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  • 1
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    In:  Christa Sommerer & Laurent Mignonneau: The Artwork as a Living System 1992–2022
    Publication Date: 2022-10-05
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2022-10-14
    Description: Evaluating the embodied environmental impact of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has been an important topic in addressing the sustainable development of renewable energy. While monetization of environmental externality is a remaining issue, which should be carried out in order to allow for an easy-to-understand comparison between direct economic and external cost. In this study, the environmental impact of solar PV power is monetized through conversion factors between midpoint and endpoint categories of life cycle analysis and the monetization weighting factor. Then, the power generation capacity and generation life of PV and coal-fired power plants are assumed to be consistent in order to compare the total cost of PV and coal-fired power generation. Results show that the cost of PV technology is higher than coal-fired in 2026 to 2030, taking into account environmental external costs and production costs. However, by 2030, the total cost of coal-fired power will be higher than that of solar PV. The life span cost per kWh is $3.55 for solar PV and $116.25 for coal-fired power. Although solar PV power seems more environmentally effective than coal-fired power in the life span, our results reveal the high environmental external cost of producing solar photovoltaic modules, which reminds us to pay more attention to the environmental impact when conducting cost-benefit analysis of renewable technologies. Without incorporating the environmental cost, the real cost of renewable technology will be underestimated.
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2022-11-02
    Description: Ground-based observational characterization of atmosphere aerosols over Central Asia is very limited. This study investigated the columnar aerosol characteristics over Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan, a background site in Central Asia using the long-term (∼14 years: August 2007–November 2021) data acquired with the Cimel sunphotometer. The mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE) during the observation period were 0.14 ± 0.10 and 1.19 ± 0.41, respectively. Both AOD and AE varied across seasons, with highest AOD in spring (0.17 ± 0.17). Regarding the aerosol types, clean continental aerosols were dominant type (65%), followed by mixed aerosols (∼19%), clean marine aerosols (∼14%), dust (0.8%), and urban/industrial and biomass burning aerosol (0.7%). The aerosol volume size distribution was bimodal indicating the influence of both anthropogenic and natural aerosols with clear dominance of coarse mode during the spring season. Mainly dust and mixed aerosols were present during high aerosol episodes while the coarse mode aerosol volume concentration was 7.5 (strong episodes) and ∼19 (extreme episodes) times higher than the whole period average. Aerosol over this background sites were from local and regional sources with some contribution of long-range transport.
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2022-11-22
    Description: Millions of people are exposed to enhanced levels of nitrogen dioxide in urbanized areas, leading to severe health effects. Moreover, nitrogen oxides contribute to the formation of ozone and particulate matter, and as such have wider health related impacts. A substantial reduction of nitrogen oxides may offer considerable health benefits for the human society. As a first step, this requires a detailed understanding of source sector contributions to nitrogen oxide levels. Whereas many regions have information on the local (traffic) contributions, the source contributions to the rural and urban background levels are commonly not available. In this study we compared and evaluated the results of two source attribution techniques to quantify the contribution of 5 source sectors to background nitrogen oxide levels across Germany. The results of a labelling technique were compared to brute force simulations with variable emission reduction percentages. The labelled NO2 source contributions of the main sectors averaged for all urban background stations are road transport (45 ± 5%), non-road transport (24 ± 6%), energy & industry (20 ± 3%), households (10 ± 6%), and the remaining source sectors (1 ± 1%). For the brute force technique, the explained mass differs from the unperturbed baseline concentration after scaling the impact of each sensitivity simulation to 100%. The attributed concentration of NO2 is lower in urban background areas (−3 ± 5%) and larger in the rural background (4 ± 6%) than that of the labelling. Largest deviations up to −15% are calculated for the major cities along the Rhine and Main. The annual average overestimation for NO is about 53 ± 24% for urban and 40 ± 26% for rural background sites based on a 20% reduction of emissions. On shorter time scales the differences are larger. These deviations are caused by (the lack of) regime changes in the titration of ozone, most notably present at ozone-limiting conditions during nocturnal winter periods. As a consequence, the differences between the methodologies are larger for smaller emission reduction percentages applied in the brute force technique. Similarly, for small-sized emission source sectors larger deviations were found compared to large-sized sector categories. Hence, applying the brute force technique for the source attribution for a single sector should be avoided as there is no way to verify for consistency and quantify the error for the sector and total explained contribution. We recommend applying the labelling approach to estimate sector contributions in forthcoming studies for nitrogen oxides.
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2022-12-22
    Description: Salient, long-term solutions to address global environmental change hinge on management strategies that are inclusive of local voices and that recognize the array of values held by surrounding communities. Group-based participatory processes that involve deliberation of multiple stakeholders with varying perspectives—particularly social learning—hold promise to advance inclusive conservation by identifying and creating a shared understanding of the landscape. However, few studies have empirically investigated how the value basis of stakeholder deliberation changes over time in relation to social learning. This study provided a novel platform for local stakeholders from Interior Alaska to deliberate on landscape change and associated management practices in ways that shifted their value orientations. In particular, we used a pre-test, post-test experimental design involving mixed methods to measure how different types of values changed as a result of social learning through an online discussion forum. We found evidence that social learning: 1) activated shared values that were previously hidden through building a relational understanding of others, and 2) shifted values that spanned three levels of psychological stability. As hypothesized, social values that represented expressed preferences for landscape change were most likely to shift in association with social learning. Conversely, shifts in individual values towards self-transcendence required learning to go beyond the discussion forum and be situated within the participants’ broader communities of practice. Overall, this longitudinal study highlights how social learning facilitated through deliberation presents opportunities to identify shared values and spark value shifts across stakeholder groups, thus incorporating diverse viewpoints into decision-making about global environmental change.
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Research Institute for Sustainability (RIFS)
    In:  RIFS Study
    Publication Date: 2023-01-18
    Description: This report provides a comprehensive review of China’s emerging hydrogen economy with a particular focus on policy and regulation, both at the national and sub-national level. China’s promotion of the hydrogen sector is emblematic of its broader efforts to promote greenhouse gas reductions, while pursuing ambitious industrial development goals and promoting energy security. To date, industrial policy goals have clearly taken center stage, with a particular focus on fuel cell vehicles. For now, China is pursuing a diversified strategy in support of hydrogen supply, which includes all different types of hydrogen production, including coal-based hydrogen. Nevertheless, policy documents increasingly emphasize the potential of renewable hydrogen as a vehicle for stabilizing an electricity system based on variable renewable energy as well as broader decarbonization efforts. They also increasingly highlight the need to transition to an exclusively renewable hydrogen supply in the future. In a number of cases, local-level strategies have come out more strongly in support of renewable hydrogen than current central government policies. Local-level policy has also played a key role in the promotion of fuel cell vehicles. Policies for hydrogen-based decarbonization of industry are only at a nascent stage. Similarly, China’s ambitions to promote hydrogen storage and transport remain at a relatively early stage of development with an important emphasis on the promotion of innovation and acquisition of technological know-how. Finally, both China’s hydrogen strategy and the engagement of its energy SOEs do not appear to be strongly motivated by considerations of geopolitics at this stage. To be sure, Chinese officials are considering increasing opportunities for investment in hydrogen projects around the world. In this vein, the national hydrogen development plan considers the importance of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) for promoting hydrogen-related standards and investments. Beyond these geoeconomic considerations, the role of hydrogen as a future energy commodity and its geopolitical implications do not figure prominently in Chinese policy efforts. Indeed, due to China’s relative abundance of renewable energy resources, it is does not exhibit major vulnerabilities related to the future provision of hydrogen. Conversely, hydrogen could even offer an opportunity to reduce its energy dependence in the future. This and other efforts to shape global hydrogen trade do not seem to be a significant driver of its policy efforts, however.
