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  • Articles  (329,803)
  • Open Access-Papers  (329,803)
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  • 1
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    North West Water Authority
    Publication Date: 2013-03-22
    Description: This is the report from the Central Area Fisheries Advisory Committee meeting, which was held on the 31st March, 1982. It includes information on the River Leven smolt rearing scheme, the annual report on match fishing at Skerton and Mitton fisheries, and the report by the area fisheries officer on fisheries activites from September 1981 to January 1982. The report covers information on river conditions and fishing, migratory fish movements, an update on the work at Middleton hatchery, Salmon cages on the Leven and Langcliffe hatchery. It also includes information on fish disease, fish mortalities, management work and monthly salmon and sea trout catches for rod, line, nets and fixed engines for the 1981 season. The Fisheries Advisory Committee was part of the Regional Water Authorities, in this case the North West Water Authority. This preceded the Environment Agency which came into existence in 1996.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Limnology ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
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    North West Water Authority
    Publication Date: 2013-03-05
    Description: This is the report from the South and West Cumberland Fisheries Advisory Committee meeting, which was held on the 16th October, 1978. It covers information on fisheries income and expenditure, the study of salmon propagation in England and Wales, work on the future programme of fisheries work, keep nets, and the drought order for the reduction of compensation water from Lake Ennerdale. It also covers the report by the area fisheries officer on fishing activities including river conditions and fishing, migratory fish movements, and an update on Holmwrangle hatchery. The report also looks at stocking numbers of salmon and sea trout in various rivers, predator counts for various rivers, fish mortalities and fish disease. The Fisheries Advisory Committee was part of the Regional Water Authorities, in this case the North West Water Authority. This preceded the Environment Agency which came into existence in 1996.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Limnology ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    Chicago: University of Chicago Press | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2019-10-22
    Description: 9-ending prices, which comprise between 40%–95% of retail prices, are popular because shoppers perceive them as being low. We study whether this belief is justified using scanner price-data with over 98-million observations from a large US grocery-chain. We find that 9-ending prices are higher than non 9-ending prices, by as much as 18%. Two factors explain why shoppers believe, mistakenly, that 9-ending prices are low. First, we find that among sale-prices, 9-ending prices are indeed lower than non 9-ending prices, giving 9-ending prices an aura of being low. Second, at first, 9-ending prices were indeed lower than other prices. Shoppers, therefore, learned to associate 9-endings with low prices. Over time, however, 9-ending prices rose substantially, which shoppers failed to notice, because the continuous use of 9-ending prices for promoting deep price cuts draws shoppers’ attention to them, and helps to maintain-and-preserve the image of 9-ending prices as bargain prices.
    Description: Special Issue on Behavioral Pricing
    Keywords: M30 ; M31 ; L11 ; L16 ; L81 ; D12 ; D22 ; D40 ; D90 ; D91 ; E31 ; ddc:330 ; Behavioral Pricing ; Psychological Prices ; Price Perception ; Image Effect ; 9-Ending Prices ; Price Points ; Regular Prices ; Sale Prices
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 4
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    Cambridge University Press
    In:  EPIC3Life in extreme environments - Insights in biological capability, Ecological Reviews, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 16 p., pp. 218-233, ISBN: 978-1-108-72420-3
    Publication Date: 2020-10-05
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Inbook , peerRev
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-11-16
    Description: The CryoSat-2 radar altimetry mission, launched in 2010, provides key measurements of Earth's cryosphere. CryoSat-2's primary instrument, the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL), allows accurate height measurements of sloped ice-surfaces including the highly crevassed Bering-Bagley Glacier System (BBGS) in southeast Alaska. The recent surge of the BBGS in 2011–2013, which resulted in large-scale elevation changes and wide-spread crevassing, presents an interesting challenge to the processing of the SIRAL measurements. Derivation of surface height is achieved by retracking the received waveform of the altimeter signal. Several such retracking methods have been developed. In this paper, we investigate the influence of six unique SIRAL retracking methods on (1) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generation, (2) analysis of ice-surface topography, and (3) numerical modeling results of the BBGS during surge. First, we derive a surface DEM for each retracked dataset using kriging. The swath-processed dataset provides 100–250 times more points than the other datasets, which decreases DEM uncertainty associated with data coverage by a factor of 2–4. Differences between the six resulting DEMs imply that retracking methods can have significant effects on elevation and elevation-change analysis, but we find that lower-level processing has larger effects. Next, the sensitivity of the data-model connection is evaluated using a finite element model of the BBGS surge. We set up six modeling experiments, each initiated with a unique input surface DEM derived from the various retracking methods. While retracking choices effect estimation of unknown model parameters related to crevasse simulation, we have developed a procedure to limit these effects resulting in remarkably consistent parameter optimization across modeling experiments. Each model experiment yields an optimal friction coefficient in the sliding law of 10^-5 MPa*a/m, while estimates of the optimal von Mises stress threshold for crevasse initiation ranged between 230 and 240 kPa.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
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  • 6
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    ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
    In:  EPIC3Journal of Environmental Management, ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 279(111762), ISSN: 0301-4797
    Publication Date: 2020-12-28
    Description: Offshore wind power generation requires large areas of sea to accommodate its activities, with increasing claims for exclusive access. As a result, pressure is placed on other established maritime uses, such as commercial fisheries. The latter sector has often been taking a back seat in the thrust to move energy production offshore, thus leading to disagreements and conflicts among the different stakeholder groups. In recognition of the latter, there has been a growing international interest in exploring the combination of multiple maritime activities in the same area (multi-use; MU), including the re-instatement of fishing activities within, or in close proximity to, offshore wind farms (OWFs). We summarise local stakeholder perspectives from two sub-national case studies (East coast of Scotland and Germany's North Sea EEZ) to scope the feasibility of combining multiple uses of the sea, such as offshore wind farms and commercial fisheries. We combined a desk-based review with 15 semi-structured qualitative interviews with key knowledge holders from both industries, regulators, and academia to aggregate key results. Drivers, barriers and resulting effects (positive and negative) for potential multi-use of fisheries and OWFs are listed and ranked (57 factors in total). Factors are of economic, social, policy, legal, and technical nature. To date, in both case study areas, the offshore wind industry has shown little interest in multi-use solutions, unless clear added value is demonstrated and no risks to their operations are involved. In contrast, the commercial fishing sector is proactive towards multi-use projects and acts as a driving force for MU developments. We provide a range of management recommendations, based on stakeholder input, to support progress towards robust decision making in relation to multi-use solutions, including required policy and regulatory framework improvements, good practice guidance, empirical studies, capacity building of stakeholders and improvements of the consultation process. Our findings represent a comprehensive depiction of the current state and key stakeholder aspirations for multi-use solutions combining fisheries and OWFs. We believe that the pathways towards robust decision making in relation to multi-use solutions suggested here are transferable to other international locations.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Knowledge of the spatio-temporal changes in the characteristics and distribution of subsurface fluids is key to properly addressing important societal issues, including: sustainable management of energy resources (e.g., hydrocarbons and geothermal energy), management of water resources, and assessment of hazard (e.g., volcanic eruptions). Gravimetry is highly attractive because it can detect changes in subsurface mass, thus providing a window into processes that involve deep fluids. However, high cost and operating features associated with current instrumentation seriously limits the practical field use of this geophysical method. The NEWTON-g project proposes a radical change of paradigm for gravimetry through the development of a fieldcompatible measuring system (the gravity imager), able to real-time monitor the evolution of the subsurface mass changes. This system includes an array of lowcosts microelectromechanical systems-based relative gravimeters, anchored on an absolute quantum gravimeter. It will provide imaging of gravity changes, associated with variations in subsurface fluid properties, with unparalleled spatio-temporal resolution. During the final ∼2 years of NEWTON-g, the gravity imager will be field tested in the summit of Mt. Etna volcano (Italy), where frequent gravity fluctuations, easy access to the active structures and the presence of a multiparameter monitoring system (including traditional gravimeters) ensure an excellent natural laboratory for testing the new tools. Insights from the gravity imager will be used to i) improve our knowledge of the causeeffect relationships between volcanic processes and gravity changes observable at the surface and ii) develop strategies to best incorporate the gravity data into hazards assessments and mitigation plans. A successful implementation of NEWTON-g will open new doors for geophysical exploration.
    Description: Published
    Description: 573396
    Description: 1IT. Reti di monitoraggio e sorveglianza
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Some geophysical or geodynamic applications require the use of true vertical gradient of gravity (VGG). This demand may be associated with reductions of or corrections to observed gravity or its spatiotemporal changes. In the absence of in situ measured VGG values, the constant value of the theoretical (normal) free air gradient (FAG) is commonly used. We propose an alternative to this practice which may significantly reduce systematic errors associated with the use of constant FAG. The true VGG appears to be better approximated, in areas with prominent and rugged topography, such as alpine or some volcanic regions, by a value based on the modelled contribution of the topographic masses to the gradient. Such prediction can be carried out with a digital elevation model (DEM) of sufficient resolution and accuracy. Here we present the VGG field computed for Mt. Etna (Italy), one of the most active and best monitored volcanoes worldwide, to illustrate how strongly the VGG deviates spatially from constant FAG. The predicted (modelled) VGG field is verified by in situ observations. We also take a look at the sensitivity of the VGG prediction to the resolution and quality of used DEMs. We conclude with discussing the applicability of the topo-predicted VGG field in near surface structural and volcanological micro-gravimetric studies.
