Mpumalanga. The findings also highlight important framework conditions necessary for fully harnessing these benefits.
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    In:  EURACTIV Media network, 10.01.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-01-19
    Language: English
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2022-01-21
    Description: QTDIAN - Quantification of Technological DIffusion and sociAl constraiNts - is a toolbox of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of socio-technical and political aspects of the energy transition that influence the overall potential, the rate of energy-related technology and service diffusion and the design of the future energy system. The output of QTIDIAN is empirically founded datasets of social and political drivers and barriers of the transition, both in the form of raw data describing past and current developments and manipulated to constitute consistent quantifications of the storylines. Here you can download the data for six QTDIAN themes: Socially feasible scaling of energy technologies Policy preferences & dynamics Barriers to infrastructural development (wind energy, grid development) Citizen energy Private energy demand
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2021-08-02
    Description: Climate change mitigation triggers both spatial and moral complexities, as demonstrated by the contentious issue of phasing out coal power. The success of the Paris Agreement depends on, among other things, the acceptability of climate policy measures and thus, from a moral perspective, on the ability to organize transition processes in ways that do not damage the livelihoods of workers, communities, and entire regions. Spatially, the unequal distributions of burdens and advantages of both climate change and respective mitigation measures provoke struggles over their legitimacy in contexts ranging from local to global. Phasing out coal mining and the respective power generation capacity thus triggers processes of structural transformation that cut across geographic scales, vertical levels of policy and politics, as well as sectoral boundaries. In light of the urgency of the climate crisis, countries such as Canada and Germany have established stakeholder-driven commissions to develop proposals for just transition pathways for phasing out coal production and consumption. We argue that these commissions are arenas in which spatial, moral, and sectoral (re-)negotiations materialize. Comparing the Canadian and German stakeholder commissions through expert interviews with their members, the article traces how governments use commissions to legitimize their transition policies. Expectations at different levels and from different actors in turn place commission members under pressure to justify their involvement and the outputs of the commissions. We find that the Canadian task force showed greater commitment to collecting and reflecting the needs of communities in its coal regions, and to communicating these to the federal government. In the German coal commission, legitimation strategies focused mainly on a broad representation of interests, and on government spending for affected regions, workers, and industries. In that case, a compromise was reached that satisfied most, but not all, of the diverse requirements.
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  • 25
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    In:  Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk
    Publication Date: 2021-01-14
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  • 26
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    In:  Wiener Zeitung, 06.01.2021
    Publication Date: 2021-01-16
    Description: Die Krise bietet die Chance, grundlegend über die menschliche Wirtschaftsweise nachzudenken nachhaltigere und sinnvollere Modelle zu entwickeln.
    Language: German
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  • 27
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    In:  Öffentliche Mobilität : Voraussetzungen für eine menschengerechte Verkehrsplanung
    Publication Date: 2021-02-15
    Description: Der Anstoß für Deutschlands erstes Fahrradgesetz kam aus der Zivilgesellschaft. Der Impuls entstand aus dem weiterhin ungeklärten Konflikt zwischen der Autofixierung der konservativen deutschen Verkehrspolitik und dem progressiven Wunsch nach einer nachhaltigen Mobilität, die sich an den Bedürfnissen der Bürger*innen orientieren soll und eine Umverteilung des Straßenraumes zugunsten des Radverkehrs erforderte. Dass Verkehr nachhaltiger gestaltet werden muss, war Konsens. Über das Wie gingen die Meinungen stark auseinander.
    Language: German
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2021-03-03
    Description: Das DiDaT Weißbuch ist das Ergebnis eines zweijährigen transdisziplinären Prozesses der Identifikation, Erkundung und Analyse der Probleme und Lösungsoptionen bei der Erfassung, Behandlung, Verwertung und Nutzung digitaler Daten. Das Projekt DiDaT hat sich zum Ziel gesetzt, die zentralen Auswirkungen und Nebenwirkungen („Unseens“ genannt), die sich aus den „Wechselwirkungen des Besitzes/Eigentums, des ökonomischen Wertes, der Nutzung und dem Zugang zu digitalen Daten“ ergeben, zu erforschen, deren Wirkungen zu bewerten und Orientierungen zur Entwicklung von Strategien zu entwickeln, die Personen, Unternehmen, und anderen sozialen Akteuren einen angemessenen Umgang mit möglichen unerwünschten Effekten zu ermöglichen.
    Language: German
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2021-03-03
    Description: Der vorliegende Band „Supplementarischen Informationen zum DiDaT Weißbuch“ beinhaltet 24 Kurzpapiere. In jedem dieser Kurzpapiere wird jeweils eine Sozial Robuste Orientierung (SoRO) zu den fünf Vulnerabilitätsräumen Mobilität, Gesundheit, KMU, Landwirtschaft und Soziale Medien abgeleitet und beschrieben.
    Language: German
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2021-03-23
    Description: Transitioning German road transport partially to hydrogen energy is among the possibilities being discussed to help meet national climate targets. This study investigates impacts of a hypothetical, complete transition from conventionally-fueled to hydrogen-powered German transport through representative scenarios. Our results show that German emissions change between −179 and +95 MtCO2eq annually, depending on the scenario, with renewable-powered electrolysis leading to the greatest emissions reduction, while electrolysis using the fossil-intense current electricity mix leads to the greatest increase. German energy emissions of regulated pollutants decrease significantly, indicating the potential for simultaneous air quality improvements. Vehicular hydrogen demand is 1000 PJ annually, requiring 446–525 TWh for electrolysis, hydrogen transport and storage, which could be supplied by future German renewable generation, supporting the potential for CO2-free hydrogen traffic and increased energy security. Thus hydrogen-powered transport could contribute significantly to climate and air quality goals, warranting further research and political discussion about this possibility.