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2023-01-19
    Description: This study, performed under the umbrella of the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF-HTAP), responds to the need of the global and regional atmospheric modelling community of having a mosaic emission inventory of air pollutants that conforms to specific requirements: global coverage, long time series, spatially distributed emissions with high time resolution, and a high sectoral resolution. The mosaic approach of integrating official regional emission inventories based on locally reported data, with a global inventory based on a globally consistent methodology, allows modellers to perform simulations of a high scientific quality while also ensuring that the results remain relevant to policymakers. HTAP_v3, an ad-hoc global mosaic of anthropogenic inventories, has been developed by integrating official inventories over specific areas (North America, Europe, Asia including Japan and Korea) with the independent Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) inventory for the remaining world regions. The results are spatially and temporally distributed emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, PM10, PM2.5, Black Carbon (BC), and Organic Carbon (OC), with a spatial resolution of 0.1 x 0.1 degree and time intervals of months and years covering the period 2000–2018 (DOI 10.5281/zenodo.7516361, https://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/dataset_htap_v3). The emissions are further disaggregated to 16 anthropogenic emitting sectors. This paper describes the methodology applied to develop such an emission mosaic, reports on source allocation, differences among existing inventories, and best practices for the mosaic compilation. One of the key strengths of the HTAP_v3 emission mosaic is its temporal coverage, enabling the analysis of emission trends over the past two decades. The development of a global emission mosaic over such long time series represents a unique product for global air quality modelling and for better-informed policy making, reflecting the community effort expended by the TF-HTAP to disentangle the complexity of transboundary transport of air pollution.
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    In:  Strategies for Sustainability of the Earth System | Strategies for Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2021-09-27
    Description: Humankind is confronted with two types of risks: conventional and systemic risks. Conventional risks can be contained in space and time, follow linear cause–effect relationships, and require effective and pointed interventions into the cause–effect chain. Systemic risks, however, are characterized by high complexity, transboundary effects, stochastic relationships, and nonlinear cause–effect patterns with tipping points and often associated with less public attention than they deserve. Systemic risks range from natural hazards, environmental threats, and financial crisis to cybersecurity. Due to their special features, systemic risks are overextending established risk management and creating new, unsolved challenges for policy making in risk governance. Their negative effects are often pervasive, impacting fields beyond the obvious primary areas of harm. The following chapter describes the distinct features of systemic risks and explains their properties. It focuses on the issue of risk perception and the likelihood of insufficient attention by policymakers and the public at large to systemic risks. The main argument is that a graphic representation and simulation of evolving systemic risks and a participatory deliberative approach of inclusive risk governance are needed in order to prevent, mitigate, or control systemic risks.
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    In:  The Routledge Handbook of Democracy and Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2021-12-22
    Description: We live in a social world whose pace is accelerating. While the focus of most aspects of our intensified social life is narrowing down to the present, the futures we create on a daily basis cast ever-longer shadows. In this situation a chasm is opening up between the technological production of increasingly expanding futures and a horizon of political concern, action and predictive capacity that is getting ever shorter. This drifting apart of knowledge and practice has impacts for the possibility of achieving a politics sensitive to the long-term future. The chapter explores the resulting difficulties and considers potential openings for change.
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    In:  IASS Blog, 07.01.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-01-20
    Description: According to the statistical evidence there is no doubt that vaccinations significantly benefit people across all population groups. So why is it that around 20% of people over the age of 18 are still unvaccinated in Germany?
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    In:  WortMelder – Der Forschungsblog der Universität Erfurt, 03.01.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-01-20
    Language: English
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2022-02-01
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    In:  Führung in Zeiten der Krise : deutsch-israelische Perspektiven | Edition Rainer Hampp
    Publication Date: 2022-02-01
    Language: German
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  • 14
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    In:  Business and Policy Solutions to Climate Change : From Mitigation to Adaptation | Palgrave Studies in Sustainable Business In Association with Future Earth
    Publication Date: 2022-03-24
    Description: The climate is already changing, making climate change adaptation (CCA) an essential component of any sustainable development strategy. Similarly, the capacities of different actors to adapt to climate change are significantly affected by social and economic factors including nutrition, health, and employment. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) characterize progress toward the aforementioned factors as well as CCA through targets under SDG 13 (Climate Action). More recently, the 2019 Global Sustainable Development Report (GSDR) illustrates the interactions within and between SDGs, showing how many other SDGs influence progress toward CCA and vice versa. Businesses need to be mindful of these complex interdependencies when developing risk management, supply chain management, and sustainability strategies to make effective contributions to CCA while avoiding ineffective or maladaptive strategies. In this chapter, we demonstrate these interdependencies by modeling the interactions defined in the 2019 GSDR using the cross-impact balances (CIB) method, which identifies self-reinforcing scenarios and traces the systemic effects of interventions. We focus our analysis on how existing global business priorities may push the system toward certain scenarios over others, centering the implications for CCA. Through our analysis, we find six self-reinforcing scenarios for global SDGs, half of which indicate progress in CCA. We also identify six SDGs that appear critical to achieving all SDGs, highlighting gaps in current business efforts and areas for additional focus. Among these critical SDGs is SDG 13 (Climate Action), reaffirming the importance of CCA in progress toward sustainable development.
    Language: English
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2022-03-31
    Description: Humanity faces an array of grave, long-term challenges, now often labeled “global systemic risks.” While scientific knowledge of the individual risks spawning these crises is deep, our understanding of causal links among risks remains shallow. These observations raise two key questions: What causal processes might be accelerating and amplifying risks within global natural and social systems and synchronizing risks (and their concomitant crises) across these systems? And what might humanity do to mitigate or even reverse these processes? We argue, however, that these trends, by themselves, do not fully explain this moment’s seemingly sharp amplification, acceleration, and synchronization of systemic risks. We offer a novel analytical framework to aid identification of hitherto unrecognized, complex teleconnections and self-reinforcing feedbacks among global systems. Research is urgently needed, because the ultimate result of such unrecognized processes could be a global polycrisis—a single, macro-crisis of interconnected, runaway failures of Earth’s vital natural and social systems that irreversibly degrades humanity’s prospects.
    Language: English
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  • 16
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    In:  re|peat Jahrbuch Treasury- und Risiko-Management 2022/2023 | Roland Eller Training
    Publication Date: 2022-04-04
    Language: German
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  • 17
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    In:  Proceedings of 3rd Virtual International Conference : Path to a Knowledge Society-Managing Risks and Innovation : Serbia, Niš, November 15-16, 2021
    Publication Date: 2022-04-04
    Description: Technical innovations of the digitization lead to significant changes in society. From the point of view of computer science, the main focus is at the technical side of innovations or at the clear economical aspects for the clients. Not very often they see the consequences of the created "digital ecosystems" for the people and their living together. The remarks enlighten these topics and propose ethical guidelines for human actions and interactions with the technical innovations.
    Language: English
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  • 18
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    Institut des Études et de la Recherche sur le Droit et la Justice (IERDJ)
    In:  Rapport de recherche
    Publication Date: 2022-04-15
    Description: Cette étude est le fruit de la collaboration d’une équipe de recherche pluridisciplinaire composée de juristes, de sociologues et de philosophes et s’inscrit en outre dans la transversalité juridique (droit public et droit privé / droit interne et international). Réalisée sur une période de deux années et demie, elle a eu pour objectif d’identifier, dans un premier temps, les idées et les réalisations pouvant être rattachées au transhumanisme. Pour ce faire, des enquêtes de terrain ont été menées auprès d’acteurs divers et aux opinions variées situés en France, en Angleterre et en Espagne : militants transhumanistes, penseurs critiques, « personnes augmentées » (personnes ayant recours sciemment à des modifications technologiques pour « augmenter » leurs capacités physiques et/ou cognitives), professionnels de santé (de diverses spécialités) et chercheurs dans la lutte contre le vieillissement, l’intelligence artificielle et les prothèses. La synthèse de ces échanges permet de conclure, tout d’abord, qu’il n’existe pas un mais des transhumanismes et que les partisans de cette idéologie ne mettent pas tous l’accent sur les mêmes priorités. Elle met ensuite en exergue l’existence de glissements parfois imperceptibles, dans le domaine médical, vers l’augmentation technologique et/ou génétique de l’être humain. Il importe d’ores et déjà de penser le transhumanisme dans sa complexité pour en normer les conséquences ramifiées pouvant conduire à de véritables changements civilisationnels. Un droit de la condition humaine future reste à construire en conscience de responsabilité envers les générations futures. C’est ainsi que, dans un second temps, l’équipe a mis à l’épreuve certaines notions fondamentales du droit – telles que les notions de personne, de responsabilité, de propriété, de patrimoine, de droits humains et de souveraineté – à l’aune du transhumanisme. Cette recherche s’inscrit dans une dynamique résolument prospective et imaginative. Elle vise à éprouver les forces et les faiblesses de ces notions cardinales du droit et à s’interroger sur leur adaptabilité et leur perméabilité aux idées et réalisations transhumanistes.