    Description: Published
    Description: 3315–3333
    Description: 1IT. Reti di monitoraggio e sorveglianza
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Bagni San Filippo area is characterized by the discharge of thermal waters and deeply produced CO2-rich gases both from vents and soil diffuse degassing. The thermal waters are the results of the mixing between meteoric waters and hot fluids deriving from the condensation, at depth, of vapours uprising from a deep hydrothermal reservoir. This process gives rise to a relatively shallow thermal system at temperature close to 50°C, characterized by SO4-rich and Cl-poor waters and elevated PCO2 (~7 bar). Most of the incondensable gas of deep originated vapour is released as a free gas phase forming cold gas vents and localized spots of anomalous CO2 diffuse degassing. The location and the shape of these degassing zones are strongly controlled by the main tectonic structures of the area. Through detailed soil diffuse degassing surveys and hydrogeochemical modelling, we estimate at 226-326 t d-1 and at 965 t d-1 the deep CO2 emission and the amount of condensates discharged by the thermal springs, respectively. The thermal energy associated to the process results at ~ 29 MW, most of which (~ 25 MW) is associated with condensation occurring at depths greater than groundwater circulation.
    Description: Published
    Description: 383-397
    Description: 1TR. Georisorse
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: The “L’Isola di Einstein” is a unique festival in Europe, of scientific games and shows. The protagonists are experiments, natural phenomena and scientific histories enjoying, intriguing and thrilling a wide range of people. International artists, disseminators, scientists and storytellers are able to fascinate the audience sharing the passion of the discovery. The INGV contributes to this Event presenting volcanological and seismological laboratories and games for all aged people.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1-22
    Description: 2TM. Divulgazione Scientifica
    Description: N/A or not JCR
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: This article presents findings from two episodes of seismicity and gas emission that occurred on 7 October 2015 and 6 December 2019 in Campi Flegrei caldera. This caldera has been affected by long-term unrest since 2004. The 6 December 2019 episode, consisting of a swarm of 38 earthquakes (maximum duration magnitude 3.1, the largest between 1984 and March 2020), occurred at the end of a one month period characterized by an increase in the ground uplift rate from 0:19 0:01 to 0:72 0:05 mm= day. A sudden increase in the fumarolic tremor amplitude, which is a proxy of gas emissionrelated parameters recorded at Solfatara–Pisciarelli hydrothermal area (e.g., CO2 air concentration), was observed during the seismicity episode. The uplift rate decreased immediately after the swarm (0:10 0:01 mm= day), whereas the fumarolic tremor amplitude remained higher than that observed prior to the swarm. Through analyzing the time series of uplift recorded in Pozzuoli (central area of the caldera) from differential measurements on tide gauges, we were able to identify the 2015 episode. This episode was characterized by increasing uplift rates that culminated in a seismic swarm of 33 earthquakes on 7 October, which was followed by decreasing uplift rates. We computed double-difference locations of earthquakes from the two swarms and found that they located along a conduit-like path, coinciding with a high-resistivity contrast zone, previously identified by audiomagnetotelluric measurements. The focal mechanisms of the major earthquakes of both swarms indicate fault planes radial with respect to the maximum uplift area. These phenomena can be interpreted as episodes of the volcanic and (or) hydrothermal system pressurization that culminate in an injection of fluids along the conduit-like path, which behaves as a valve that allows fluid discharge and the temporary depressurization of the source region.
    Description: In press
    Description: 4V. Processi pre-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: A probabilistic approach is used to forecast a future eruption at Vesuvius volcano. Such approach, differently from a deterministic one, allows to account for spatial and temporal variability of eruptive style (effusive, explosive), event magnitude (VEI), and environmental impact (dispersion, runout) (Newhall and Hoblitt, 2002; Marzocchi et al., 2004; Neri et al., 2008). This variability is quantified by means of Event Trees and conditional probabilities (Newhall and Hoblitt, 2002). To better constrain uncertainty, different sources of information should be considered and integrated with each other: geological record, historical observations, monitoring activities, results from scenario modelling. The integration of the different data is important to provide a robust characterization of the state of Vesuvius over geological vs. historical times, also in light of its current state as inferred from monitoring data and conceptual models. Different techniques exist to carry out this integration. For Vesuvius, available studies are based on the application of the Bayesian Event Tree (BET) model (Marzocchi et al., 2008; Sandri et al., 2009; Selva et al., 2014), and on the development of an Event Tree informed by expert elicitations (Neri et al., 2008), making possible to set up probabilistic eruption forecasting models both at long- (years) and short-term (hours to days), based on the current vs. past states of the volcano.
    Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia
    Description: Published
    Description: 6V. Pericolosità vulcanica e contributi alla stima del rischio
    Keywords: Vesuvio ; Bayesian Event Tree ; Geological observations ; State of the volcano ; Monitoring data
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: report
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: One of the primary activities of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology; INGV) is the production of resources concerning educational and outreach projects in geophysics and natural hazard topics. This activity is aimed at transferring, periodically, results at the forefront of ongoing research to the public through an intense and comprehensive plan for scientific dissemination. Over the past 15 years, graphic and visual communication have become essential tools for supporting institutional and research activities. In this paper, we describe successful INGV team experiences resulting from a close relationship and collaborative work between graphic designers and research scientists. The main goal of the projects devoted to the general public, through the creation of a museum exhibition or the production of descriptive brochures, is to support scientists in conveying their message and making concepts fruitful, easier to understand but also fully enjoyable thanks to the emotional involvement that images may generate. Through a careful composition of signs and images, and through the use of different visual tools (colours, form and lettering) on different media (print, video and web), the graphics and editorial products together create a strong INGV-style identity, making it easily recognizable in any educational and outreach project. A full project product package might include a logo or other artwork, organized text and pure design elements such as shapes and colours, which serve the purpose of unifying the whole set. Colour is used not only to help the project logo to stand out from the international overview but, in our case, also to generate a unifying return across all INGV sections. A recent and highly stimulating experience concerned the creation of edu-games, specifically designed for scientific dissemination, through a close collaboration between INGV graphic designers and their reference scientific community. The edu-games were designed as an effective combination of educational content and playful communicative aspects, leading the young players to learn while having fun.
    Description: Published
    Description: 407–425
    Description: 2TM. Divulgazione Scientifica
    Description: N/A or not JCR
    Keywords: geoscience communication
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Forecasting geomagnetic indices represents a key point to develop warning systems for the mitigation of possible effects of severe geomagnetic storms on critical ground infrastructures. Here we focus on SYM‐H index, a proxy of the axially symmetric magnetic field disturbance at low and middle latitudes on the Earth's surface. To forecast SYM‐H we built two artificial neural network (ANN) models and trained both of them on two different sets of input parameters including interplanetary magnetic field components and magnitude, and differing for the presence or not of previous SYM‐H values. These ANN models differ in architecture being based on two conceptually different neural networks: the Long Short‐Term Memory (LSTM) and the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Both networks are trained, validated and tested on a total of 42 geomagnetic storms among the most intense occurred between 1998 and 2018. Performance comparison of the two ANN models shows that: 1) both are able to well forecast SYM‐H index 1 hour in advance, with an accuracy of more than 95% in terms of the coefficient of determination R2; 2) the model based on LSTM is slightly more accurate than that based on CNN when including SYM‐H index at previous steps among the inputs; 3) the model based on CNN has interesting potentialities being more accurate than that based on LSTM when not including SYM‐H index among the inputs. Predictions made including SYM‐H index among the inputs provide a root mean squared error on average 42% lower than that of predictions made without SYM‐H.
    Description: In press
    Description: e2020SW002589
    Description: 1A. Geomagnetismo e Paleomagnetismo
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Due to the intrinsic side-looking geometry of synthetic aperture radar (SAR), time series interferometric SAR is only able to monitor displacements in line-of-sight (LOS) direction, which limits the accuracy of displacement measurement in landslide monitoring. This is because the LOS displacement is only a three dimensional projection of real displacement of a certain ground object. Targeting at this problem, a precise digital elevation model (DEM) assisted slope displacement retrieval method is proposed and applied to a case study over the high and steep slope of the Dagushan open pit mine. In the case study, the precise DEM generated by laser scanning is first used to minimize topographic residuals in small baseline subsets analysis. Then, the LOS displacements are converted to slope direction with assistance of the precise DEM. By comparing with ground measurements, relative root mean square errors (RMSE) of the estimated slope displacements reach approximately 12-13% for the ascending orbit, and 5.4-9.2% for the descending orbit in our study area. In order to validate the experimental results, comparison with microseism monitoring results is also conducted. Moreover, both results have found that the largest slope displacements occur on the slope part, with elevations varying from -138 m to -210 m, which corresponds to the landslide area. Moreover, there is a certain correlation with precipitation, as revealed by the displacement time series. The outcome of this article shows that rock mass structure, lithology, and precipitation are main factors affecting the stability of high and steep mining slopes.
    Description: Published
    Description: 6674
    Description: 7SR AMBIENTE – Servizi e ricerca per la società
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: digital elevation model; high and steep slope; landslide monitoring; open-pit mine; small baseline subsets analysis ; 04.03. Geodesy
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Considering the peculiarities of the open conduit activity at Mount Etna, here we focused in the development of a dedicated event-tree-like conceptual model including all the potential activities that may occur at Mount Etna, including both central and lateral eruptions. This conceptual model represents the base for a further development of an exclusive dedicated probabilistic model, a study already ongoing in multiple Italian projects (e.g., AshResilience and IMPACT Projects).The general conceptual model presented here for the Etna eruptions, has been developed within the WP11 of the European project EUROVOLC.
    Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia
    Description: Published
    Description: 6V. Pericolosità vulcanica e contributi alla stima del rischio
    Keywords: Etna ; Event Tree ; Eruption ; state of a volcanic system
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: report
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Akaike information criterion (AIC) has been recently adopted to identify possible earthquake precursors in ionospheric total electron content (TEC). According to the authors of this methodology, their technique allows finding abrupt increases (positive breaks) in vertical TEC rate of change 25–80 min before the occurrence of large earthquakes, highlighting a promising implication of AIC method in Mw 〉 8 earthquakes alert strategies. Due to the relevance of this matter, a lively scientific debate ensued from these results. In this study, we carefully evaluate AIC method potentiality in searching earthquake TEC precursory signatures. We first investigate the dependence of the detected breaks number on the adjustable AIC method parameters. Then, we show that breaks occurrence clusters around specific local times and around moderate and high solar and geomagnetic activity. The outcome of this study is that AIC method is not concretely usable for issuing large earthquakes alerts.
    Description: Published
    Description: 21153
    Description: 2A. Fisica dell'alta atmosfera
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: The Fucino lacustrine basin in central Italy is a large flat area mostly devoted to agriculture, with urbanization along the perimeter of the ancient lake. In 1915 a strong earthquake struck the area (Mw 7.0), producing large damages and geological effects, including surface faulting, ground failures and liquefaction. A channel excavated in the lacustrine sediments exposed ground failure, with dykes of fine-grained sediment that we interpret as the result of earthquake-induced liquefaction. We present the results of a multidisciplinary work aimed at characterizing in detail the geology of the buried stratigraphic succession, its susceptibility to liquefaction and the likely source of the fine-grained liquefied material. The succession down to 20 m deep is formed by fine-grained sediments younger than ~170–180 kyrs (mostly Late Pleistocene - Holocene), prevailingly silt or silt-clay mixtures. The geological field analysis indicates that the dykes are filled by prevailing silt, liquefied and transported by upward-directed flow of short duration, as for earthquake-induced liquefaction. Tilting and lateral spreading accompanied the process. The overall liquefaction potential derived from the “simplified methods” is high. Correlations of X-Ray Powder Diffraction mineralogy of samples from drilling cores with those from dykes allowed us to identify the most likely source layer filling dykes, corresponding to a silt layer at 7–8 m depths. This layer and the dykes lack illite and montmorillonite clay particles. These results contribute to improve studies of liquefactions in sediments that differ from typical liquefiable loose sands. They have also implications for microzonation studies. Most samples show grain-size curves that do not fit within the field of potentially liquefiable soils, suggesting that criteria based on grain-size can be poorly significant in seismic microzonation studies of recent (Late Pleistocene-Holocene) lacustrine, fine-grained successions.
    Description: Published
    Description: 105621
    Description: 5T. Sismologia, geofisica e geologia per l'ingegneria sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Seimic microzonation, liquefaction, 1915 earthquake
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: In this paper we describe all the field operations and the robust post-processing procedures to determine the height of the new absolute gravimetric station purposely selected to belong to a new absolute gravimetric network and located in the Science Faculty of the L’Aquila University (Italy). This site has been realized indoor in the Geomagnetism laboratory, so that the height cannot be measured directly, but linking it to the GNSS antenna of AQUI benchmark located on the roof of the same building, by a classical topographic survey. After the topographic survey, the estimated height difference between AQUI and the absolute gravimetric site AQUIg is 14.970 ± 0.003 m. At the epoch of the 2018 gravimetric measurements, the height of AQUI GNSS station was 712.974 ± 0.003 m, therefore the estimated ellipsoidal height of the gravimetric site at the epoch of gravity measurements is 698.004 ± 0.005 m. Absolute gravity measurements are referred to the equipotential surface of gravity field, so that the knowledge of the geoidal undulation at AQUIg allows us to infer the orthometric height as 649.32 m.
    Description: Published
    Description: GD662
    Description: 1T. Struttura della Terra
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Geochemical and geophysical prospecting methods (including measurements of soil heat flux and soil CO2 flux, gravimetry, self-potential and geomagnetism) are used to produce an integrated data set aimed at imaging the migration of fluids in the sub-surface at the Salinelle mud volcanoes, located on the lower southwestern flank of Mt Etna (Sicily, Italy). This area was affected by magmatic eruptions from local volcanic centers between about 48 and 27 ka. Today, only pseudo-volcanic phenomena due to over-pressured multiphase pore fluids there occur. Carbon dioxide of magmatic origin, mixed with biogenic hydrocarbons, warm hypersaline waters and mud, are constantly released at the surface through the main conduits of mud volcanoes, whose activity is characterized by alternation of mild gas bubbling periods and strong paroxysmal phases. The latter produce violent gas eruptions that eject warm water (T ≈ 50° C) to a height up to about 1 m. Surface distribution of the geophysical and geochemical parameters have been investigated to detect the main pathways through which fluids move toward the shallow crust. Integration of geochemical, geophysical and geological maps allowed for the tracing of the fluid flow in the shallowest (a few tens of meters below the surface) part of the local hydrothermal system. Our results showed that the rising of fluids from a deep reservoir is controlled by the main structural and geological features of the area and their temporal and spatial evolution depends on pressure conditions inside the hydrothermal system.
    Description: Published
    Description: PE442
    Description: 7A. Geofisica per il monitoraggio ambientale
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Da Dante e Petrarca, attraverso i viaggiatori del Grand Tour, fino a Pirandello, Gadda, Alvaro, Silone, Zanzotto, Consolo e agli scrittori dei nostri giorni nella rappresentazione dei paesaggi sismici d'Italia: la geografia degli ambienti naturali modellati dalla ripetizione dei terremoti nel tempo geologico e il rapporto tra le caratteristiche dei territori e le popolazioni residenti; le forme degli spazi costruiti che manifestano gli effetti delle scosse nelle tante rovine e nei resti ruderali dei paesi abbandonati, nella persistenza dell'edificato provvisorio e nelle spesso controverse soluzioni delle ricostruzioni definitive. Un lungo viaggio attraverso l'Italia sismica guidato dai testimoni di quei paesaggi che, con la loro personale sensibilità, declinano quanto osservato e conosciuto in testi spesso preziosi, qui riletti dal ricercatore esperto dei temi della difesa dai terremoti. Emerge così un'Italia in cui paesaggi naturali e spazi costruiti appaiono fortemente modellati e incisi dalle passate vicissitudini sismiche. Un monito, composto grazie alle parole della letteratura, a non tralasciare mai l'azione necessaria per definire i corretti modelli insediativi nel contesto della diffusa fragilità territoriale.
    Description: Published
    Description: 2TM. Divulgazione Scientifica
    Keywords: Literary representations of the seismic Italian territory
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: book
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) tomography (TomoSAR) is able to separate multiple scatterers layovered inside the same resolution cell in high-resolution SAR images of urban scenarios, usually with a large number of orbits, making it an expensive and unfeasible task for many practical applications. Targeting at finding out the minimum number of images necessary for tomographic reconstruction, this paper innovatively applies minimum redundancy array (MRA) for tomographic baseline array optimization. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted by means of Two-step Iterative Shrinkage/Thresholding (TWIST) and Truncated Singular Value Decomposition (TSVD) to fully evaluate the tomographic performance of MRA orbits in terms of detection rates, Cramer Rao Lower Bounds, as well as resistance against sidelobes. Experiments on COSMO-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X data are also conducted in this paper. The results from simulations and experiments on real data have both demonstrated that introducing MRA for baseline optimization in SAR tomography can benefit from the dramatic reduction of necessary orbit numbers, if the recently proposed TWIST method is used for tomographic reconstruction. Although the simulation and experiments in this manuscript are carried out using spaceborne data, the outcome of this paper can also give examples for airborne TomoSAR when designing flight orbits using airborne sensors.
    Description: Published
    Description: 3100
    Description: 7SR AMBIENTE – Servizi e ricerca per la società
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: SAR tomography ; Urban ; 05.06. Methods
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: article
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Reducing the impact of volcanic eruptions on society is a major challenge of volcanology. Although science is one basic component of risk reduction, the achievement of this goal requires competencies that go beyond natural sciences. Nowadays, the importance of non-scientific factors in reducing volcanic risks is often and dangerously overlooked, possibly leading to decision making that cannot be rationally justified. In this paper we explore the basic components of an ideal decision-making process, identifying the roles and responsibilities of the different partners/tasks that are involved. In particular, we advocate the use of the hazard/risk separation principle, which can help discern unambiguously the role of volcanology (and more in general of science) in the whole risk-reduction process. Although this distinction may be of low relevance in some real cases—for example, when the costs of mitigation actions are low and the likelihood of eruption is high—it becomes of paramount importance when dealing with high uncertainty on the eruption onset or size and expensive mitigation actions, such as the evacuation of a large city. Volcanologists can play different roles in the decision-making process, but they have to be aware that this demands competencies that go beyond being a good volcano scientist. The final intent of this paper is to encourage constructive cooperation between volcanologists and public-policy makers keeping separated their own tasks as defined by their roles and their competences, with the intent of establishing fully transparent decision-making protocols well before volcanic crises. These protocols can be very helpful to audit the decision-making process at any time, and they may be an excellent communication tool for the interested stakeholders, including society.