    Language: English
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Description: We investigate whether political ideology has an observable effect on decarbonization ambition, renewable power aims, and preferences for power system balancing technologies in four European countries. Based on the Energy Logics framework, we identify ideologically different transition strategies (state-centered, market-centered, grassroots-centered) contained in government policies and opposition party programs valid in 2019. We compare these policies and programs with citizen poll data. We find that ideology has a small effect: governments and political parties across the spectrum have similar, and relatively ambitious, decarbonization and renewables targets. This mirrors citizens’ strong support for ambitious action regardless of their ideological self-description. However, whereas political positions on phasing out fossil fuel power are clear across the policy space, positions on phasing in new flexibility options to balance intermittent renewables are vague or non-existent. As parties and citizens agree on strong climate and renewable power aims, the policy ambition is likely to remain high, even if governments change.
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2021-01-12
    Description: Am 20. Januar tritt Joseph Biden sein Amt als 46. Präsident der USA an. Dies weckt große Hoffnungen für die internationalen Klimaschutzbemühungen. Doch die jüngsten Unruhen in Washington haben nochmals verdeutlicht: Biden übernimmt die Führung eines tief gespaltenen Landes – der Klimaschutz ist da keine Ausnahme. Während 87 Prozent der Demokratinnen und Demokraten den Klimawandel als wichtige Bedrohung wahrnehmen, ist dies nur bei 31 Prozent der Republikanerinnen und Republikaner der Fall. Unter den republikanischen Kongressabgeordneten sitzen auch im neuen Kongress etwa 130 Klimawandelleugner. Wie sehen Bidens klimapolitische Ambitionen aus und kann er sie angesichts dieser Herausforderungen umsetzen?
    Language: German
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2021-03-29
    Description: The rapid uptake of renewable energy technologies in recent decades has increased the demand of energyresearchers, policymakers and energy planners for reliable data on the spatial distribution of their costs and potentials. For onshore wind energy this has resulted in an active research field devoted to analysing these resources for regions, countries or globally. A particular thread of this research attempts to go beyond purely technical or spatial restrictions and determine the realistic, feasible or actual potential for wind energy. Motivated by these developments, this paper reviews methods and assumptions for analysing geographical, technical, economic and, finally, feasible onshore wind potentials. We address each of these potentials in turn, including aspects related to land eligibility criteria, energy meteorology, and technical developments relating to wind turbine characteristics such as power density, specific rotor power and spacing aspects. Economic aspects of potential assessments are central to future deployment and are discussed on a turbine and system level covering levelized costs depending on locations, and the system integration costs which are often overlooked in such analyses. Non-technical approaches include scenicness assessments of the landscape, expert and stakeholder workshops, willingness to pay / accept elicitations and socioeconomic cost-benefit studies. For each of these different potential estimations, the state of the art is critically discussed, with an attempt to derive best practice recommendations and highlight avenues for future research.
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2021-03-31
    Description: We are facing an unprecedented environmental crisis. How can we communicate and act more effectively to make the political and economic changes required to survive and even thrive within the life-support capacities of our planet? This is the question at the heart of W. Lance Bennett's much-anticipated book. Bennett challenges readers to consider how best to approach the environmental crisis by changing how we think about the relationships between environment, economy, and democracy. He introduces a framework that citizens, practitioners, and scholars can use to evaluate common but unproductive communication that blocks thinking about change; develop more effective ways to define and approach problems; and design communication processes to engage diverse publics and organizations in developing understandings, goals, and political strategies. Until advocates develop economic programs with built-in environmental solutions, they will continue to lose policy fights. Putting "intersectional" communication into action requires acknowledging that communication is not only an exchange of messages, but an organizational process. Communicating the Future is important reading for students and scholars of media and communication, as well as general readers concerned about the environmental crisis.
    Language: English
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2021-04-07
    Description: Due to the strong temperature dependence of surface ozone concentrations (O3), future warmer conditions may worsen ozone pollution levels despite continued efforts on emission controls of ozone precursors. Using long-term measurements of hourly O3 concentrations co-located with NOx concentrations in stations distributed throughout Germany, we assess changes in the climate penalty in summertime, defined as the slope of ozone-temperature relationship during the period 1999–2018. We find a stronger temperature sensitivity in the urban stations over the southwestern regions, especially in the first period of the study (1999–2008). We show a decrease in the climate penalty in most of stations during the second period of the study (2009–2018), with some exceptions (e.g. Berlin) where the climate penalty did not show significant changes. A key motivation of this study is to provide further insights into the impacts of NOx reductions in the O3-temperature relationship. For that, we propose a statisti-cal approach based on Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) to describe ozone production rates, inferred from hourly observations, as a function of NOx and temperature, among other variables relevant during the O3 production. The GAMs confirm lower O3 production rates during the second period (2009–2018) at most of the stations and a decreasing sensitivity to temperature. We observe that a large number of stations are transitioning to NOx-limited chemistry, consistent with a decreasing temperature dependence of O3 at moderate-high temperatures as a result of sustained NOx reductions. Moreover, the GAMs results showed changes in the shape of the function representing the O3-temperature relationship when comparing the first and second period, which suggest changes in VOC influencing the temperature dependence of O3. From these results, we infer effective VOC reductions over time that have also contributed to the observed decrease of O3 production rates. Thus, our analysis indicates that emissions reductions have been effective in a number of stations, particularly in the southwestern regions. However, we notice that in a few stations (e.g. Berlin) additional emission reductions should be required to effectively mitigate the temperature dependence of O3.
    Language: English
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  • 36
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    In:  IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine
    Publication Date: 2021-05-20
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2021-05-20
    Description: Gesellschaftliche Veränderungen speisen sich oft aus wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen. Gerade der Klimawandel zeigt dies eindrücklich. Wissenschaft ist aber immer auch Teil der Phänomene, die sie beobachtet. Jene Forscher*innen, die sich aktiv an einem Wandel beteiligen, sind mit besonders vielfältigen Erwartungen konfrontiert. Sie sollen Wissen bereitstellen, Lösungen vorschlagen und passgenau an Politik und Öffentlichkeit kommunizieren. Wie die wechselseitige Einbettung von Wissenschaft und Gesellschaft auch die Forschungspraxis verändert, zeigen 14 Beiträge u. a. am Beispiel des Strukturwandels im Rheinland, im Ruhrgebiet und in der Lausitz. Engagierte Forschung befördert die demokratische Auseinandersetzung mit Transformationskonflikten. Sie strukturiert die Suche nach Lösungen in Politik und Praxis und hinterfragt wirkmächtige Annahmen. Für die involvierten Wissenschaftler*innen bedeutet das eine Ausweitung ihres Selbstverständnisses und ihrer Methoden.