    Language: French
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2022-04-19
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    In:  IASS Blog, 18.03.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-04-19
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  • 21
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    In:  IASS Blog, 08.03.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-04-19
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    In:  Nachhaltigkeitsrecht : Zeitschrift für das Recht der nachhaltigen Entwicklung
    Publication Date: 2022-04-21
    Description: Für eine evidenzbasierte und handlungsorientierte Erforschung der Nachhaltigkeit ist eine Integration von analytischem, zielorientiertem und katalytischem Wissen eine wesentliche Voraussetzung. Analytisches Wissen schafft die Grundlage für ein besseres Verständnis der Wechselwirkungen zwischen menschlichen Interventionen in die natürliche Umwelt und deren Konsequenzen. Zielorientiertes Wissen umfasst die normativen Leitkonzepte sowie die darauf aufbauenden Szenarien und Optionen, um bestimmte Ziele, wie etwa die Energiewende, effektiv, effizient, resilient und sozial gerecht zu erreichen. Katalytisches Wissen hilft den Akteur*innen von Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft die wesentlichen kommunikativen und politischen Entscheidungsprozesse so zu gestalten, dass die ausgewählten Szenarien und Ziele im Kontext demokratischer Institutionen und Regeln umgesetzt werden können. Besonderes Augenmerk liegt dabei auf der Verknüpfung von Sachwissen zur multi-dimensionalen Charakterisierung der Handlungsfolgen mit dem normativen Orientierungswissen zur Bestimmung der Akzeptabilität dieser Folgen im Sinne der Kompatibilität mit den geltenden Rechtnormen, der ethischen Bewertung dieser Folgen und der notwendigen prozeduralen Legitimation durch demokratische Prozesse.
    Language: German
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: We analyze long-term aerosol and precipitable water vapour (PWV) properties at two high-altitude sites (Nainital and Hanle) over the central Himalayan and western Trans-Himalayan region from 2008 to 2018. First-time assessment of the seasonality and variation in combined aerosol and water vapour radiative effects are also attempted, aiming to investigate the atmospheric effect on solar radiation over the Himalayan range that is especially important for the regional climate. A synergy of ground-based measurements from sun photometers, GPS (Global Positioning Systems) observations, radiosondes, along with satellite and reanalysis data was used to examine inter-annual and seasonal variability of PWV and specific humidity over both sites. The PWV is highest in monsoon and much lower during the dry winter season with slightly higher values at Nainital compared to Hanle. This is due to the lower altitude (∼2 km amsl) of Nainital, which is also directly affected by the Indian summer monsoon, compared to the Trans-Himalayan region. The vertical profiles of PWV from satellite and reanalysis data reveal a great consistency on a seasonal basis. The PWV is considered as one of the main greenhouse gases that exhibits a positive radiative effect at the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) in the order of about 10 W m−2 at Nainital and 7.4 W m−2 at Hanle. The atmospheric radiative effect due to water vapour is about 3–4 times higher compared to aerosols, resulting in atmospheric heating rates of 0.94 and 0.96 K Day−1 at Nainital and Hanle, respectively. The results highlight the importance of water vapour and aerosol radiative effects in the climate sensitive Himalayan range.
    Language: English
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  • 24
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    In:  Aus Russland-Analysen, 15.02.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Language: German
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  • 25
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    Routledge
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: This handbook provides comprehensive and critical coverage of the dynamic and complex relationship between democracy and sustainability in contemporary theory, discourse, and practice. Distinguished scholars from different disciplines, such as political science, sociology, philosophy, international relations, look at the present state of this relationship, asking how it has evolved and where it is likely to go in the future. They examine compatibilities and tensions, continuities and changes, as well as challenges and potentials across theoretical, empirical and practical contexts. This wide-spanning collection brings together multiple established and emerging viewpoints on the debate between democracy and sustainability which have, until now, been fragmented and diffuse. It comprises diverse theoretical and methodological perspectives discussing democracy’s role in, and potential for, coping with environmental issues at the local and global scales. This handbook provides a comprehensive overview of arguments, claims, questions, and insights that are put forward regarding the relationship between democracy and sustainability. In the process, it not only consolidates and condenses, but also broadens and captures the many nuances of the debate. By showing how theoretical, empirical and practical accounts are interrelated, focusing on diverse problem areas and spheres of action, it serves as a knowledge source for professionals who seek to develop action strategies that do justice to both sustainability and democracy, as well as providing a valuable reference for academic researchers, lecturers and students.
    Language: English
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Language: English
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  • 27
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    In:  Berliner Zeitung, 17.01.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Language: German
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  • 28
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    In:  The Routledge Handbook of Democracy and Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: This chapter gives an overview of the scholarship on the general tensed relationship between political representation and sustainable futures. It covers the problems of long-term futures for democratic politics and how standard representation theory’s proposals to solve these problems look like. The chapter further proceeds with the most recent debates on constructivist approaches in representation theory and explore how they can help to think about repertoires of political representation in global environmental politics. Finally, the chapter will zoom into the more concrete questions of representation practices in the age of the Anthropocene.
    Language: English
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Le professeur de politique publique Andreas Goldthau et l’économiste Simone Tagliapietra expliquent, dans une tribune au « Monde », comment un club climatique ouvert pourrait contribuer à la justice climatique et aider les pays pauvres.
    Language: French
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: As a major contributor to climate change, the cement sector urgently needs to develop and implement greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation technologies to drastically lower its emissions to reach carbon neutrality by 2050. Among the most promising technologies is CO2 mineralisation in which CO2 is transformed into a thermodynamically stable carbonate. CO2 mineralisation not only offers permanent storage of CO2 but also potentially avoids emissions by partially substituting conventional cement with the obtained carbonation products. Besides overcoming technical barriers, successful development and implementation of CO2 mineralisation require support from key stakeholders. While existing studies already provide technology-related data and assess CO2 mineralisation pathways, knowledge remains scarce about stakeholder priorities and perceptions. Using a multi-stakeholder expert survey, the present study examines: a) the priorities of different stakeholders in supporting CO2 mineralisation, b) their perceptions on the performance of CO2 mineralisation concepts, and c) their priorities if tasked with communicating CO2 mineralisation technologies to other groups. Hereby, we follow a multi-criteria decision analysis approach, based on an analytical hierarchy process, by comparing indicators from the three common sustainability pillars (i.e., environmental, economic, and social impacts). Our results indicate that key stakeholders strongly prioritise the health implications of CO2 mineralisation technologies and generally value social impacts highly. Hence, an in-depth research is needed to provide knowledge-based guidance on health issues and ways to fairly distribute costs and create positive employment outcomes. Additionally, stakeholders of all affiliations give second priority to reducing carbon footprint of cement, showing that they discount potential environmental and economic trade-offs associated with emission reduction goals. The results reveal that these concepts are perceived as compatible with other GHG mitigation approaches, such as carbon capture and storage. Moreover, if tasked with convincing different target groups to support CO2 mineralisation, stakeholders prioritise diverse themes, recognising that communication strategies must address the specific concerns of each group. Overall, the results can help investors, managers, and policymakers to ensure that upcoming decisions in R&D, investments, and the design of support mechanisms align with the priorities of key stakeholders. Our results facilitate communicating technological potentials and risks and can foster successful development and implementation of CO2 mineralisation pathways.