    Description: Published
    Description: 545-564
    Description: 6V. Pericolosità vulcanica e contributi alla stima del rischio
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: book chapter
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: This manual has the objective to provide the shift workers of the Osservatorio Vesuviano Monitoring Room with an useful support to carry out their activities. Specifically, it focuses on the guidelines for the use of information systems related to the analysis and management of seismic events. Shift workers, among their duties, have the task to perform the preliminary location of the occuring seismic events that has to be done by means of two specific systems: WinPick and WESSEL. The first program (WinPick), developed by Flora Giudicepietro [Open File Report n.6, Osservatorio Vesuviano, December 2000] provides the functionalities to analyze in detail the traces of an event in order to perform its location that has later to be saved on two files: one with arrival times and one with location data. The second system (WESSEL), developed by Rosario Peluso in the framework of the FISR SOIR “Sale Operative Integrate e Reti di monitoraggio del futuro” project, provides the features to automatically acquire the files generated by WinPick, therefore all the event data, and to insert them in the SERENADE database and in Sismolab. This is the database developed as part of the Speed project (Scenari di Pericolosità e Danno dei vulcani della Campania) to allow real­time sharing of the monitoring data of the OV with the DPC, later the Speed/Sismolab system it was extended to allow access to data also to the public. It is used to simultaneously show the definitive, revised and automatic locations of a seismic event (obviously on the basis of those available). The shift worker in the monitoring room has the task of populating the database with the localized events: this operation, previously carried out through the system interface, is now carried out directly via WESSEL. In addition, WESSEL also sends automatic e manual localization of events, to the unified seismological database developed by the ONT as part of the FISR SOIR project (Integrated Operating Rooms and Future Monitoring Networks), to create a unified database for the seismic locations of the three INGV monitoring rooms.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1-52
    Description: 4IT. Banche dati
    Description: N/A or not JCR
    Keywords: gestione ; eventi sismici ; Sala Operativa dell’Osservatorio Vesuviano
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: We studied the broader area of Thessaloniki in northern Greece and Chalkidiki and performed an InSAR campaign to study the surface deformation phenomena that have been known to exist for at least two decades. Sentinel-1 data (2015–2019) together with drill measurements were exploited to focus on specific sites of interest. Our results indicate an ongoing displacement field. At the region of Kalochori and Sindos—where intense subsidence in the 1990s was previously found to have had a natural surface rebound in the 2000s—a new period of subsidence, caused by the enlivenment of the groundwater overexploitation, was reported. The uplifting trend of Oreokastro is still active and subsidence in Anthemountas graben is ongoing; special focus was set on the Makedonia Airport, where significant displacement is occurring. The study also reveals a new area at Nea Moudania, that was not known previously to deform; another case corresponding to anthropogenic-induced surface displacement. Thessaloniki is surrounded by di erent persistent displacement phenomena, whose main driving mechanisms are anthropogenic. The sensitivity of the surface displacements to the water trends is highlighted in parts of the study area. Results highlight the plan of a water resources management as a high priority for the area.
    Description: Published
    Description: 2396
    Description: 2T. Deformazione crostale attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: InSAR ; PSI time-series ; deformation ; Northern Greece ; Kalochori;Oreokastro;Anthemountas ; thessaloniki airport; NeaMoudania
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: The largest earthquake in the Zagros Mountains struck the city of Azgeleh on the Iran–Iraq border on 12 November 2017. This Mw 7.3 earthquake was followed by an intense seismic sequence. Implementing the double-difference earthquake location technique, we relocate 1069 events recorded by our local seismic network, deployed after the mainshock. The spatial distribution of the epicenters indicates linear alignments of the events nucleated along at least four notable clusters. The clusters are characterized by at least one significant earthquake, such as the Tazehabad earthquake of 25 August 2018 (Mw 5.9) along a dense, east–west trending cluster and the Sarpol-e Zahab earthquake of 25 November 2018 (Mw 6.3) along the cluster with a northeast–southwest trend. We use two-pass differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) and Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) methods to study the coseismic permanent displacements of the Azgeleh, Tazehabad and Sarpol-e Zahab events as well as the one-year postseismic deformation field of the 2017–2018 seismic sequence, respectively. We use non-linear and linear optimization algorithms to derive the source geometry and the slip distribution along the fault planes. The inversion is conducted by introducing also seismological constraints, leading to the definition of a listric geometry for the Azgeleh mainshock rupture that accommodates the slip area at depth of 10–16 km along a sub-horizontal plane (dipping ~3°) and a low-angle (~16°) ramp. The thrust and dextral movements along this NNW-striking (~345°) fault have triggered a tear fault responsible for the Tazehabad event ruptured an east–west trending (~267°), north-dipping (~78°) sinistral shear fault. We present the dextral slip distribution of the Sarpol-e Zahab event along a NE-striking (~34°) fault, as a synthetic Riedel structure for the southern segment of the Khanaqin fault, dipping 63° to the southeast. We find the postseismic deformation field associated with the seismic sequence is not confined only to the mainshock source (the Azgeleh fault), but also develops along the Tazehabad and Sarpol-e Zahab faults. We additionally propose afterslip along a duplex, flat-ramp-flat structure down-dip and up-dip of the Azgeleh coseismic slip area. The up-dip afterslip develops onto the shallow detachment (~3°) at depth of ~8 km and the down-dip afterslip propagate onto the mid-crustal décollement level within the Pan-African basement. The Azgeleh, Tazehabad, Sarpol-e Zahab and Khanaqin faults mark the Lurestan Arc–Kirkuk Embayment sharp margin in the Northwest Zagros and play a key role in the lateral escape of the Lurestan Salient and vertical strain partitioning in the Zagros front.
    Description: Published
    Description: 112224
    Description: 2T. Deformazione crostale attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: We present a novel inverse method for discriminating regional deformation and long-term fault creep by inversion of GNSS velocities observed at the spatial scale of intraplate faults by exploiting the different spatial signatures of these two mechanisms. In doing so our method provides a refined estimate of the upper bound of the strain accumulation process. As case study, we apply this method to a six year GNSS campaign (2003–2008) set up in the southern portion of the Pollino Range over the Castrovillari and Pollino faults. We show that regional deformation alone cannot explain the observed deformation pattern and implies high geodetic strain rate, with a WSW-ENE extension of 86±41×10−9/yr. Allowing for the possibility of fault creep, the modelling of GNSS velocities is consistent with their uncertainties and they are mainly explained by a shallow creep over the Pollino fault, with a normal/strike-slip mechanism up to 5 mm/yr. The regional strain rate decrease by about 70 percent and is characterized by WNW-ESE extension of 24±28×10−9/yr. The large uncertainties affecting our estimate of regional strain rate do not allow infering whether the tectonic regime of the area is extensional or strike-slip, although the latter is slightly more likely
    Description: Published
    Description: 2921
    Description: 2T. Deformazione crostale attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: regional deformation ; fault creep ; GNSS velocities ; inverse theory ; 04. Solid Earth ; 04.03. Geodesy ; 04.07. Tectonophysics
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: In this paper, we study the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the postseismic deformation of the 2010–2011 Rigan earthquake sequence which occurred at the southern termination of the East Lut fault system, southeast Iran. One-year GPS measurements after the Rigan earthquake sequence reveals right-lateral postseismic displacement along the East Chahqanbar fault and left-lateral postseismic displacement along the South Chahqanbar fault. To investigate the deformation variations in time and space, InSAR time-series of COSMO-SkyMed images is applied using the Small Baseline Subset algorithm. The results confirm a clear cumulative postseismic signal increasing to 8 mm during the first five months following the first mainshock in the direction of the coseismic displacement. The cumulative postseismic displacements are well correlated with the cumulative number of the aftershocks and their associated moment release. Considering this correlation and the observation of a sharp discontinuity along the coseismic fault in the displacement map, it is concluded that the after-slip mechanism is responsible for the observed postseismic deformation in the study region. This study is the first observation of a short-term postseismic motion in eastern Iran through geodetic data in contrast with long-lasting postseismic displacements following the earthquakes that occurred around Lut block. Modeling of the postseismic displacement results in a distributed slip pattern with a maximum slip of 0.8 m on the fault plane responsible for the 2010 Rigan coseismic deformation. This indicates that the postseismic deformation on barriers remained unbroken during the mainshock.
    Description: Published
    Description: 228630
    Description: 2T. Deformazione crostale attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Rigan earthquake ; Postseismic deformation ; InSAR ; Lut block Southeastern Iran
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: La Palma is one of the youngest of the Canary Islands, and historically the most active. The recent activity and unrest in the archipelago, the moderate seismicity observed in 2017 and 2018 and the possibility of catastrophic landslides related to the Cumbre Vieja volcano have made it strongly advisable to ensure a realistic knowledge of the background surface deformation on the island. This will then allow any anomalous deformation related to potential volcanic unrest on the island to be detected by monitoring the surface deformation. We describe here the observation results obtained during the 2006–2010 period using geodetic techniques such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Advanced Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (A-DInSAR) and microgravimetry. These results show that, although there are no significant associated variations in gravity, there is a clear surface deformation that is spatially and temporally variable. Our results are discussed from the point of view of the unrest and its implications for the definition of an operational geodetic monitoring system for the island
    Description: This research was mainly funded by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades research project DEEP-MAPS, grant agreement number RTI2018-093874-B-I00. It was also partially supported by the CSIC project 201530E019 and the project GEOSIR, grant agreement AYA2010-17448 from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación.
    Description: Published
    Description: 2566
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: A-DInSAR ; GNSS ; gravimetry ; La Palma ; Canary Islands ; volcanic unrest ; 04. Solid Earth ; 04.03. Geodesy ; 04.02. Exploration geophysics
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0012821X20303897
    Description: Published
    Description: 116445
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 3D model ; multi-source ; elastic medium ; ground deformation ; 04. Solid Earth ; 04.08. Volcanology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Seismic and geodetic moment-rate comparisons can reveal regions with unexpected potential seismic hazards. We performed such a comparison for the Southeastern Iberia—Maghreb region. Located at the western Mediterranean border along the Eurasia–Nubia plate convergence, the region has been subject to a number of large earthquakes (M ≥ 6.5) in the last millennium. To this end, on the basis of available geological, tectonic, and seismological data, we divided the study area into twenty-five seismogenic source zones. Many of these seismogenic source zones, comprising the Western Betics, the Western Rif mountains, and the High, Middle, and Saharan Atlas, are characterized by seismic/geodetic ratio values lower than 23%, evidencing their prevailing aseismic behavior. Intermediate seismic/geodetic ratio values (between 35% and 60%) have been observed for some zones belonging to the Eastern Betics, the central Rif, and the Middle Atlas, indicating how crustal seismicity accounts only for a moderate fraction of the total deformation-rate budget. High seismic/geodetic ratio values (〉 95%) have been observed along the Tell Atlas, highlighting a fully seismic deformation.