    Language: German
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  • 38
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    In:  Wissenschaft im Strukturwandel: Die paradoxe Praxis engagierter Transformationsforschung
    Publication Date: 2021-05-20
    Language: German
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  • 39
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    In:  IASS Blog, 27.04.2021
    Publication Date: 2021-05-20
    Description: Heute vor 30 Jahren kamen Staats- und Regierungschefs aus aller Welt zusammen, um die Europäische Bank für Wiederaufbau und Entwicklung (EBRD) zu gründen - eine kühne Initiative, um den Wandel eines Wirtschaftssystems zu fördern, das sowohl die Umwelt als auch ganze Gesellschaften zerstörte. Heute, da der Ozean stärker denn je bedroht ist, brauchen wir eine ähnlich mutige Initiative.
    Language: German
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  • 40
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    In:  Atlas of the Human Planet 2020 – Open geoinformation for research, policy, and action, EUR 30516 EN
    Publication Date: 2021-05-20
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  • 41
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    Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS)
    In:  IASS Policy Brief
    Publication Date: 2021-05-12
    Description: Wenn die EU einen CO2-Grenzausgleich (Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism, CBAM) einführt, könnten Länder, denen die Ressourcen für die Dekarbonisierung fehlen, schwerwiegende wirtschaftliche Folgen zu spüren bekommen. Die EU sollte daher mögliche politische Risiken berücksichtigen und Stakeholder aus Drittstaaten in die Gestaltung des CBAM einbeziehen. Sie sollte mit den CBAM-Einnahmen die Dekarbonisierung in den von Risiken betroff enen Ländern fördern und die Emissionsberichterstattung mit bestehenden internationalen Vorgaben verknüpfen.
    Language: German
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2021-05-27
    Description: Albert Einstein’s assertion that we cannot solve our problems with the same thinking that we used to create them has never been truer than it is today as the world grapples with the global health crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic. In July 2019, representatives from 142 countries gathered for the High-Level Political Forum for Sustainable Development (HLPF) to review progress towards the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and to identify areas in urgent need of attention. Progress towards achieving the Agenda’s sustainable development goals (SDGs) had been uneven prior to the pandemic, but its outbreak abruptly disrupted implementation towards many of these goals and, in some cases, reversed decades of progress. The crisis has affected every segment of society and has rocked economies around the world. Unsurprisingly, it is the poorest and most vulnerable populations that will suffer the most. The pandemic has exposed harsh and profound inequalities in societies and is further exacerbating disparities within and between countries. Although the SDGs are broad global goals, their implementation is rooted in action at the local level. The authors of this publication collectively represent the Global South and their expertise touches on some of the key challenges facing us today: water and sanitation (SDG 6), biodiversity (SDG 15), energy (SDG 7), economics (SDG 8), poverty (SDG 1), inequality (SDG 10), urban sustainability (SDG 11), climate action (SDG 13) and more. The challenges presented by the pandemic are without precedent in our lifetimes. Robbed of our equilibrium, we decided to focus our thoughts on achieving a deeper understanding of the implications of this crisis for sustainable development, climate protection, and our respective areas of focus. This led us to consider how we could work together and help to forge pathways towards a more sustainable and equitable world.
    Description: Albert Einsteins Erkenntnis, dass man Probleme niemals mit derselben Denkweise lösen kann, durch die sie entstanden sind, war nie wahrer als heute, da die Welt mit der globalen Gesundheitskrise der Covid-19-Pandemie zu kämpfen hat. Im Juli 2019 versammelten sich Vertreterinnen und Vertreter von 142 Ländern beim Hochrangigen Politischen Forum für Nachhaltige Entwicklung (HLPF), um die Fortschritte bei der Umsetzung der Agenda 2030 für Nachhaltige Entwicklung der Vereinten Nationen zu überprüfen und Bereiche zu identifizieren, die dringend der Aufmerksamkeit bedürfen. Die Fortschritte bei der Erreichung der UN-Nachhaltigkeitsziele (SDGs) waren schon vor der Pandemie uneinheitlich, aber der Ausbruch der Pandemie hat die Umsetzung vieler dieser Ziele abrupt unterbrochen und in einigen Fällen Jahrzehnte des Fortschritts rückgängig gemacht. Die Krise hat alle Bereiche der Gesellschaft erfasst und Volkswirtschaften auf der ganzen Welt erschüttert. Es überrascht nicht, dass die ärmsten und verletzlichsten Bevölkerungsgruppen am meisten leiden. Die Pandemie hat tiefgreifende gesellschaftliche Ungleichheiten offengelegt und verschärft die Unterschiede innerhalb von und zwischen den Ländern weiter. Obwohl es sich bei den SDGs um breit angelegte globale Ziele handelt, findet ihre Umsetzung ganz wesentlich auf lokaler Ebene statt. Die Autorinnen und Autoren dieser Publikation repräsentieren gemeinsam den Globalen Süden und bringen Fachwissen zu einigen der wichtigsten Herausforderungen mit, vor denen wir heute stehen: Wasser und Sanitäreinrichtungen (SDG 6), Biodiversität (SDG 15), Energie (SDG 7), Wirtschaft (SDG 8), Armut (SDG 1), Ungleichheit (SDG 10), nachhaltige Städte und Gemeinden (SDG 11), Klimaschutz (SDG 13) und mehr. Die Herausforderungen, die die Pandemie mit sich bringt, sind zu unseren Lebzeiten ohne Beispiel. Als die Welt aus den Fugen geriet, beschlossen die Autorinnen und Autoren dieser Publikation, ein tieferes Verständnis für die Auswirkungen dieser Krise auf die nachhaltige Entwicklung, den Klimaschutz und unsere jeweiligen Forschungsschwerpunkte zu erlangen. Sie überlegten, wie sie zusammenarbeiten und dazu beitragen können, Wege zu einer nachhaltigeren und gerechteren Welt zu entdecken.