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  • 31
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    In:  Internationale Politik : IP, 03.01.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Language: German
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: This study reports for the first time a comprehensive analysis of nitrogenous and carbonaceous aerosols in simultaneously collected PM2.5 and TSP during pre-monsoon (March–May 2018) from a highly polluted urban Kathmandu Valley (KV) of the Himalayan foothills. The mean mass concentration of PM2.5 (129.8 µg/m3) was only ~25% of TSP mass (558.7 µg/ m3) indicating the dominance of coarser mode aerosols. However, the mean concentration as well as fractional contributions of water-soluble total nitrogen (WSTN) and carbonaceous species reveal their predominance in find-mode aerosols. The mean mass concentration of WSTN was 17.43±4.70 µg/m3 (14%) in PM2.5 and 24.64±8.07 µg/m3 (5%) in TSP. Moreover, the fractional contribution of total carbonaceous aerosols (TCA) is much higher in PM2.5 (~34%) than that in TSP (~20%). The relatively low OC/EC ratio in PM2.5 (3.03 ± 1.47) and TSP (4.64 ± 1.73) suggests fossil fuel combustion as the major sources of carbonaceous aerosols with contributions from secondary organic aerosols. Five-day air mass back trajectories simulated with the HYSPLIT model, together with MODIS fire counts indicate the influence of local emissions as well as transported pollutants from the Indo-Gangetic Plain region to the south of the Himalayan foothills. Principal component analysis (PCA) also suggests a mixed contribution from other local anthropogenic, biomass burning, and crustal sources. Our results highlight that it is necessary to control local emissions as well as regional transport while designing mitigation measures to reduce the KV's air pollution.
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: From 21 March to 1 April 2022 governments will continue negotiations of international regulations for deep seabed at the International Seabed Authority (ISA). Scientists from IASS will attend the 27th Session of the ISA Council as part of research on environmental standards for deep seabed mining.
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  • 35
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    In:  EURACTIV Media network, 21.02.2022 / 30.03.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: The G7 Summit in June offers an opportunity to provide tangible funding commitments to developing countries in the fight against climate change. If offers fall short, the world faces the risk that rising global inequality will derail international climate efforts, writes Dr Rainer Quitzow.
    Description: Der G7-Gipfel im Juni bietet die Gelegenheit, den Entwicklungsländern konkrete Finanzierungszusagen für die Bekämpfung des Klimawandels zu machen. Wenn die Angebote nicht ausreichen, besteht die Gefahr, dass die zunehmende globale Ungleichheit die internationalen Klimabemühungen zunichtemacht, schreibt Rainer Quitzow.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: This article enriches the existing literature on the importance and role of the social sciences and humanities (SSH) in renewable energy sources research by providing a novel approach to instigating the future research agenda in this field. Employing a series of in-depth interviews, deliberative focus group workshops and a systematic horizon scanning process, which utilised the expert knowledge of 85 researchers from the field with diverse disciplinary backgrounds and expertise, the paper develops a set of 100 priority questions for future research within SSH scholarship on renewable energy sources. These questions were aggregated into four main directions: (i) deep transformations and connections to the broader economic system (i.e. radical ways of (re)arranging socio-technical, political and economic relations), (ii) cultural and geographical diversity (i.e. contextual cultural, historical, political and socio-economic factors influencing citizen support for energy transitions), (iii) complexifying energy governance (i.e. understanding energy systems from a systems dynamics perspective) and (iv) shifting from instrumental acceptance to value-based objectives (i.e. public support for energy transitions as a normative notion linked to trust-building and citizen engagement). While this agenda is not intended to be—and cannot be—exhaustive or exclusive, we argue that it advances the understanding of SSH research on renewable energy sources and may have important value in the prioritisation of SSH themes needed to enrich dialogues between policymakers, funding institutions and researchers. SSH scholarship should not be treated as instrumental to other research on renewable energy but as intrinsic and of the same hierarchical importance.
    Language: English
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  • 37
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    In:  Israel Public Policy Institute (IPPI) - Environment & Sustainability, 09.02.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Language: English
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  • 38
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    In:  The Routledge Handbook of Democracy and Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Democracy and sustainability are political ideas that have shaped the course of human history and continue to do so today. On a very general level, these ideas have multiple commonalities. Both have strong, universal normative implications (Dobson 1998; Sen 1999). They develop an image of the good society and, thus, also critically refer to a negatively evaluated other. The concept of democracy is oriented toward an equal and free society in which collective problems and conflicts are resolved by a demos consisting of equals in an ordered process of interest articulation and decision-making; it is the counter-model to highly asymmetrical authoritarian forms of rule, in which the suppression of freedom and autonomy of many members of society prevails (Dahl 2000; Saward 2007). Sustainability, on the other hand, refers to the negative consequences of the “unsustainable” (predominantly Western) model of development for the environment and equity of societies around the world (Christen and Schmidt 2012; Dryzek 2013). A sustainable society is imagined as one in which all present and future people have equal opportunities to satisfy their needs or even a good life in the long term (WCED 1987; Jackson 2017). The prerequisite for this is shaping human development in such a way that it remains within planetary boundaries, i.e., below tipping points for potentially sudden and severe environmental change (Meadowcroft 2012; Steffen et al. 2015). Another commonality is that democracy and sustainability are both fundamentally contested and dynamic concepts. This means that they have two levels of meaning: a relatively stable and universal first-level meaning, below which controversial debates about their respective meanings unfold on a second level (Jacobs 1999). Thus, there is general agreement that democracy means rule by the people and that sustainability requires compliance with ecosystem boundaries. However, how exactly the rule of the people and the compliance with ecosystem boundaries are to be realized and organized in concrete terms is subject to an ongoing debate. The empirical implication of this is that both democracy and sustainability do not exist in any kind of pure form but in manifold discursive, institutional, and practical manifestations that are subject to ongoing change (Hopwood, Mellor, and O’Brien 2005; Saward 2007).
    Language: English
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Of all the interconnected threats facing the planet, the top two are the climate and the biodiversity crises. Neither problem will be solved if we ignore the ocean. To turn the tide in favour of humanity and a habitable planet, we need to recognize and better value the fundamental role that the ocean plays in the earth system, and prioritize the urgent action needed to heal and protect the ocean at the ‘Earthscape’ level – the planetary scale at which processes to support life operate. The countries gathering at COP26 have unparalleled political capacity and leadership to make this happen. COP26 could be the turning point, but there must be commitment to united action for the ocean, as well as planning to meet those commitments, based on science-led solutions that address the interconnectivity of the ocean, climate, and biodiversity. Key ways in which the ocean both contributes to and acts as the major buffer for climate change are summarized, focusing on temperature, but not forgetting the role of storing carbon. It is noted with ‘high confidence’ that the ocean has stored 91% of the excess heat from global warming, with land, melting ice, and the atmosphere only taking up approximately 5, 3, and 1%, respectively. We also highlight the impact of the recent large release of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere during the 2015–2016 El Niño. We then present six science-based policy actions that form a recovery stimulus package for people, climate, nature, and the planet. Our proposals highlight what is needed to view, value, and treat the planet, including the ocean, for the benefit and future of all life.
    Language: English
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Upon entering office in 2021, Joe Biden declared climate policy to be the focal topic of his presidency. The U.S. subsequently set new ambitious impulses for climate protection and made a spirited return to international climate engagement. It rejoined the Paris Agreement, established new international dialogue formats, and once again participates in multilateral climate protection initiatives. The president demonstrated his willingness to pursue an ample range of policy and regulatory options to bring his country back on track towards achieving the Paris Agreement's goals. This article aims at highlighting how the new U.S. climate governance approach combines climate and industrial policy elements to achieve climate goals while fostering green technologies that benefit 'all of America'. The first part of this article examines some major elements of the Biden Administration's new climate policy approach. The second part provides a glimpse into what the potentials of this approach are for the transatlantic relations. The article is based on the analysis of relevant legal documents as well as academic and gray literature. It aims at providing a qualitative case study and update on recent U.S. climate policy developments.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Language: English
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  • 42
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    In:  Tagesspiegel Background: Energie & Klima, 11. März 2022
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Der Angriff auf die Ukraine macht schnelle Energieeinsparungen notwendig. Sophia Becker und Ortwin Renn vom IASS richten in ihrem Standpunkt den Blick auf den Energiekonsum. Mit den richtigen Anreizen lasse sich der Verbrauch senken, ohne dass dabei problematische soziale Belastungen entstünden. Dafür brauche es aber Maßnahmen wie zum Beispiel die Unterscheidung in eine Komfort- und eine Grundversorgung.