    Description: The research performed in this study was partially supported by the Spanish CGL2015-65602-R, CGL2016-80687-R and RTI2018-093874-B-100 projects, and the Programa Operativo FEDER Andalucía 2014-2020 – call made by the University of Jaén 2018.
    Description: Published
    Description: 952
    Description: 2T. Deformazione crostale attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: earthquake catalogs ; seismic/aseismic behavior ; GNSS ; earthquake hazards ; Eurasia-Nubia plate ; 04. Solid Earth ; 04.03. Geodesy
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Volcanic emissions are a well-known hazard that can have serious impacts on local populations and aviation operations. Whereas several remote sensing observations detect high-intensity explosive eruptions, few studies focus on low intensity and long-lasting volcanic emissions. In this work, we have managed to fully characterize those events by analyzing the volcanic plume produced on the last day of the 2018 Christmas eruption at Mt. Etna, in Italy. We combined data from a visible calibrated camera, a multi-wavelength elastic/Raman Lidar system, from SEVIRI (EUMETSAT-MSG) and MODIS (NASA-Terra/Aqua) satellites and, for the first time, data from an automatic sun-photometer of the aerosol robotic network (AERONET). Results show that the volcanic plume height, ranging between 4.5 and 6 km at the source, decreased by about 0.5 km after 25 km. Moreover, the volcanic plume was detectable by the satellites up to a distance of about 400 km and contained very fine particles with a mean e ective radius of about 7 m. In some time intervals, volcanic ash mass concentration values were around the aviation safety thresholds of 2 10􀀀3 g m􀀀3. Of note, Lidar observations show two main stratifications of about 0.25 km, which were not observed at the volcanic source. The presence of the double stratification could have important implications on satellite retrievals, which usually consider only one plume layer. This work gives new details on the main features of volcanic plumes produced during low intensity and long-lasting volcanic plume emissions.
    Description: Published
    Description: 3866
    Description: 5V. Processi eruttivi e post-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 04.08. Volcanology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Rising magma, dike intrusions, and flank collapse are observed at many volcanoes worldwide, but how they interact is still poorly documented. Extensive synthetic aperture radar interferometry and continuous global positioning system observations captured a sharp dike intrusion at Mount Etna, Italy, during the 2018 paroxysm that triggered a vigorous seaward sliding of the eastern flank connected with brittle failure and deep magmatic resourcing. We propose a feedback process between flank acceleration and magma intrusion that derives from the interaction between the long- and short-term deformation of the volcano. The flank sliding acts as a valve that modulates the emplacement and eruption of magma within the shallow system. Rapid flank acceleration could potentially evolve into sudden collapses and seismic release at shallow depth. In turn, flank slip events could act as a sentinel for changes in magma depth and paroxysmal eruptions at Mount Etna.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1077–1082
    Description: 5V. Processi eruttivi e post-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Explosive basaltic eruptions eject a great amount of pyroclastic material into the atmosphere, forming columns rising to several kilometers above the eruptive vent and causing significant disruption to both proximal and distal communities. Here, we analyze data, collected by an X-band polarimetric weather radar and an L-band Doppler fixed-pointing radar, as well as by a thermal infrared (TIR) camera, in relation to lava fountain-fed tephra plumes at the Etna volcano in Italy. We clearly identify a jet, mainly composed of lapilli and bombs mixed with hot gas in the first portion of these volcanic plumes and here called the incandescent jet region (IJR). At Etna and due to the TIR camera configuration, the IJR typically corresponds to the region that saturates thermal images. We find that the IJR is correlated to a unique signature in polarimetric radar data as it represents a zone with a relatively high reflectivity and a low copolar correlation coe cient. Analyzing five recent Etna eruptions occurring in 2013 and 2015, we propose a jet region radar retrieval algorithm (JR3A), based on a decision-tree combining polarimetric X-band observables with L-band radar constraints, aiming at the IJR height detection during the explosive eruptions. The height of the IJR does not exactly correspond to the height of the lava fountain due to a di erent altitude, potentially reached by lapilli and blocks detected by the X-band weather radar. Nonetheless, it can be used as a proxy of the lava fountain height in order to obtain a first approximation of the exit velocity of the mixture and, therefore, of the mass eruption rate. The comparisons between the JR3A estimates of IJR heights with the corresponding values recovered from TIR imagery, show a fairly good agreement with di erences of less than 20% in clear air conditions, whereas the di erence between JR3A estimates of IJR height values and those derived from L-band radar data only are greater than 40%. The advantage of using an X-band polarimetric weather radar in an early warning system is that it provides information in all weather conditions. As a matter of fact, we show that JR3A retrievals can also be obtained in cloudy conditions when the TIR camera data cannot be processed.
    Description: Published
    Description: 3629
    Description: 5V. Processi eruttivi e post-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 04.08. Volcanology
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: On the morning of 24 December 2018, an eruptive event occurred at Etna, which was followed the next day by a strong sequence of shallow earthquakes. The eruptive episode lasted until 30 December, ranging from moderate strombolian to lava fountain activity coupled with vigorous ash/gas emissions and a lava flow e usion toward the eastern volcano flank of Valle del Bove. In this work, the data collected from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) instruments on board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite are used to characterize the Etna activity by estimating the proximal and distal eruption parameters in near real time. The inversion of data indicates the onset of eruption on 24 December at 11:15 UTC, a maximum Time Average Discharge Rate (TADR) of 8.3 m3/s, a cumulative lava volume emitted of 0.5 Mm3, and a Volcanic Plume Top Height (VPTH) that reached a maximum altitude of 8 km above sea level (asl). The volcanic cloud ash and SO2 result totally collocated, with an ash amount generally lower than SO2 except on 24 December during the climax phase. A total amount of about 100 and 35 kt of SO2 and ash respectively was emitted during the entire eruptive period, while the SO2 fluxes reached peaks of more than 600 kg/s, with a mean value of about 185 kg/s. The SEVIRI VPTH, ash/SO2 masses, and flux time series have been compared with the results obtained from the ground-based visible (VIS) cameras and FLux Automatic MEasurements (FLAME) networks, and the satellite images collected by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on board the Terra and Aqua- polar satellites. The analysis indicates good agreement between SEVIRI, VIS camera, and MODIS retrievals with VPTH, ash, and SO2 estimations all within measurement errors. The SEVIRI and FLAME SO2 flux retrievals show significant discrepancies due to the presence of volcanic ash and a gap of data on the FLAME network. The results obtained in this study show the ability of geostationary satellite systems to characterize eruptive events from the source to the atmosphere in near real time during the day and night, thus o ering a powerful tool to mitigate volcanic risk on both local population and airspace and to give insight on volcanic processes.
    Description: Published
    Description: 1336
    Description: 5V. Processi eruttivi e post-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 04.08. Volcanology
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: The 24–27 December 2018 flank eruption at Mount Etna (Southern Italy) has been investigated through a multidisciplinary approach in which olivine chemical zoning and diffusion chronometry data were integrated with models inferred by GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) measurements. Inspection of the olivine chemical zoning from core to rim allowed the identification of some dominant ways of transfer and interaction between magmas pertaining to different magmatic environments. Most of crystal cores are representative of crystallization at pressure of 290–230 and 160–120 MPa. Olivine rims suggest re‐equilibration at shallow pressure (≤30 MPa). Geodetic‐based models indicate pressurization of near‐vertical prolate spheroidal sources centered at ∼7.2 km below sea level (bsl) between 9 June 2017 and 28 June 2018 and later at ∼5.1 km bsl between 28 June 2018 and the eruption onset. Geodetic data also highlight a change in the inflation rate since late June 2018 and later around November 2018, which has been here related to both replenishment phases and magma uprising across the plumbing system. Timescales of magma replenishment are in agreement with prolonged recharge from deep levels upward to shallow environments started about 6 months before the eruption, with further replenishment involving the upper magmatic environments just 3–16 days before the eruption. At present, the eruptive activity at the volcano is primarily controlled by pressure imbalances affecting extensive sections of the plumbing system, with possibility to develop persistent eruptive activity at the summit versus flank eruptions depending on fortuitous interruptions of the steady magma recharge/discharge rate at shallow levels.
    Description: Università di Catania (University of Catania). Grant Numbers: Three Year Plan 2016‐18 project code 22722132140, Three Year Plan 2020‐22 project code 22722132140
    Description: Published
    Description: e2020GC009226
    Description: 2V. Struttura e sistema di alimentazione dei vulcani
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: plumbing system ; volcano geodesy ; inflation ; eruption ; 04. Solid Earth ; 04.03. Geodesy ; 04.08. Volcanology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: We provide a dataset of 3D coordinate time series of 37 continuous GNSS stations installed for stability monitoring purposes on onshore and offshore industrial settlements along a NW-SE-oriented and ~100-km-wide belt encompassing the eastern Italian coast and the Adriatic Sea. The dataset results from the analysis performed by using different geodetic software (Bernese, GAMIT/GLOBK and GIPSY) and consists of six raw position time series solutions, referred to IGb08 and IGS14 reference frames. Time series analyses and comparisons evidence that the different solutions are consistent between them, despite the use of different software, models, strategy processing and frame realizations. We observe that the offshore stations are subject to significant seasonal oscillations probably due to seasonal environmental loads, seasonal temperature-induced platform deformation and hydrostatic pressure variations. Many stations are characterized by non-linear time series, suggesting a complex interplay between regional (long-term tectonic stress) and local sources of deformation (e.g. reservoirs depletion, sediment compaction). Computed raw time series, logs files, phasor diagrams and time series comparison plots are distributed via PANGAEA ( https://www.pangaea.de ).