    Language: English
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2021-05-31
    Language: English
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2021-06-09
    Description: Although energy models advance rapidly in terms of technical and techno-economic details, social and political aspects and environmental burdens beyond greenhouse gas emissions are currently underrepresented. However, in light of the European Green Deal and the EU Energy Union Strategy, models must advance in terms of social and environmental considerations to support decision- and policymakers in adequately addressing that environmental burden and to put “citizens at its core” of the energy transition. In this deliverable, we present key user-needs for environmental and social aspects that need to be better represented in energy system models (Section 2), and how we have developed and adapted the modelling tools ENVIRO, QTDIAN, and ATOM in response to the identified user needs. We show three main user needs regarding social aspects, specifically (i) social impacts on energy politics and policies, (ii) the social acceptance of energy technologies and infrastructure, and (iii) consumers’ behavior in energy models. We furthermore show that users consider relevant the following factors within the environmental aspects of energy scenarios: (iv) demand of raw materials/ circularity, (v) the implications on nature and biodiversity, as well as (vi) full life-cycle impacts and externalization. ENVIRO and QTDIAN are being developed within SENTINEL in a participatory process by engaging with stakeholders in the information and development stages of the model implementation. In contrast, ATOM is adapted by considering user-needs especially in the implementation stage. We conclude that we have benefited from the insights of model users and other stakeholders, and that this will allow us to make our modelling tools fit-for-purpose. All three modelling tools will support decision-makers by answering the most important of the questions users have risen within the SENTINEL stakeholder engagement process. Model-linking within the WP2 and other WPs will ensure that the understanding of environmental and social aspects is strengthened in energy system models and will be embedded in the overall SENTINEL platform.
    Language: English
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2021-06-09
    Description: The poor state of the ocean and the transboundary nature of the marine environment requires bold action by coastal states coordinated across sectors and territorial boundaries in order to deal with the manifold challenges the ocean is facing – and with it humankind. Cooperation and coordination among States and stakeholders in marine regions have proven to be important levers for policy implementation and to strengthen ocean governance, yet remain challenging. Transparent and engaging stakeholder dialogue processes have the potential to provide guidance for the necessary transformation towards ocean sustainability and support the attainment of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for the ocean, SDG 14 and other interlinked ocean-related targets. The aim of this paper is to review the challenges and opportunities of current collaborative efforts, namely multi-stakeholder dialogue and exchange processes, within and between marine regions to accelerate transformative action, contributing to global goals. This paper builds on knowledge co-production and collaborative governance literature, and reviews experiences by stakeholders of current ocean-related science-policy interfaces in an effort to strengthen regional ocean governance. As an exemplary case of such interfaces, it assesses the Marine Regions Forum, a newly established inclusive dialogue and exchange platform for diverse actors from marine regions to engage in informal joint learning and collaboration. Employing latent content analysis of interviews with experts, critical common barriers that hamper current collaborative efforts amongst stakeholders in marine regions are identified, such as fragmented governance frameworks, power and resource imbalances, and lack of meaningful stakeholder engagement. Pathways to address these challenges, such as through common goal orientation, contextualisation, inclusivity, trust building and meaningful continuous interactions are also identified. This paper concludes by discussing the value added of transparent and inclusive collaborative processes in the transformation of ocean governance towards achieving sustainability.
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2021-06-10
    Description: Business voices often oppose a redistribution of urban traffic space in favor of active transport modes. We surveyed 145 traders about their perceptions of their customers’ mobility behavior and interviewed 2,019 shoppers on two shopping streets in Berlin, Germany. Our results indicate that traders overestimate car use and underestimate active transport. Further, potential customers more often live close to their shopping destinations than retailers perceive. Our findings can help explain the opposition of local business to sustainable transport infrastructure and offer a knowledge basis for better informed decision-making regarding urban land use in cities.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2021-06-10
    Description: La jeunesse inuit est aujourd’hui confrontée à de nombreux défis. Elle habite en effet des territoires intégrés à la mondialisation, néanmoins situés aux marges de l’écoumène et donc en prise avec l’isolement géographique et ses conséquences en termes de mobilités, d’accès à différents services de santé, d’éducation et même de biens de première nécessité. Les jeunes Inuit du Nunavik évoluent dans une société multiculturelle où les effets de la colonisation marquent encore le quotidien, se caractérisant par d’importants problèmes sociaux (violence, alcoolisme, suicide). Toutefois, malgré ce portrait inquiétant que renvoient les actualités et dont le Québec tente de relever le défi, les jeunes inuit montrent une « inuititude » émergente. Donner la parole à cette jeunesse du Nunavik est aujourd’hui fondamentale, dans la mesure où 52,8% de sa population a moins de 24 ans. À partir de l’analyse d’un travail vidéographique réalisé entre 2016 et 2019 au sein de trois écoles du Nunavik sur leur rapport à nuna (ᓄᓇ, le territoire en inuktitut), cet article interroge ce que signifie être jeune Nunavimmiut aujourd’hui. 37 adolescents de 13 à 18 ans présentent une vision de l’Arctique « de l’intérieur », par-delà les clichés. Leurs vidéos donnent à voir leur vécu selon leur cosmologie holiste, combinée au dualisme occidental hérité de la colonisation : la persistance d’une relation intrinsèquement fusionnelle avec leur territoire, résiliente dans ses aspirations contemporaines d’itinérance, de spiritualité, de bien-être et de transmission générationnelle.