    Language: German
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Durch die ambitionierten Klimaschutzziele Deutschlands und der EU nimmt der Dekarbonisierungsdruck auf die ganze Gesellschaft zu, insbesondere auf die Industrie. Liefer- und Wertschöpfungsketten ändern sich und müssen gleichzeitig angepasst werden. Das Diskussionspapier fasst die Ergebnisse einer Workshopreihe zusammen, die die dena gemeinsam mit dem IASS Potsdam und der Stiftung Arbeit und Umwelt der IGBCE im Herbst 2021 zu diesem Thema durchgeführt hat. Es analysiert Chancen und Herausforderungen der anstehenden Veränderungen und identifiziert relevante Handlungsfelder für die Politik.
    Language: German
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: The struggle for agrarian and environmental justice by the farmers movement in Northwest India was the second lecture in this year’s IASS Focal Topic series “Justice in Sustainability.” Our guest, Navdeep Boora, is a graduate student at the Indian Institute of Science Education & Research (IISER) Mohali. In his presentation, Navdeep gave us insights into the farmers’ protest against the Indian government’s attempt to further liberalize the country’s agricultural sector in 2021. While India’s farmers’ protests are a rare success story of grassroots mobilization against the powerful in India, they also touch on important aspects of justice in sustainability such as food production, food security, and land rights.
    Language: English
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  • 45
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    In:  F1000 - blognetwork, 27.01.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Policymakers must take action to make the European Union climate-neutral by 2050. But how can we achieve a climate-neutral energy system in Europe which is sustainable, secure, affordable, and socially acceptable? Here, Diana Süsser explores how energy modelling can enable informed decision-making for the energy transition.
    Language: English
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Dieses Positionspapier analysiert die Chancen und Risiken, die mit der Entwicklung von grünem Wasserstoff und der Power-to-X-Technik verbunden sind, sowie die Ausgangslage und Trends auf dem Kontinent. Eine abschließende Stellungnahme empfiehlt Maßnahmen, um mögliche Ungerechtigkeiten und negative Auswirkungen zu minimieren und den Nutzen für die grüne, sozioökonomische Entwicklung des Kontinents zu maximieren.
    Language: English
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: From 7 to 18 March 2022, governments will continue negotiations on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction under the auspices of the United Nations. After a break of nearly two years due to the coronavirus pandemic, a binding UN instrument should be ready this year.
    Language: English
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Carbon capture and utilization (CCU) or CO2 utilization technologies attract researchers, policy makers, and industry actors in search of sustainable solutions for industrial processes. This increasing interest can be explained by the fact that these processes comprise the capturing of CO2 – the most relevant greenhouse gas (GHG) – from the air or industrial point sources, and promote its use as a feedstock for the production of goods. CCU processes are expected to contribute to the greenhouse gas neutrality targets of several industrial sectors and the development of a circular economy. Therefore, understanding the environmental impacts and economics of CO2 utilization routes is essential for decision makers from relevant fields, such as technology developers, entrepreneurs, funding agencies, policy makers, administrators and more. A deep understanding of the specific implications of CO2 utilization technologies is needed to make decisions in line with sustainability strategies, and to discard inappropriate solutions. The ‘Techno-Economic Assessment & Life Cycle Assessment Guidelines for CO2 Utilization’1 (henceforth TEA and LCA Guidelines) published by the Global CO2 Initiative (GCI) in October 2018, represent a milestone in the harmonization of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Techno-Economic Assessment (TEA) for evaluating CCU technologies. Henceforth, we refer to this document as TEA and LCA Guidelines. The TEA and LCA Guidelines provide a guide to overcoming methodological discrepancies that lead to confusion among practitioners, concerning how to conduct assessments, and which often lead to contradictory results.2 3 Documents with a similar focus have also been published by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).4 The success of the GCI publication and the demand for such guidelines is evidenced by the strong response that the authors registered in the months following its publication: more than 2,000 copies of the TEA and LCA Guidelines have been distributed in digital form or hard copy, and a growing community of practitioners, and decision makers from science, industry, and public administration are learning how to generate robust and comparable assessments when evaluating CCU technologies. In addition to the guidelines and the present report, the same research group has recently released five illustrative worked examples5 to support the application of the TEA and LCA Guidelines, and three accompanying peer-reviewed articles.6 At the same time, policy officers at national and international levels have frequently signaled the urgency of further developing these tools, to enable evaluation of innovative technologies as a basis for decision making in funding and policy design (e.g., the EU Innovation Fund). Despite the urgent need to address planetary climate change, the development and diffusion of new technologies often takes considerable time. Consequently, leveraging the current momentum amongst all involved actors that CCU has achieved to date is paramount and is an opportunity that must not be missed. Despite demands for aligned assessment methods from the industrial and policy spheres,7 there are evident challenges in dealing with the practical application of such methods in commissioning, reading, and interpreting LCA and TEA studies. There is also a risk of insufficient transfer into policy or other decision-making processes, in cases where the involved actors do not possess disciplinary expertise in the relevant methodology.
    Language: English
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  • 49
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    In:  EURACTIV Media network, 10.01.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Germany-led G7 can boost decarbonisation together with climate justice, write Andreas Goldthau and Simone Tagliapietra.
    Language: English
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  • 50
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    In:  ISPI (Istituto per gli Studi di Politica Internazionale), 04.04.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: The transition to low-carbon energy systems has the potential to shift geopolitical power, as it will create winners and losers across countries. The clean energy business is certainly lucrative for its winners: the IEA estimates that the transition would create a $1.2 trillion market for clean energy. Although there have been vivid debates in the past years among policymakers and scholars alike, the factors determining who will win and who will lose are still hotly debated[i]. Many scholars see physical resources as important, from solar radiation levels to critical materials. We argue that what matters for ‘winning’ transition processes are political and economic factors, such as investments in renewables and technological development, as well as relative timing of transition processes.
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  • 51
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    In:  The Routledge Handbook of Democracy and Sustainability
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Ideas of temporality are of key importance for understanding the relationship between democracy and sustainability. Moreover, engaging with different conceptions of temporality brings the centrality of issues of social and intergenerational justice for democratic sustainability transformations to the fore. As normative ideas, sustainability and democracy advocate for the possibility of an open future – a future that is formable and more just and ecologically feasible. However, for both concepts it is important to understand the lasting effects of historical inequalities and unsustainable practices on our material and institutional present environments. The past is here considered as not just preceding the present but as an integral part of any present and future politics. This chapter will compare teleological and non-linear notions of history, with the aim of developing a more inclusive understanding of different temporal experiences of democracy, justice, and sustainability. With reference to the notion of Kair ós the chapter further argues that the present can be understood not just as a bridge between past and future but as a space of opportunities that needs to be politically negotiated.
    Language: English
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: This Briefing Note represents an integrated perspective of climate, environmental and disaster risk science and practice regarding systemic risk. It provides an overview of the concepts of systemic risk that have evolved over time and identifies commonalities across terminologies and perspectives associated with systemic risk used in different contexts. Key attributes of systemic risk are outlined without prescribing a single definition, and information and data requirements that are essential for a better and more actionable understanding of the systemic nature of risk are discussed. Finally, the opportunities to connect research and policy for addressing systemic risk are highlighted, followed by recommendations for future work in science, policy and practice on systemic risk. The Briefing Note is based on insights and knowledge gained from an expert workshop, literature review and expert elicitation.