    Description: This research was financed by the Italian Economic Development Ministry in the”CLYPEA-Innovation Network for Future Energy” framework, “subsoil deformations” project.
    Description: Published
    Description: 373
    Description: 2T. Deformazione crostale attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: GNSS ; offshore platforms ; subsidence ; data processing ; oil/gas exploiting ; 04. Solid Earth ; 04.03. Geodesy
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: The Doldrums transform system offsets the Equatorial Mid Atlantic Ridge by ~630 km at 7–8° N. This transform system consists of four intra-transform spreading centers (ITRs) bounded by five transform faults. The northernmost ITR is linked to the MAR axis by a ~ 180 km-long transform. Here, during two R/V A. N. Strakhov expeditions (S06 and S09), mantle peridotites were dredged along the transverse and median ridge of the transform, across the western flank of the ITR valley. Residual harzburgites were mainly sampled along the northern Doldrums transform valley, whereas plagioclase-bearing peridotites showing evidence for melt-rock interaction characterize the ITR domain. Petrological and geochemical observations reinforced by geochemical modelling are used to define the behaviour of trace elements during melt extraction and melt-rock reaction in our rocks. Results suggest that residual peridotites derive from mantle rocks that have undergone a degree of partial melting up to 12%, with melting likely starting at the transition of garnet-spinel stability fields, whereas peridotites which suffered melt-rock reactions have been divided into two types: (i) pl-impregnated peridotites, formed by migration of melts at high porosity and high melt-rock ratio; and (ii) refertilized peridotites, generated at reduced porosity, when small fractions of the same percolating melt crystallized clinopyroxene and minor plagioclase. We suggest that the refertilizing agent was a melt highly depleted in incompatible trace elements, in turn produced by an ultra-depleted mantle source. This mantle experienced previous degrees of melt extraction at the ridge axis, before being transposed laterally along the transform where it melted a second time during the opening of the intra-transform spreading segment.
    Description: Published
    Description: 105698
    Description: 3A. Geofisica marina e osservazioni multiparametriche a fondo mare
    Description: 2TR. Ricostruzione e modellazione della struttura crostale
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: The geological and geophysical data acquired during cruise 45 of R/V Akademik Nikolaj Strakhov regarding the structure of the Doldrums megatransform system in the Central Atlantic are presented. Taking into account the data of the previous expeditions, the structure of this region is examined in detail. The bathymetric data confirm the complex morphology, consisting of five dextral transform faults, separated by four active intra-transform rift segments and indicates the variability of tectonic conditions in this region. The dredged rocks are represented by the entire spectrum from the mantle to the upper crustal varieties and, together with the detailed topographic data, make it possible to identify the origin of the key structures in the Doldrums megatransform system.
    Description: Published
    Description: 131–134
    Description: 3A. Geofisica marina e osservazioni multiparametriche a fondo mare
    Description: 2TR. Ricostruzione e modellazione della struttura crostale
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: We present here the first attempt to understand the fast dynamics of an active basaltic volcano, namely Mt. Etna using soil gas radon measured in some sites located in strategic places around the volcano. Data were measured continuously from July 2015 to February 2017 and the raw signals were treated in order to filter out all possible periodic components that are normally due to non-volcanic factors, applying a method that does not require acquisition of other parameters, which are not always available. The residual signals highlighted seven anomalous changes, with radon values reaching levels from 2 to 5 times higher than the normal background. In six out of seven cases, anomalies were almost contemporaneous in all or almost all of the sites, indicating a common source for the observed radon variations. The pattern of anomalies suggests a transient wave-like propagation in the space/time domain, compatible with pressure-induced displacement of the gas. The observed patterns are most probably caused by the rapid upward motion of gas-rich magma into the volcano conduits, as almost all anomalies precede or accompany major volcanic events. In some cases, an alternative explanation could be the strong and sudden strain releases through earthquakes swarms, with consequent variations in the permeability of rocks at a large scale, given the apparent correlation between those anomalies and intense seismicity.
    Description: Published
    Description: 106267
    Description: 4V. Processi pre-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 04.08. Volcanology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Monitoring of hydrothermal fluid emissions can provide detailed information about convective upwelling of geothermal fluids and their geochemical characteristics, as a function of tectonic stress or deeper gas input. In particular, at the Salinelle of Mt. Etna Geosite (Paternò and Belpasso, Eastern Sicily) natural emissions mainly consist of a fluid phase made of salty water, mud, gas and liquid hydrocarbons from an admixture of magmatic and hydrothermal gases. In this framework, our study mainly focused on the thermal and geochemical monitoring of hydrothermal fluids of the most active site, Salinelle dei Cappuccini. Nearby hydrothermal vents (Salinelle del Fiume; Salinelle di San Biagio), were also investigated. Analysis of the magnitude and frequency of seismic events all around Mt. Etna were conducted as well. Analysis of daily temperatures showed a constant trend: higher values (〉 35° C) within the first monitoring period, followed by a strong decrease (down to 9° C), and a new gradual increase over the following months. This trend seems to be linked to magmatic processes occurring at depth below Mt. Etna, and could lead to a modification of the geochemical and thermal characteristics of the fluids issuing at the mud-pools and gas vents of Salinelle. The higher the frequency of seismic events corresponding to higher daily energy released, the higher fluid temperatures observed. Understanding how these fluids blend and what is their relationship with Mt. Etna volcanism can be of great importance in forecasting new eruptive cycles in the case they precede changes in volcanic activity.
    Description: Published
    Description: GD670
    Description: 7A. Geofisica per il monitoraggio ambientale
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: Salinelle ; Mud volcanoes ; Mt. Etna ; Geothermal fluids ; Hydrothermal fluid emissions ; 04.02. Exploration geophysics ; 05.09. Miscellaneous
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Herein we provide information on the integrated geological, geophysical, sedimentological, paleoceanographic, hydrophysical and biological investigations in the Central Atlantic during the cruise 45 of the R/V “Akademik Nikolaj Strakhov” in October-November 2019. The preliminary scientific results are discussed.
    Description: Published
    Description: 424–426
    Description: 3A. Geofisica marina e osservazioni multiparametriche a fondo mare
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Radon (222Rn) activity in air was measured for about 6 months at the summit of Mt. Etna Central Crater (Sicily) by integrative radon dosimetry at two different heights above ground level (5 cm and 1 m). This technique for air radon monitoring proved operational in the harsh volcanic environment of Mt. Etna summit with a 94% recovery rate of dosimeters. In the southeast sector exposed to the main gas plume, mean radon activity in free air (height 1 m) is significantly higher than the local background and the ground level activity (height 5 cm). The results strongly suggest that the plume is enriched in radon by ≈550 Bq/m3, which has never been evidenced before. Radon activities also reflect soil degassing occurring in the proximity of the crater, with increased ground level activities in zones of enhanced soil fracturing and degassing. Radon measurements also revealed a hot spot in front of the Voragine vent with extraordinary high levels of air activities (26 kBq/m3 at ground level and 8 kBq/m3 in free air). The temporal variation of radon activity was investigated by replacing a few stations half way through the exposure period. The only significant increase was associated with the site located under the main gas plume and correlated with eruptive unrest within the crater. Finally, air radon levels higher than the recommended threshold of 300 Bq/m3 were detected in several zones on the rim and could generate a nonnegligible radiologic dose for workers on the volcano.
    Description: Published
    Description: e2019JB019149
    Description: 3V. Proprietà chimico-fisiche dei magmi e dei prodotti vulcanici
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 04.08. Volcanology
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: The aerosol properties of Mount Etna's passive degassing plume and its short-term processes and radiative impact were studied in detail during the EPL-RADIO campaigns (summer 2016-2017), using a synergistic combination of observations and radiative transfer modelling. Summit observations show extremely high particulate matter concentrations. Using portable photometers, the first mapping of small-scale (within [Formula: see text] from the degassing craters) spatial variability of the average size and coarse-to-fine burden proportion of volcanic aerosols is obtained. A substantial variability of the plume properties is found at these spatial scales, revealing that processes (e.g. new particle formation and/or coarse aerosols sedimentation) are at play, which are not represented with current regional scale modelling and satellite observations. Statistically significant progressively smaller particles and decreasing coarse-to-fine particles burden proportion are found along plume dispersion. Vertical structures of typical passive degassing plumes are also obtained using observations from a fixed LiDAR station constrained with quasi-simultaneous photometric observations. These observations are used as input to radiative transfer calculations, to obtain the shortwave top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiative effect of the plume. For a plume with an ultraviolet aerosol optical depth of 0.12-0.14, daily average radiative forcings of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], at TOA and surface, are found at a fixed location [Formula: see text] downwind the degassing craters. This is the first available estimation in the literature of the local radiative impact of a passive degassing volcanic plume.