    Description: Inuit youth today faces many challenges. They live in areas integrated into globalization, which are nevertheless located on the fringes of the ecumene, grappling with geographic isolation and its consequences in terms of mobility, access to various health services, education and even of basic necessities. The young Inuit of Nunavik live in a multicultural society where the effects of colonization still mark their daily lives implying major social problems (violence, alcoholism, suicide…). However, despite this disturbing portrait that is often broadcast in the news and of which Quebec is trying to take up the challenges, young Inuit show an emerging “Inuitness”. Giving voice to this youth of Nunavik is fundamental today, since 52.8% of its population is under 24 years old. This article questions what it means to be a young Nunavimmiut today. Based on the analysis of video workshops carried out between 2016 and 2019 in 3 schools in Nunavik on their relationship to nuna (the territory in Inuktitut), 37 teenagers from 13 to 18 years old present a vision of the Arctic “from inside”, beyond the clichés. Their own video make their experience visible according to their holistic cosmology, combined with the Western dualism inherited from colonization: the persistence of an intrinsically fusional relationship with the land, resilient in its contemporary aspirations of being out on the land, spirituality, well-being, and intergenerational transmission.
    Language: French
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2021-06-18
    Description: In diesem Bericht der Wissenschaftsplattform Klimaschutz gehen die Autorinnen und Autoren der Frage nach, ob sich aus Verhaltensanpassungen im Laufe der Coronakrise nachhaltige Verhaltensgewohnheiten entwickeln werden und ob man dies durch politische Maßnahmen unterstützen kann.
    Language: German
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2021-06-28
    Description: In this article we describe the implementation of an online-coupled gas-phase chemistry model in the turbulence-resolving PALM model system 6.0 (formerly an abbreviation for Parallelized Large-eddy Simulation Model and now an independent name). The new chemistry model is implemented in the PALM model as part of the PALM-4U (PALM for urban applications) components, which are designed for application of the PALM model in the urban environment (Maronga et al., 2020). The latest version of the Kinetic PreProcessor (KPP, 2.2.3) has been utilized for the numerical integration of gas-phase chemical reactions. A number of tropospheric gas-phase chemistry mechanisms of different complexity have been implemented ranging from the photostationary state (PHSTAT) to mechanisms with a strongly simplified volatile organic compound (VOC) chemistry (e.g. the SMOG mechanism from KPP) and the Carbon Bond Mechanism 4 (CBM4; Gery et al., 1989), which includes a more comprehensive, but still simplified VOC chemistry. Further mechanisms can also be easily added by the user. In this work, we provide a detailed description of the chemistry model, its structure and input requirements along with its various features and limitations. A case study is presented to demonstrate the application of the new chemistry model in the urban environment. The computation domain of the case study comprises part of Berlin, Germany. Emissions are considered using street-type-dependent emission factors from traffic sources. Three chemical mechanisms of varying complexity and one no-reaction (passive) case have been applied, and results are compared with observations from two permanent air quality stations in Berlin that fall within the computation domain. Even though the feedback of the model's aerosol concentrations on meteorology is not yet considered in the current version of the model, the results show the importance of online photochemistry and dispersion of air pollutants in the urban boundary layer for high spatial and temporal resolutions. The simulated NOx and O3 species show reasonable agreement with observations. The agreement is better during midday and poorest during the evening transition hours and at night. The CBM4 and SMOG mechanisms show better agreement with observations than the steady-state PHSTAT mechanism.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2021-06-29
    Description: The response to the coronavirus pandemic has brought about changes that would once have seemed unthinkable. As part of its precautionary measures, the state has been permitted to limit freedoms in order to protect the health of its citizens. The flood of mass tourism has become a trickle and the number of people commuting to work has plummeted. As economies slow, so too do greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, Germany has reached its climate goals for 2020 after all. The pandemic has also seen a surge in solidarity, with citizens helping each other with the shopping, collecting donations for shuttered cinemas and much more. Parliaments have seen bipartisan support for bridging loans, debt moratoriums, and stimulus programmes to keep businesses afloat and support struggling families.
    Language: English
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  • 51
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    In:  The Third Pillar of International Climate Change Policy: On 'Loss and Damage'after the Paris Agreement
    Publication Date: 2021-07-02
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  • 52
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    In:  Integrated Science : Science Without Borders | Integrated Science
    Publication Date: 2021-06-28
    Description: Many political decision-making processes are based on evidence and expert knowledge. However, expert knowledge and its use in public policy arenas have become increasingly contested in society. This is particularly true for complex issues related to sustainable development, such as climate change or loss of biodiversity. Even during the COVID-19 crisis, scientific advice beyond protecting against infections has been highly scrutinized by many actors in society. The classic science-policy interface of “truth speaks to power” is not adequate anymore to address these new challenges. Concepts such as transformative, transdisciplinary, or co-creative research elucidate the direction in which scientific research finds its new role(s). The paper provides a short overview of these new approaches to re-defining the nexus between science and policymaking. The main message is to combine classic curiosity-driven approaches of scientific inquiry with goal-oriented and catalytic concepts. This combination meets the requirement of a new scientific approach that can be labeled as transformative and transdisciplinary.
    Language: English
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  • 53
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    In:  IASS Blog, 10.06.2021
    Publication Date: 2021-06-29
    Description: On 31 May 2021, the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies hosted an event under the title "The Global South: Where and what is it?". The event was planned and organized by Alexandra Tost, Artur Sgambatti Monteiro, Flávio Lira, Natalia Realpe Carrillo, Pradeep Singh and Achim Maas. This online event was the result of several months of preparation among fellows and researchers at the IASS who had realized the potential for a discussion around this topic.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2021-06-28
    Description: Digital technologies have a crucial role in facilitating transitions toward a sustainable future. Yet there remain challenges to overcome and pitfalls to avoid. This Voices asks: how do we leverage the digital transformation to successfully support a sustainability transition?