    Language: English
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: New particle formation (NPF) induces a sharp increase in ultrafine particle number concentrations and potentially acts as an important source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). As the densely populated area of China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region shows a high frequency of observed NPF events at the ground level, especially in spring. Although recent observational studies suggested a possible connection between NPF at the higher altitudes and ground level, the role played by vertical mixing, particularly in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is not fully understood. Here we integrate measurements in Nanjing on 15–20 April 2018, and the NPF-explicit Weather Research and Forecast coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) model simulations to better understand the governing mechanisms of the NPF and CCN. Our results indicate that newly formed particles at the boundary layer top could be transported downward by vertical mixing as the PBL develops. A numerical sensitivity simulation created by eliminating aerosol vertical mixing suppresses both the downward transport of particles formed at a higher altitude and the dilution of particles at the ground level. The resulting higher Fuchs surface area at the ground level, together with the lack of downward transport, yields a sharp weakening of NPF strength and delayed start of NPF therein. The aerosol vertical mixing, therefore, leads to a more than double increase of surface CN10–40 and a one third decrease of boundary layer top CN10–40. Additionally, the continuous growth of nucleated ultrafine particles at the boundary layer top is strongly steered by the upward transport of condensable gases, with close to half increase of particle number concentrations in Aitken mode and CCN at a supersaturation rate of 0.75%. The findings may bridge the gap in understanding the complex interaction between PBL dynamics and NPF events, reducing the uncertainty in assessing the climate impact of aerosols.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a major challenge in India. The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India has launched the National Clean Air Programme for monitoring, assessment and control of air pollution. The action plan envisions reduction in air pollution on the basis of source apportionment studies in all the non-attainment cities. Source apportionment (SA) using receptor modelling is important for understanding the PM sources, pollution outflow and larger scale regional impacts. This review presents current status of offline and online measurement based SA studies focusing on PM10 and finer fractions of PM, where receptor modelling on chemical species has been used to apportion contributions from different sources. While a good database is available on chemical characterization of ambient aerosols, only 49 offline and 16 online SA studies could qualify this criterion. Out of all offline studies reviewed here, only 41% studies measured all chemical signatures. State of the SA studies over different geographical divisions [Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), Delhi NCR, western, eastern and central India] over India reveal that more than 50% of the studies are focused on the Delhi National Capital Region (NCR) and IGP. The most studied size fractions are PM10 (34%) and PM2.5 (28%) followed by 11% studies on PM1 and only 5% on size segregated SA of aerosols. The meta-analysis of available data on percentage contribution of major sources viz. secondary sources, biomass burning, combustion, vehicular emissions, industrial sources from these locations present a composite picture of major sources of ambient aerosols in India. This work also presents detailed discussion on different steps of SA viz. sampling design, analytical techniques and receptor modelling. The evolution from offline filter-based techniques to real time SA techniques has been discussed and recommendations for robust SA studies have been proposed.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: The expansion of renewable energies not only lowers carbon emissions, it also redistributes resources among actors. This article argues that green industrialization – specifically, manufacturing and the development of renewable energy technologies — creates economic gains that impact political processes and increase renewable energy policy ambition. Building on a combined framework of policy feedback and global value chain literature, we see domestic value creation as a key determinant of coalition strength and learning effects for policymakers. We analyze the relationship of value chain involvement to policy ambition using panel data on countries’ manufacturing and innovation activities in the wind and solar industry from 2010 to 2018. The results show a positive technology policy feedback mechanism, implying that higher local value creation leads to more ambitious renewable energy policies. These first large-N findings support previous case studies on the importance of green growth for raising policy ambition; it implies that transformative policies fostering value creation could create a virtuous cycle for policy ambition. We further propose an interdisciplinary research agenda to shed light on the role of value chain dynamics for policy feedback mechanisms across different political economies.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: How to finance the Green Transition towards net-zero carbon emissions remains an open question. The literature either operates within a market-failure paradigm that calls for a Pigou tax to help markets correct themselves, or via war finance analogies that offer a ‘triad’ of state intervention possibilities: taxation, treasury borrowing, and central bank money creation. These frameworks often lack a thorough conceptualisation of endogenous credit money creation, for instance when resorting to loanable funds theory, and disregard the systemic and procedural dimensions of financing the Green Transition. We propose that ‘monetary architecture’, which perceives the monetary and financial system as a constantly evolving and historically specific hierarchical web of interlocking balance sheets, offers a more comprehensive framework to conceptualize the systemic and procedural financing challenges. Using the US as an example, we draw implications of a systemic financing view while considering a division of labor between ‘firefighting’ institutions such as the Federal Reserve and the Treasury, and ‘workhorse’ institutions such as off-balance-sheet fiscal agencies, commercial banks, and shadow banks. We argue further that financing the Green Transition must undergo three ideal-typical phases—initial balance sheet expansion, long-term funding, and possibly final contraction—that require diligent macro-financial management to avoid financial instability.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Despite geopolitics play a pivotal role in the energy sector, geopolitical aspects are often not considered in the quantitative assessment models aimed at supporting the energy investment decision-making process. To address this issue, this work proposes an Extended Multi-regional Input-Output model (EMRIO) that incorporates import dependence and governance along the value chain. As case study, two alternative energy investments in Mexico – a Natural Gas Power plant (NG) and a Concentrated Solar Power plant (CSP) – are assessed. The method quantifies the geographical diversification of suppliers and the quality of governance. The assessment of the case study shows that the supply chain of the CSP plant includes more countries and with better governance levels than the supply chain of the NG power plant. That means, a priori, that the supply risks of investing in CSP power plants will be lower, as will suppliers' endogenous geopolitical risk. However, a sensitivity analysis considering different providers of the solar plant components reveals that CSP plant value chain could also entail similar or even higher governance risks levels as the NG plant. The scenario where China provides some of the components entails a much higher governance risks, even higher than the NG base case. In consequence, we have proved that the method proposed allows the identification of hidden geopolitical risks that would otherwise go unnoticed. This paper enlarges the existing knowledge on assessment methodologies for energy policy decision-support by measuring diversification and imports dependence from countries with different levels of governance along the whole value chain.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Description: Area-Based Management Tools (ABMTs) are spatial instruments for conservation and managing different forms of ocean use. A multitude of ABMTs exists in marine areas within and beyond national jurisdiction, ranging from tools for the regulation of specific human activities (e.g. fisheries, shipping, or mining) to cross-sectoral tools (e.g. such as marine protected areas, MPAs, and marine spatial planning, MSP). By applying expert elicitation and reviewing scientific and grey literature we evaluate the contribution of ABMTs to sustainable development goals (SDGs) as set out under the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including for SDG 14 that directly addresses the conservation and sustainable use of oceans, seas, and marine resources. We find that fisheries-related and conservation-related ABMTs, and MSP offer the greatest potential contributions to SDG 14 and to SDGs in general. Moreover, there is high complementarity and synergy among different ABMTs for most SDG 14 targets and other SDGs, with the exception of SDG target 14.6 Prohibit fisheries subsidies and SDG 7 Affordable and clean energy. We find that some ABMTs contribute directly to goal attainment, while others contribute in more nuanced or even unexpected ways. Furthermore, context-specific factors that relate to political and legal factors, enforceability, transparency, governance structure, and inclusivity are crucial for unlocking the full potential of ABMTs of attaining multiple SDGs, as shown through examples. The major challenge to face in the next decade is ensuring durable and equitable outcomes from ABMT implementation by coordinating ABMT initiatives established by different organisations and responsible authorities. It is also critical that outcomes are monitored and evaluated across environmental, social, economic, governance, and health dimensions, with indicators addressing management effectiveness and not only ABMT area coverage.
    Language: English
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2022-05-19
    Language: English
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2022-05-20
    Description: Translating the agricultural eco(logical)-intensification model to European aquaculture hosts the potential for sustainably providing local food for local communities. Using online and printed surveys, we investigated the relationship between social factors such as age, gender, and education to seafood consumption behavior and the perception of aquaculture production. The frequency of seafood consumption was significantly lower in young and female respondents, whereas respondents with a higher level of education consume more frequently. Furthermore, high-frequency seafood consumers had a significant preference for wild-caught fish. Young and female respondents also perceived sustainability of aquaculture lower, whereas the level of education had a significantly positive relation to the attitude towards aquaculture. To foster the acceptance of eco-intensified aquaculture production, we suggest that communication efforts need to be group-tailored, focusing on the reduced environmental impacts, increased animal welfare, and novel products like seaweed to meet the values of the German consumer groups.