    Description: Published
    Description: 15224
    Description: 5V. Processi eruttivi e post-eruttivi
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: This work focuses on site response analyses in the Amatrice area (Central Italy), taking advantage of the 3A temporary seismic network, installed after the first shock (MW 6.0) of the 2016–2017 seismic sequence, and of a detailed site characterization. Classical empirical methods are applied on seismic signals to evaluate their capabilities to infer site response parameters. For about one-third of the stations, the H/V method fails in estimating the empirical SSR amplification function, as a consequence of the vertical amplification. Although the majority of sites belong to the EC8-B soil category, all the empirical methods show great variability in the site responses. For this reason, to find common features among the sites we perform a cluster analysis on SSR functions finding 5 clusters characterized by three site parameters: VS,30, f0 and Af0 (i.e microtremor H/V amplitude at f0). This result seems promising for site response estimation in Central Italy from velocity profiles and noise measurements.
    Description: Published
    Description: 106565
    Description: 5T. Sismologia, geofisica e geologia per l'ingegneria sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: We analyse the rupture properties of the May 20, 2012, MW 5.8, Po Plain (Northern Italy) earthquake by using two different modeling procedures based on the source time functions: a forward modeling and a global inversion Bayesian method. While the forward modeling allows to retrieve general information on the source characteristics, the global inversion allows to explore a substantially larger number of possible solutions, with more parameters, providing a quantitative estimate of the misfit. We invert for the spatial slip distribution and for the rupture velocity on a planar fault model. The unknown slip is given at the nodes of the subfaults (control points) and then given at the elementary subfaults through a bilinear interpolation. The number of control points is progressively increased to move from a high- to low-wavelength description of final slip on the fault plane. The optimal model parameter set is chosen according to the Akaike Information Criterion. The uncertainty on the slip distribution and rupture velocity has been estimated by a statistical analysis of the model ensemble and, in particular, through the weighted mean model and the standard deviation. We find that the most earthquake slip occurred in the regions located northeast and southwest of the hypocenter, consistent with the forward modeling. Moreover, we find a low rupture propagation velocity (0.4 compressional Mach number) similarly to what has been observed for the close 29 May, MW 5.6, and radiation efficiency suggesting that half of the strain energy was used to create new fracture.
    Description: Published
    Description: e2019JB019154
    Description: 3T. Sorgente sismica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Estimating the quantity of CO2 diffusively emitted from the Earth's surface has important implications for volcanic surveillance and global atmospheric CO2 budgets. However, the identification and quantification of non-hydrothermal contributions to CO2 release can be ambiguous. Here, we describe a multi-parametric approach employed at the Nisyros caldera, Aegean Arc, Greece, to assess the relative influence of deep and shallow gases released from the soil. In April 2019, we measured diffuse soil surface CO2 fluxes, together with their carbon isotope compositions, and at a depth of 80 cm, the CO2 concentration, soil temperature, and the activities of radon and thoron. The contributions of deep CO2 and biogenic CO2 fluxes were distinguished on the basis of their carbon isotope compositions. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA), performed on the measured parameters, effectively discriminates between a deep- and a shallow degassing component. The total CO2 output estimated from a relatively small testing area was two times higher with respect to that observed in a previous survey (October 2018). The difference is ascribed to variation in the soil biogenic CO2 production, that was high in April 2019 (a wet period) and low or absent in October 2018 (a dry period). Accounting for seasonal biogenic activity is therefore critical in monitoring and quantifying CO2 emissions in volcanic areas, because they can partially- or completely overwhelm the volcanic-hydrothermal signal.
    Description: Published
    Description: 13782
    Description: 6A. Geochimica per l'ambiente e geologia medica
    Description: JCR Journal
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: In this chapter, some scintillation models are described, taking into account of the dynamical nature of the Earth's ionosphere and its “complexity.” After a short description of the problem, a detailed explanation is provided about the propagation model named WAM, after its authors Wernik, Alfonsi, and Materassi. WAM is a propagation model based on a phase screen approach, where the statistical characteristics of the screen are constructed according to in situ data of ionospheric irregularities. Then, the Ground-Based Scintillation Climatology (GBSC) model is presented; this is a tool based on a wide statistical database from high performance receivers.
    Description: Published
    Description: 277-299
    Description: 2A. Fisica dell'alta atmosfera
    Keywords: 01.02. Ionosphere
    Repository Name: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Type: book chapter
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: The Equatorial portion of the Mid Atlantic Ridge is displaced by a series of large offset oceanic transforms, also called “megatransforms”. These transform domains are characterized by a wide zone of deformation that may include different conjugated fault systems and intra-transform spreading centers (ITRs). Among these megatransforms, the Doldrums system (7-8ºN) is arguably the less studied, although it may be considered the most magmatically active. New geophysical data and rock samples were recently collected during the 45th expedition of the R/V Akademik Nikolaj Strakhov. Preliminary cruise results allow to reconstruct the large-scale structure and the tectonic evolution of this poorly-known feature of the Equatorial Atlantic. Swath bathymetry data, coupled with extensive dredging, were collected along the entire megatransform domain, covering an area of approximately 29,000 km2. The new data clearly indicate that the Doldrums is an extremely complex transform system that includes 4 active ITRs bounded by 5 fracture zones. Although the axial depth decreases toward the central part of the system, recent volcanism is significantly more abundant in the central ITRs when compared to that of the peripheral ITRs. Our preliminary interpretation is that a region of intense mantle melting is located in the central part of the Doldrums system as consequence of either a general transtensive regime or the occurrence of a more fertile mantle domain. Large regions of basement exposure characterize the transform valleys and the ridge-transform intersections. We speculate that different mechanisms may be responsible for the exposure of basement rocks. These include the uplift of slivers of oceanic lithosphere by tectonic tilting (median and transverse ridges formation), the denudation of deformed gabbro and peridotite by detachment faulting at inner corner highs, and the exposure of deep-seated rocks at the footwall of high-angle normal faults at the intersection of mid-ocean ridges with transform valleys.
    Description: Published
    Description: 25-41
    Description: 3A. Geofisica marina e osservazioni multiparametriche a fondo mare
    Description: JCR Journal
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Based on multidisciplinary data, including seismological and geodetic observations, as well as seismic reflection profiles and gravity maps, we analysed the pattern of crustal deformation and active tectonics in the Sicily Channel, a key observation point to unravel the complex interaction between two major plates, Nubia and Eurasia, in the Mediterranean Sea. Our data highlight the presence of an active ~ 220-km-long complex lithospheric fault system (here named the Lampedusa-Sciacca Shear Zone), approximately oriented N-S, crossing the study area with left-lateral strike-slip deformations, active volcanism and high heat flow. We suggest that this shear zone represents the most active tectonic domain in the area, while the NW-SE elongated rifting pattern, considered the first order tectonic feature, appears currently inactive and sealed by undeformed recent (Lower Pleistocene?) deposits. Estimates of seismological and geodetic moment-rates, 6.58 × 1015 Nm/year and 7.24 × 1017 Nm/year, respectively, suggests that seismicity accounts only for ~ 0.9% of crustal deformation, while the anomalous thermal state and the low thickness of the crust would significantly inhibit frictional sliding in favour of creeping and aseismic deformation. We therefore conclude that a significant amount of the estimated crustal deformation-rate occurs aseismically, opening new scenarios for seismic risk assessments in the region.