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2021-07-01
    Description: In order to achieve the temperature goals of the Paris Agreement, the world must reach net‐zero carbon emissions around mid‐century, which calls for an entirely new energy system. Carbon pricing, in the shape of taxes or emissions trading schemes, is often seen as the main, or only, necessary climate policy instrument, based on theoretical expectations that this would promote innovation and diffusion of the new technologies necessary for full decarbonization. Here, we review the empirical knowledge available in academic ex‐post analyses of the effectiveness of existing, comparatively high‐price carbon pricing schemes in the European Union, New Zealand, British Columbia, and the Nordic countries. Some articles find short‐term operational effects, especially fuel switching in existing assets, but no article finds mentionable effects on technological change. Critically, all articles examining the effects on zero‐carbon investment found that existing carbon pricing scheme have had no effect at all. We conclude that the effectiveness of carbon pricing in stimulating innovation and zero‐carbon investment remains a theoretical argument. So far, there is no empirical evidence of its effectiveness in promoting the technological change necessary for full decarbonization.
    Language: English
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  • 56
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    In:  IASS Blog, 29.04.2021
    Publication Date: 2021-07-05
    Description: „Stop the steal!", „Plandemie", „Klimalüge" - drei Schlagwörter, die für eine unheimliche politische Dynamik stehen: ist in den letzten Jahren ist die politische Mobilisierung von Fehlwissen zu einer relevanten und zum Teil bestimmenden Größe geworden. Nachweislich falsches Wissen, das von einer Gruppe für wahr gehalten wird, wurde zum Dreh- und Angelpunkt politischer Auseinandersetzungen. Die Strategie ist dabei über die verschiedenen Themen hinweg die gleiche: gesichertes Wissen wird in Frage gestellt und durch widersprechende Erzählungen relativiert. Das Infragestellen dieses Fehlwissens gilt dann als Angriff auf die Meinungsfreiheit und Beleg der „Meinungsdiktatur". Im Zusammenspiel von sozialen Medien und Protesten auf der Straße hat diese Strategie in den letzten Jahren eine neue Dynamik angenommen, auf die es bislang keine überzeugende Antwort gibt.
    Language: German
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2021-07-23
    Description: Uneven access to low carbon finance and technology may give rise to energy transition frontrunners and laggards. This article offers a first conceptualization of the risks of an uneven energy transition and its implications for the international political economy and corroborates those with an empirical investigation of elite risk perceptions in the energy industry and finance sector. The multi-method approach combines descriptive survey data with a multinomial logistic regression testing for different expert risk perceptions between sectors, complemented by a set of qualitative interviews. The findings suggest that uneven transition patterns increase the risks of economic instability and decrease the competitiveness of ‘late decarbonizers’. Feedback cycles might impede the latter to catch up, with potentially severe consequences for global equity and international tensions. Countries particularly in the Global South are exposed to higher transition risks than technology-leading economies of the Global North. With this, the paper highlights the importance of relative timing for the implementation of energy transition policies.
    Language: English
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2021-07-23
    Description: Public organizations, including institutions in the U.S. criminal justice (CJ) system, have been rapidly releasing information pertaining to COVID-19. Even CJ institutions typically reticent to share information, like private prisons, have released vital COVID-19 information. The boon of available pandemic-related data, however, is not without problems. Unclear conceptualizations, stakeholders’ influence on data collection and release, and a lack of experience creating public dashboards on health data are just a few of the issues plaguing CJ institutions surrounding releasing COVID-19 data. In this article, we detail issues that institutions in each arm of the CJ system face when releasing pandemic-related data. We conclude with a set of recommendations for researchers seeking to use the abundance of publicly available data on the effects of the pandemic.
    Language: English
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  • 59
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    In:  Klimawandel - Klimakrise - Klimakollaps | Perspektiven auf Gesellschaft und Politik
    Publication Date: 2021-07-23
    Language: German
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  • 60
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    Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies e.V. (IASS), Institut für Demokratie- und Partizipationsforschung (IDPF)
    Publication Date: 2021-07-30
    Language: German
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2021-01-26
    Description: Insights from complexity science can be applied to the analysis of social processes in heterogeneous societies. Many features that characterize and influence complex structures in nearly every domain of nature, technology, and society can be derived from simple modeling processes in physics and chemistry. If one applies these features to the structure of social risks, a number of insights are gained that can be subject to further empirical analysis. In particular, they add—to the well‐known steering mechanisms of hierarchy, competition, and cooperation—the contribution of self‐organization, the effect of which is underestimated in almost all theories of social science. But in view of the crises facing modern democracy, such as migration and populism, it is precisely this mechanism of dynamic structure generation that is decisive for an effective and fair risk governance. In this article, we analyze the threat to societal diversity and coherence on the basis of complexity science.
    Language: English
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  • 62
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    In:  Technological forecasting and social change : an international journal
    Publication Date: 2021-02-01
    Description: Generally, sociotechnical change requires that agency is exercised across multiple, connected levels or contexts. Yet there is very little work in the sociotechnical sustainability transitions literature that theorises these connections in ways that acknowledge the individual-level processes involved. Here we show how identity theory can connect macro- and micro-levels of analysis, with identity construction being a social psychological process that is also involved in institutional work. For empirical illustration we use the case of emerging mobility transitions in Berlin, Germany, in particular aspects of institutional work for infrastructural change in favor of cycling. The study shows how the construction of a common identity among varied actor groups has been key to a citizen campaign for safe cycling infrastructure. The construction of a socially inclusive identity relating to cycling has been made possible by prioritizing the development of a campaign network comprised of weak ties among stakeholders, rather than a closer-knit network based on a more exclusive group of sporty cyclists. The findings are discussed in the light of both social psychological models and sociotechnical transitions theory. The implications for scaling niche practices for sustainability are considered.