    Language: English
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  • 61
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    In:  CSR und Kirche: Die unternehmerische Verantwortung der Kirchen für die ökologisch-soziale Zukunftsgestaltung | Management-Reihe Corporate Social Responsibility
    Publication Date: 2022-05-30
    Description: Die Perspektive der Nachhaltigkeit bezieht sich auf die Dauerhaftigkeit humaner Lebensbedingungen sowie den Erhalt der dazu notwendigen natürlichen Lebensgrundlagen für die heutigen Menschen weltweit und künftigen Generationen. Ein Streben nach nachhaltiger Entwicklung fordert von den heute lebenden Menschen eine Lebensweise, die berücksichtigt, dass auch ihre Nachkommen berechtigte Ansprüche an ihre Leben haben werden. Wenn sich eine Gesellschaft zu einer nachhaltigen Lebens- und Wirtschaftsweise verpflichtet und sich darauf festlegt, nicht auf Kosten der nachfolgenden Generationen zu leben, dann hat das Konsequenzen für Wirtschaft, Politik und eigene Lebensgestaltung. Nachhaltigkeit nicht nur zu predigen, sondern auch zu leben, muss das gemeinsame Ziel sein. Dazu kann die Enzyklika Laudato si‘ ein wichtiger Impuls, Ratgeber und Motivator sein.
    Language: German
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  • 62
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    In:  Handbuch der kommunalen Verkehrsplanung – Strategien, Konzepte, Maßnahmen für eine integrierte und nachhaltige Mobilität
    Publication Date: 2022-06-01
    Description: Studien legen nahe, dass die lokale Wirtschaft von einer Flächenumverteilung, die eine Reduzierung des Motorverkehrs zugunsten von Fuß- und Radverkehr sowie ÖPNV anstrebt, profitiert. Dennoch stoßen Politik und Verwaltung bei der Umverteilung von Verkehrsflächen häufig auf den Widerstand von Wirtschaftsakteuren. In dieser Studie fasse ich Literatur und Daten über Auswirkungen der Mobilität auf die lokale Wirtschaft zusammen und präsentiere die Ergebnisse einer Befragung von Besucher:innen (N = 2021) zweier Einkaufsstraßen in Berlin und von lokalen Unternehmen (N = 145), die an eben diesen Einkaufsstraßen angesiedelt sind. Ich stelle fest, dass Gewerbetreibende die Nutzung des Autos bei ihren Kund:innen überschätzen und den Fuß- und Radverkehr sowie den ÖPNV unterschätzen.
    Description: The literature suggests that local business more likely stands to profit from infrastructure shifts allotting more space to pedestrians, cyclists, and transit riders, even when space for motor traffic is reduced. Nonetheless, local governments often face opposition from business actors when redistributing traffic space. In this study I summarize literature and available data on mobility as it can impact local business, and present the findings of a survey of visitors (N = 2021) to two shopping streets in Berlin and local businesses (N = 145). I find that business owners overestimate automobile use by their customers and underestimate walking, cycling, and transit use.
    Language: German
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  • 63
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    In:  IDEES magazine (Centre d'estudis de temes contemporanis (CETC)) - Rethinking Development Cooperation to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century, 12.05.2022
    Publication Date: 2022-06-02
    Language: English
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  • 64
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    In:  Gehört werden : Neue Wege der Bürgerbeteiligung
    Publication Date: 2022-06-02
    Language: German
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  • 65
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    Danish Board of Technology (Fonden Teknologirådet), DIALOGIK gemeinnützige Gesellschaft für Kommunikations- und Kooperationsforschung mbH
    Publication Date: 2022-06-02
    Description: The RECIPES guidance advises on how to deal responsibly with uncertain risks in the development and implementation of technology in the EU. It helps EU risk regulation and innovation policy to use the precautionary principle for responsible technological innovation. Target groups of this guidance are primarily EU policy makers, EU agencies, and EU policy support organisations and bodies that are concerned with risk regulation or the governance of science, technology and innovation. The guidance offers them ideas about how to further improve addressing uncertain risks in EU risk regulation and innovation policy. The guidance also addresses researchers and innovators and the multitude of societal actors who can contribute to a society-wide innovation system. The guidance illustrates these target groups that their contributions are needed for applying the precautionary principle for responsible technological innovation.
    Language: English
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2022-06-17
    Description: Research undertaken in Task 2.2 identified a range of governance challenges to ocean-based NETs related to the global ocean governance framework, e.g., linked to the transboundary nature of the ocean, potential effects of ocean-based NETs on the ocean’s condition and marine ecosystem services, as well as the many unknowns and uncertainties linked to NET-deployment. The fragmented approaches and frameworks in place to govern the global ocean further complicate comprehensive governance of these emerging technologies. This deliverable presents results from a workshop that explored how ocean-based NETs should be governed to best confront these challenges and integrate international climate targets as well as global goals for ocean and biodiversity conservation, in addition to global ambitions towards sustainable development. The workshop is part of research undertaken by Task 2.2 to assess how ocean-based NETs are addressed by the current global ocean governance framework and develop governance scenarios and recommendations to policy makers for a “good governance” of NETs in the ocean.
    Language: English
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  • 67
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    In:  Routledge handbook of marine governance and global environmental change
    Publication Date: 2022-06-27
    Description: This chapter analyses the challenges of extreme change in the Arctic and Southern Oceans. In both regions, warming seas, declining sea ice and acidification of waters are adversely affecting the distribution of marine species. The specific long-term impacts on fisheries are uncertain, but the generally increasing pace and scale of change appear to be inevitable. Due to the loss of sea ice, human activities in polar seas, such as shipping, fishing, tourism, and exploration for (and extraction of) hydrocarbons, are increasing and will accelerate in the future. The chapter describes existing governance frameworks for polar seas and notes that ecosystem-based approaches are being promoted by the Arctic Council and the Antarctic Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. Existing barriers to effective conservation of polar marine ecosystems include the desire among actors to exploit newly accessible resources, a lack of international cooperation, and a shortage of scientific information. The use of more collaborative processes and the implementation of new management schemes, including area-based management measures, may help to overcome those barriers.
    Language: English
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2022-06-30
    Description: Synthetic fuels obtained from the recycling of waste and biological products using renewable energy (i.e., Power-to-X technologies) can be easily integrated into existing energy systems, with local smart grids acting as initial entry points. In this article the authors explore the feasibility of an optimized conceptual plant based on a Power-andResiduals-to-Methane system (PRtM) for the production of synthetic natural gas in Sardinia. This integrated system can store intermittent Renewable Energy Electricity (REE) production via batteries, or as CH 4 which can be directly pumped into the grid. In this article the authors present a process and a preliminary economic assessment (i.e., LCOE) of the PRtM in the Sardinia Region, together with a discussion on potential emissions reductions at plant and regional levels. The results show that PRtM energy output (electricity and CH 4 combined) currently costs 74 €/MWh LCOE and could fall further to 63 and 58 €/MWh by 2030 and 2050 respectively. Furthermore, estimations reveal that the potential to CO 2 emissions could exceed 10Kt/y for the presented scale of the plant, with a maximum contribution of more than 200 KtCO 2 /y if regional biogas production is taken into account.
    Language: English
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2022-06-30
    Description: This article proposes a new conception of monetary sovereignty that acknowledge the reality of today’s global credit money system. The concept is today predominantly used to denote states that issue and regulate their own currency. This article rejects that Westphalian understanding of monetary sovereignty. Instead, we propose a conception of effective monetary sovereignty that focuses on what states are actually able to do in the era of financial globalization. The conception fits the hybridity of the modern credit money system by acknowledging the crucial role not only of central bank money but also of money issued by regulated banks and unregulated shadow banks. These institutions often operate ‘offshore’, outside of a state’s legal jurisdiction, which makes monetary governance more difficult. Monetary sovereignty consists in the ability of states to effectively govern these different segments of the monetary system and thereby achieve their economic policy objectives.