    Language: English
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  • 63
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    transcript Verlag
    Publication Date: 2021-02-02
    Description: Richard Sennett bereichert seit Jahrzehnten als Soziologe und öffentlicher Intellektueller die gesellschaftlichen Zeitdiagnosen. Mit dem Buch »Die offene Stadt« hat er seine Homo Faber-Trilogie abgeschlossen, die eine Selbstreflexion seines Schaffens widerspiegelt. Die Beiträger*innen werfen daher einen Blick zurück auf sein Werk und diskutieren dessen aktuelle Relevanz. Sie widmen sich jeweils einem zentralen Thema seiner Arbeiten – Charakter, Öffentlichkeit, Kultur, Demokratie, Stadt, Arbeit, Soziale Arbeit, Schreiben, Pragmatismus und Ethik – und liefern damit ein wichtiges Referenzwerk der deutschsprachigen Sennett-Rezeption.
    Language: German
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2021-02-23
    Description: The economic context for renewable power in Europe is shifting: feed-in tariffs are replaced by auctioned premiums as the main support schemes. As renewables approach competitiveness, political pressure mounts to phase out support, whereas some other actors perceive a need for continued fixed-price support. We investigate how the phase-out of support or the reintroduction of feed-in tariffs would affect investors’ choices for renewables through a conjoint analysis. In particular, we analyse the impact of coordination – the simultaneousness – of policy changes across countries and technologies. We find that investment choices are not strongly affected if policy changes are coordinated and returns unaffected. However, if policy changes are uncoordinated, investments shift to still supported – less mature and costlier – technologies or countries where support remains or is reintroduced. This shift is particularly strong for large investors and could potentially skew the European power mix towards an over-reliance on a single, less mature technology or specific generation region, resulting in a more expensive power system. If European countries want to change their renewable power support policies, and especially if they phase out support and expose renewables to market competition, it is important that they coordinate their actions.
    Language: English
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2021-02-26
    Description: Three major global processes in ocean governance under the umbrella of the United Nations are currently underway: negotiations for an international legally binding agreement under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ); the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets adopted in 2010 as part of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 are coming to an end and new and updated biodiversity targets will be adopted as part of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework in 2020; and many of the targets set under the Sustainable Development Goal 14 (SDG 14) as part of the ocean United Nations 2030 Agenda, which includes focuses on 17 Sustainable Development Goals, to holistically address current global challenges are set to expire and are expected to be updated or renewed. This Chapter highlights the need to ensure coherence across these global processes for marine conservation and provides ways in which ocean governance can be strengthened to support global processes and marine conservation goals.
    Language: English
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  • 66
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    Boston University, Global Development Policy Center, Global Economic Governance Initiative
    In:  GEGI Study
    Publication Date: 2021-03-03
    Description: This study conceptualizes international monetary hierarchy by focusing on different mechanisms to supply emergency US-Dollar (USD) liquidity from the Federal Reserve (Fed) to non-US central banks. To this end, it takes on board insights of critical macrofinance and develops a model of the global financial architecture as a web of interlocking balance sheets.
    Language: English
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2021-03-04
    Description: Environmental issues still tend to be studied and publicly debated from a natural science perspective. However, many ecological problems arise from the direct use of ecosystem resources or less obviously from the indirect consequences of social processes that need to be integrated into socio-ecological research. Using expertise from social and natural sciences in a dialogical way will highlight where shared concepts are necessary and what they could look like. This will emerge from the collaborative research process without the need to come up with a unifying theory in advance. This article promotes the concepts of ‘socioindicators’ and ‘sociodiversity’ – as counterparts to ‘bioindicators’ and ‘biodiversity’ – in order to allow for better communication between the social and natural sciences. The honeybees are a particularly good test case for this socio-ecological communication.
    Language: English
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  • 68
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    In:  Wir machen das schon: Lausitz im Wandel
    Publication Date: 2021-03-25
    Description: In ihrer Jugend wollte Silke Butzlaff eigentlich nicht in den Bergbau. Nun steuert sie seit 37 den ältesten noch im Betrieb befindlichen Eimerkettenbagger in der Lausitz und ist doch Bergarbeiterin geworden. Seitdem die Gesellschaft der Kohle zunehmend kritisch gegenübersteht, engagiert sie sich in zahlreichen öffentlichen Aktionen und mit eigenen Fotos für einen respektvollen Umgang mit dem Bergbau und für ganz unterschiedliche Personengruppen unserer Gesellschaft.
    Language: German
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2021-03-26
    Description: Kopenhagen ist eine der Städte mit der besten Fahrradinfrastruktur weltweit. Um zu verstehen, wie die dänische Hauptstadt das erreicht hat, lohnt sich ein Blick in ihre Vergangenheit. Nach Jahrzehnten der autogerechten Stadtplanung, vor der auch Kopenhagen nicht gefeit war, demonstrierten in den späten 1970er und frühen 1980er Jahren Zehntausende für mehr Radwege – mit Erfolg. Welche Rolle haben Diskurse und Erzählungen über das Fahrrad im Dänemark dieser Zeit gespielt, damit aus Kopenhagen die Fahrradstadt werden konnte, die sie heute ist? Und was können wir daraus lernen, um selbst die politische Förderung des Fahrrads als nachhaltiges Verkehrsmittel kommunikativ zu befördern? Diesen Fragen widmet sich das vorliegende Discussion Paper. Es untersucht drei repräsentative Korpora der auflagenstärksten Tageszeitungen Dänemarks aus den Jahren 1977, 1980 und 1983 mithilfe der im Projekt „Narrative der Nachhaltigkeit“ entwickelten „pentadischen“ Narrativanalyse. Das Ziel ist es, erfolgreiche Narrative für die Verkehrswende hin zu einer nachhaltigen urbanen Mobilität zu identifizieren.
    Language: German
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2021-04-28
    Description: In this deliverable, we aim to (i). identify and specify policy-relevant scenarios, along with the respective energy targets, and qualitative narratives to base modelling runs on, and (ii). identify contextual critical issues and challenges in energy system planning, and specific research questions, to which the SENTINEL models will attempt to provide answers, accounting for particularities of diverge spatial scales. The main research questions of our work are: “What scenarios should we apply in each of the SENTINEL case studies?” and “What are the main challenges and research questions by decision- and policymakers that the SENTINEL models should be able to answer?”