    Language: English
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  • 70
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    In:  Schaut hin : 3. Ökumenischer Kirchentag - digital und dezentral : 13.-16. Mai 2021 in Frankfurt am Main, Dokumentation
    Publication Date: 2022-06-30
    Language: German
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  • 71
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    Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), Playing History UG & Co.KG
    Publication Date: 2022-06-29
    Description: Torfitz – Das Planspiel zum Strukturwandel kann in der schulischen und außerschulischen Bildungsarbeit eingesetzt werden. Es richtet sich an Schüler:innen ab Klasse 9, Auszubildende und Studierende. Torfitz spielt in einer fiktiven Region mit fiktiven Kommunen. Es orientiert sich dabei an der Lausitz, wobei viele Regionen und Kommunen an anderen Orten vor ähnlichen Herausforderungen stehen. Die Arbeitsplatzsituation verändert sich und Menschen sehen sich existenziellen Fragen gegenüber. Daraus entstehen Unsicherheiten, aus denen Zukunftsangst erwachsen kann. Torfitz – Das Planspiel zum Strukturwandel schafft einen Rahmen, in dem sich die Spielenden auf kreative und kooperative Weise mit Veränderungen auseinandersetzen. Die Spieler:innen übernehmen unterschiedliche Rollen (z.B. Bürgermeister:in, Bewohner:in, Jugendliche:r, Unternehmer:in, Naturschützer:in) in verschiedenen Kommunen, die sich mit spezifischen Herausforderungen konfrontiert sehen, z.B. wie kann der Jugendclub leichter erreicht werden? Wie können sich neue Bewohner:innen schnell willkommen fühlen? Soll sich ein Unternehmen mit einem kontroversen Geschäftsmodell ansiedeln dürfen? Im gemeinsamen Gespräch werden Abwägungen getroffen und konkrete Projektideen erarbeitet. Die Ideen werden anschließend einem Gremium präsentiert, das anhand bestimmter Kriterien die besten Projekte auswählt. Dabei vollzieht der Großteil der Schüler:innen einen Perspektivwechsel. Nachdem sie zunächst verschiedene Rollen in den Kommunen hatten, sind sie später Teil dieses Gremiums und müssen entscheiden, welche Projekte gefördert werden sollen. Der Austausch mit anderen, das konstruktive Streiten um die besten Ideen und das Entwickeln von Lösungsansätzen stärkt nicht nur die Kompetenzen der Spielenden im Sozialen, in Bezug auf Demokratie und Nachhaltigkeit, sondern vermittelt zugleich das Gefühl, dass Veränderungen auch Chancen sind, Dinge besser zu machen. Torfitz ermöglicht den Spielenden, gemeinsames Engagement zu erleben und eröffnet Perspektiven, die sowohl im schulischen als auch persönlichen Alltag von Bedeutung sind beziehungsweise sein können: Es liegt auch an mir, mein Lebensumfeld zu gestalten. Das Spiel ist für 6-30 Spieler:innen konzipiert und kann in drei Varianten gespielt werden. Diese sind unterschiedlich komplex und benötigen 45, 60 oder 90 Minuten. Torfitz wurde bereits erfolgreich an Schulen und Hochschulen getestet. Ab Juli kann Torfitz kostenlos von Lehrkräften und anderen Bildungsanbietenden bei der Brandenburgischen Landeszentrale für politische Bildung bestellt werden. Spiel und Begleitheft sind so aufbereitet, dass sie ohne Vorkenntnisse und mit minimalem Vorbereitungsaufwand eingesetzt werden können. Bei Bedarf stehen Hintergrundinformationen zur Verfügung.
    Language: German
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  • 72
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Politikum : Analysen, Kontroversen, Bildung
    Publication Date: 2022-06-29
    Language: German
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  • 73
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    In:  European Journal of Futures Research
    Publication Date: 2022-07-04
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2022-07-04
    Description: The European Union’s 2030 climate and energy package introduced fundamental changes compared to its 2020 predecessor. These changes included a stronger focus on the internal market and an increased emphasis on technology-neutral decarbonization while simultaneously de-emphasizing the renewables target. This article investigates whether changes in domestic policy strategies of leading member states in European climate policy preceded the observed changes in EU policy. Disaggregating strategic change into changes in different elements (goals, objectives, instrumental logic), allows us to go beyond analyzing the relative prioritization of different goals, and to analyze how policy requirements for reaching those goals were dynamically redefined over time. To this end, we introduce a new method, which based on insights from social network analysis, enables us to systematically trace those strategic chances. We find that shifts in national strategies of the investigated member states preceded the shift in EU policy. In particular, countries reframed their understanding of supply security, and pushed for the internal electricity market also as a security measure to balance fluctuating renewables. Hence, the increasing focus on markets and market integration in the European 2030 package echoed the increasingly central role of the internal market for electricity supply security in national strategies. These findings also highlight that countries dynamically redefined their goals relative to the different phases of the energy transition.
    Language: English
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2022-07-04
    Description: The digitalisation of industrial production and the actual positive and negative consequences for sustainable development are not yet sufficiently understood. This study describes and evaluates the linkages between corporate digitalisation and sustainability management based on qualitative data analysis of sustainability reports of DAX30 companies and applying the concept of sustainability worldviews. The results show a predominate worldview of weak or business-centred sustainability on digitalisation, which could potentially pose a threat to sustainable development. In particular, the focus on customer demands without stakeholder involvement and the worldview of digitalisation as a way of doing ‘business as-usual’ but in a more effective way reproduces unsustainable economic patterns. A holistic sustainable approach on digitalisation should also include possible negative impacts like increased resource consumption which is not the case yet in the studied companies. Different types of ‘sustainability worldviews on digitalisation’ can be distinguished. While ‘Pioneer’ companies can inform policy-making, the other types of ‘Intermediates’, ‘Indecisive’ and ‘Laggards’ could be addressed by information exchange, support and regulation to promote a more sustainable worldview on corporate digitalisation. The ‘Unsustainable’ digitalisation type would be the most difficult to address with soft policy instruments and requires a more regulated approach.
    Language: English
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: A survey of members of a scientific society focused on risk analysis suggests substantial support for seeing their scientific society pursue the communication goal of “trying to ensure that policymakers consider scientific evidence.” Support for pursuing this goal was largely predicted by researchers’ beliefs that it was ethical for the society to pursue the goal, that it would be satisfying to see their society pursue the goal, and the belief that the society could have a positive impact on society by pursuing the goal. Normative beliefs about pursuing the goal and organizational efficacy beliefs were not good predictors of goal support. Goal support was measured using a direct measure of perceived goal importance as well as measures focused on the degree to which respondents wanted their society to put resources into providing members with opportunities to pursue the goal and the amount of funding that members thought the society should devote to pursuing the goal. The theory underlying the work argues that we can treat science communicators’ choices about communication goals, objectives, and tactics as “planned behaviors” and thus study them using traditional behavior change models.
    Language: English
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2022-07-05
    Description: This study aims to classify a set of circular supply chain collaboration attributes and propose a cause-and-effect framework in the Vietnamese healthcare industry. A circular supply chain is argued to better retrieve value from end of life products to create zero waste, the collaboration within the value chain is seen as a critical facilitator for the transition process and the attributes for bringing this collaboration into practice still need to be discovered. The five aspects suggest as vision and learning in circularity, connection in a circular supply chain, circularity in business model, reverse logistics policies and enabling collaboration by information technology. Fuzzy Delphi method is applied to eliminate unnecessary criteria; decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory and analytical network process are employed to prioritize attributes and identify the interrelationships. Results illustrate that vision and learning in circularity, reverse logistics policies and enabling collaboration by information technology belong to causal group, whereas connection in a circular supply chain and circularity in business model are members of effect group. The top criteria are shared vision guidance on collaboration, a shift in problems framing in supply chain, a shift in problems solving in supply chain collaboration and information technology competency in circular supply chain.
    Language: English