    Language: English
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2021-05-20
    Description: Within socio-economic transformation processes, the task of education is often reduced to short-term economic factors, that is, a suitable qualification profile of the local population. Transformative education should, however, be based on the broader claim that education contributes to successful transformation processes in the sense of facilitating a high and sustainable quality of life within a democratic society. In this article, we look at the transformation process in the German region of Lusatia. Coal, the region’s predominant industry, will be phased out by 2038. We examine what types of programme content might enable learners to participate in the transformation process, and discuss how different educational concepts (education for sustainable development and related approaches including transformative learning, socio-economic and civic education) could be used to develop an educational approach towards the transformation process. We derive competences that students should possess in two areas and provide recommendations for educational processes and policy.
    Language: English
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2021-05-20
    Description: To combat global warming, industry needs to find ways to reduce its carbon footprint. One way this can be done is by re-use of industrial flue gasses to produce value-added chemicals. Prime example feedstocks for the chemical industry are the three flue gasses produced during conventional steel production: blast furnace gas (BFG), basic oxygen furnace gas (BOFG), and coke oven gas (COG), due to their relatively high CO, CO2, or H2 content, allowing the production of carbon-based chemicals such as methanol or polymers. It is essential to know for decision-makers if using steel mill gas as a feedstock is more economically favorable and offers a lower global warming impact than benchmark CO and H2. Also, crucial information is which of the three steel mill gasses is the most favorable and under what conditions. This study presents a method for the estimation of the economic value and global warming impact of steel mill gasses, depending on the amount of steel mill gas being utilized by the steel production plant for different purposes at a given time and the economic cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions required to replace these usages. Furthermore, this paper investigates storage solutions for steel mill gas. Replacement cost per ton of CO is found to be less than the benchmark for both BFG (50–70 €/ton) and BOFG (100–130 €/ton), and replacement cost per ton of H2 (1800–2100 €/ton) is slightly less than the benchmark for COG. Of the three kinds of steel mill gas, blast furnace gas is found to be the most economically favorable while also requiring the least emissions to replace per ton of CO and CO2. The GHG emissions replacement required to use BFG (0.43–0.55 tons-CO2-eq./ton CO) is less than for conventional processes to produce CO and CO2, and therefore BFG, in particular, is a potentially desirable chemical feedstock. The method used by this model could also easily be used to determine the value of flue gasses from other industrial plants.
    Language: English
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  • 73
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    In:  Krisenmanagement, Notfallplanung, Zivilschutz : Festschrift anlässlich 60 Jahre Zivil- und Bevölkerungsschutz in Deutschland
    Publication Date: 2021-05-27
    Language: German
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2021-06-30
    Description: Solar radiation modification, particularly stratospheric aerosol injection, holds the potential to reduce the impacts of climate change on sustainable development, yet could itself generate negative impacts and is subject to intense scholarly debate based on relatively little evidence. Based on expert elicitation involving over 30 individuals with backgrounds across the domains of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), we identify a broad range of potential implications of solar radiation modification for the SDGs. Depending on design and application scenarios, applications could potentially assist in the pursuit of several of the goals by limiting temperature rise and limiting acceleration in atmospheric water cycles as well as extreme weather events. However, by adding to particulates, introducing an additional layer of complexity and potential for conflict in global governance, as well as otherwise altering planetary environments, they might also detract from the pursuit of SDGs and introduce novel risks. The overall impact of solar radiation modification on sustainable development is currently highly uncertain and dependent on climate change mitigation pathways and governance. We identify key areas for further transdisciplinary research the pursuit of which might reduce some uncertainty and help inform emerging governance processes.
    Language: English
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2021-07-06
    Description: Operational forecasting systems based on chemical transport models (CTMs) nowadays generally produce concentration maps with a resolution in the order of 2–5 km, very rarely exceeding the sub-kilometre scale. The main reason for this restriction is the prohibitive computing cost that a simulation covering an entire country would have if set-up with a resolution in the order of meters. In this paper a hybrid forecast system, relying on the WRF-Chem model coupled with the PMSS Lagrangian modelling suite, has been developed and applied for each day of February 2019, to predict hourly NO2 and NOx concentrations with a spatial resolution of 4 m, for the urban area of Modena (a city located in the central Po Valley). Simulated meteorological fields (temperature, wind speed and direction) were assessed at three urban stations, compliant with WMO standards, and modelled concentrations were compared with measurements at two urban air quality stations located at background and traffic sites. Results show that meteorological variables are well captured by the hybrid system and statistical performances are in line with the benchmark values suggested by the European Environmental Agency and with similar case studies focusing on the same area. Modelled NO2 and NOx concentrations, notwithstanding a slight underestimation mainly evident at urban traffic stations for NOx, present a large agreement with related observations. The NO2 Model Quality Objective, as defined by Fairmode guidelines, was met for both the urban stations and the other statistical indexes considered in the evaluation fulfilled the acceptance criteria for dispersion modelling in urban environment, for both NO2 and NOx concentrations. In the second section of the study, the population exposure to forecasted NO2 concentrations has been evaluated adopting a generic model of dynamic population activity. The population was distributed at hourly time steps in specific urban micro-environments at the same resolution of the concentration maps (4 m) and the short-term exposure has been computed as the product between the population density in each model cell and related surface NO2 concentrations. An infiltration factor was also applied to estimate indoor concentrations. The hybrid system was shown to be particularly suited for assessing short-term peak exposure in areas influenced by traffic emissions. On the other hand, due to the limited time spent by the population within traffic related environments, the long-term population exposure calculated by the hybrid system tends to be similar to the WRF-Chem stand-alone estimate.
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  • 76
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    In:  Forschungsjournal Soziale Bewegungen : Analysen zu Demokratie und Zivilgesellschaft
    Publication Date: 2021-07-05
    Language: German
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  • 77