    Description: Published
    Description: 21238
    Description: 2T. Deformazione crostale attiva
    Description: JCR Journal
    Keywords: 04. Solid Earth ; 04.02. Exploration geophysics ; 04.03. Geodesy ; 04.06. Seismology
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  • 51
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    Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Community-Led Local Development (CLLD) – in rural areas implemented as LEADER – is a well-established “territorial delivery mechanism”. The research topic of this contribution is to discuss the influence of different variables of the LEADER implementation on the performance of this place-based and participatory approach. The results are related to single variables of the LEADER implementation and their impact on LEADER performance.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; R19 ; LEADER ; rural development
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Fostering innovation-driven regional development has become a major priority for public policy. Thus innovation is a crucial issue in Rural Development Programmes (RDP) to overcome challenges like economic development and demographic change. One part of RDP funded by the European Union, which explicitly addresses innovation, is LEADER: a bottom-up-oriented, participatory approach which relies on cooperation between local actors in the sense of a Community-led local development (CLLD). Stakeholders of different institutions and origins come together in a Local Action Group (LAG) to decide on the projects to be financed. Previous research provides evidence that rural communities are innovative when they have the necessary space and power to act. There is, however, little knowledge about the factors, which are crucial for the power to act, and about the policy framework that provides the necessary space in CLLD-context. The aim of the paper is hence to identify factors, which influence the implementation of innovative projects. Our analysis builds on surveys among LAG-managers, LAG-members and beneficiaries in 115 LEADER areas in four federal states in Germany (Hesse, Lower-Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein). Since the explanatory is a dummy variable we used logit models for the analysis. Overall, 56% of the beneficiaries classified their own project as innovative. There are, however, large differences between the different federal states. Our econometric results suggest that origin of the project idea and the type of beneficiary significantly influence the likelihood of innovation. The expectation that heterogeneity fosters innovative ideas is not supported by our analyses.Fostering innovation-driven regional development has become a major priority for public policy. Thus innovation is a crucial issue in Rural Development Programmes (RDP) to overcome challenges like economic development and demographic change. One part of RDP funded by the European Union, which explicitly addresses innovation, is LEADER: a bottom-up-oriented, participatory approach which relies on cooperation between local actors in the sense of a Community-led local development (CLLD). Stakeholders of different institutions and origins come together in a Local Action Group (LAG) to decide on the projects to be financed. Previous research provides evidence that rural communities are innovative when they have the necessary space and power to act. There is, however, little knowledge about the factors, which are crucial for the power to act, and about the policy framework that provides the necessary space in CLLD-context. The aim of the paper is hence to identify factors, which influence the implementation of innovative projects. Our analysis builds on surveys among LAG-managers, LAG-members and beneficiaries in 115 LEADER areas in four federal states in Germany (Hesse, Lower-Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein). Since the explanatory is a dummy variable we used logit models for the analysis. Overall, 56% of the beneficiaries classified their own project as innovative. There are, however, large differences between the different federal states. Our econometric results suggest that origin of the project idea and the type of beneficiary significantly influence the likelihood of innovation. The expectation that heterogeneity fosters innovative ideas is not supported by our analyses.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; R1 ; Innovation ; Rural development ; LEADER ; evaluation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Dataset: GP15 Hg Underway Leg 1
    Description: Dissolved elemental mercury (Hg) concentrations from water samples collected by the ship’s underway system during Leg 1 (Seattle, WA to Hilo, HI) of the US GEOTRACES Pacific Meridional Transect (PMT) cruise (GP15, RR1814) on R/V Roger Revelle from September to October 2018. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/832395
    Description: NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) OCE-1736659
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Dataset
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  • 54
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    Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Dataset: GP16 Gallium dissolved
    Description: This dataset reports dissolved gallium (Ga) concentrations from samples collected on R/V Thomas G. Thompson cruise TN303 (GP16) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific in 2013 as part of the U.S. GEOTRACES EPZT project. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/756982
    Description: NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) OCE-1261214
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2021-01-07
    Description: Dataset: GP15 Hg Underway Leg 2
    Description: Dissolved elemental mercury (Hg) concentrations from water samples collected by the ship’s underway system during Leg 2 (Hilo, HI to Papeete, French Polynesia) of the US GEOTRACES Pacific Meridional Transect (PMT) cruise (GP15, RR1815) on R/V Roger Revelle from October to November 2018. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/832415
    Description: NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) OCE-1736659
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 56
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    Unknown
    Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Foundation | Kiel, Hamburg: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Publication Date: 2020-10-29
    Description: The Gnassingbé clan has ruled the country since 1967. The demand for political alternance, initiated by institutional and electoral reforms, constituted the major contentious issue between the government and the challengers of the Gnassingbé regime throughout the survey period. The legislative elections of 20 December 2018, boycotted by the major opposition parties, resulted in an easy victory of the ruling party. The first local elections since more than 30 years took finally place on 30 June 2019 and resulted in the victory of the ruling party. Shortly afterwards, in February 2020, the President won also the disputed presidential elections and even consolidated his power, assisted by the loyal army and security services. The outbreak of the Corona epidemic in Togo in April and the subsequent economic recession may have contributed to limit popular protest against the Gnassingbé regime. The human rights record of the government has improved but remains poor. Despite undeniable improvements to the framework and appearance of the regime's key institutions during the review period, democracy remains far from complete. However, the international community, notably Togo’s African peers, the AU and ECOWAS, followed a ‘laissez-faire’ approach in the interests of regional stability and their national interests in dealing with Togo. Economic growth remained stable at about 5% per annum (before Corona). Public investment in infrastructure and increases in agricultural productivity, notably of export crops, had been the key drivers of economic growth. However, growth remains vulnerable to external shocks and the climate and has not been inclusive. Positive growth was overshadowed by increasing inter-personal and regional inequality as well as an increase in extreme poverty. Moreover, money-laundering, illegal money transfers and trafficking grew alarmingly. The business climate improved considerably nevertheless.
    Description: Author's enhanced version
    Description: RÉSUMÉ: Le clan Gnassingbé dirige le pays depuis 1967. La revendication d'alternance politique, initiée par des réformes institutionnelles et électorales, a constitué le principal litige entre le gouvernement et les challengers du régime Gnassingbé tout au long de la période d'enquête. Les élections législatives du 20 décembre 2018, boycottées par les principaux partis d'opposition, se sont soldées par une victoire facile du parti au pouvoir. Les premières élections locales depuis plus de 30 ans ont finalement eu lieu le 30 juin 2019 et ont abouti à la victoire du parti au pouvoir. Peu de temps après, en février 2020, le président a remporté également les élections présidentielles contestées. Par cela il a même consolidé son pouvoir, aidé par l'armée fidèle et les services de sécurité. Le déclenchement de l'épidémie de Corona au Togo en avril 2020 et la récession économique qui a suivi, ont peut-être contribué à limiter les protestations populaires contre le régime de Gnassingbé. Le bilan du gouvernement en matière de droits humains s'est amélioré, mais reste médiocre. Malgré des améliorations indéniables du cadre et de l'apparence des principales institutions du régime pendant la période à l'examen, la démocratie reste loin d'être achevée. Cependant, la communauté internationale, notamment les pairs africains du Togo, l’UA et la CEDEAO, ont suivi une approche de «laissez-faire» dans l’intérêt de la stabilité régionale et de leurs intérêts nationaux face au Togo. La croissance économique est restée stable à environ 5 % par an (avant Corona). Les investissements publics dans les infrastructures et les augmentations de la productivité agricole, notamment des cultures d'exportation, ont été les principaux moteurs de la croissance économique. Cependant, la croissance reste vulnérable aux chocs externes et au climat, et le développement n'a pas été inclusive. La croissance positive a été éclipsée par l'augmentation des inégalités interpersonnelles et régionales ainsi que par une augmentation de l'extrême pauvreté. En outre, le blanchiment d’argent, les transferts d’argent illégaux et le trafic ont augmenté de façon alarmante. Le climat des affaires s'est néanmoins considérablement amélioré. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Der Gnassingbé-Clan regiert das Land seit 1967. Die Forderung nach politischer Abwechslung, die durch institutionelle Reformen und Wahlreformen ausgelöst wurde, war das Hauptstreitpunkt zwischen der Regierung und den Herausforderern des Gnassingbé-Regimes während des gesamten Untersuchungszeitraums. Die von den großen Oppositionsparteien boykottierten Parlamentswahlen vom 20. Dezember 2018 führten zu einem leichten Sieg der Regierungspartei. Die ersten Kommunalwahlen seit mehr als 30 Jahren fanden schließlich am 30. Juni 2019 statt und führten zum Sieg der Regierungspartei. Kurz darauf, im Februar 2020, gewann der Präsident auch die umstrittenen Präsidentschaftswahlen. Somit festigte er sogar seine Macht, unterstützt von der loyalen Armee und den Sicherheitsdiensten. Der Ausbruch der Corona-Epidemie in Togo im April und die anschließende wirtschaftliche Rezession haben möglicherweise dazu beigetragen, den Protest der Bevölkerung gegen das Gnassingbé-Regime zu begrenzen. Die Menschenrechtsbilanz der Regierung hat sich verbessert, ist aber weiterhin schlecht. Trotz unbestreitbarer Verbesserungen des Rahmens und des Erscheinungsbilds der wichtigsten Institutionen des Regimes im Berichtszeitraum bleibt die Demokratie bei weitem nicht umfassend. Die internationale Gemeinschaft, insbesondere die afrikanischen Kollegen Faure Gnassingbés in der AU und ECOWAS, verfolgten jedoch im Interesse der regionalen Stabilität und in ihren nationalen Interessen im Umgang mit Togo einen „Laissez-Faire“-Ansatz. Das Wirtschaftswachstum blieb stabil bei etwa 5% pro Jahr (vor Corona). Öffentliche Investitionen in die Infrastruktur und die Steigerung der landwirtschaftlichen Produktivität, insbesondere in Exportkulturen, waren die Haupttreiber des Wirtschaftswachstums. Das Wachstum bleibt jedoch anfällig für externe Schocks und das Klima und war nicht inklusiv. Das positive Wachstum wurde durch die zunehmende zwischenmenschliche und regionale Ungleichheit sowie die Zunahme der extremen Armut überschattet. Darüber hinaus nahmen Geldwäsche, illegale Geldtransfers und Menschenhandel alarmierend zu. Das Geschäftsklima hat sich dennoch erheblich verbessert.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; A14 ; F35 ; N97 ; O17 ; O55 ; Z13 ; Togo ; WAEMU ; ECOWAS ; West Africa ; African Studies ; Democratization ; Governance ; Fragile States ; Development ; ODA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Publication Date: 2020-11-20
    Description: Digitalisierung und Industrie 4.0 spielen im Rahmen der digitalen Vernetzung eine immer größere Rolle für den Maschinen- und Anlagenbau – und das sowohl als Anbieter als auch als Anwender digitaler Produkte. Digitale Geschäftsmodelle und neue Wettbewerber aus dem Bereich digitaler Plattformen stellen zunehmend Herausforderungen für die Maschinenbauunternehmen dar. Der Beitrag befasst sich mit den Digitalisierungsstrategien der Maschinenbauunternehmen ebenso wie mit dem Stand der Digitalisierung bei den Prozessen, Produkten und Geschäftsmodellen. Es werden Wirkungen der digitalen Transformation auf Beschäftigung untersucht sowie arbeits- und beschäftigungspolitische Herausforderungen in der Branche aus Sicht von Mitbestimmungsakteuren diskutiert. Daraus werden Gestaltungsfelder und strategische Orientierungen für die Mitbestimmungsträger erarbeitet.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Maschinenbau ; Digitalisierung ; Beschäftigung ; Mitbestimmung
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2020-11-24
    Description: This study analyses the effect of Kazakhstan’s 2003–2005 agricultural land reform on land rental and credit market participation. Although the reform declared an intention to facilitate efficient land allocation, we observe a major land concentration. We analyze whether new land relations stimulated land sales and rental markets and made credit more accessible. Utilizing data from two independent surveys before and after private land ownership was introduced, we demonstrate that the reform did not affect the land sales market but reorganized the land-rental market in a top-down fashion with the state remaining the principal landlord. The reform did not achieve the goal of providing access to land for the more skilled producers and did little to facilitate the use of owned land as collateral. The reform achievements are modest and bolder steps will be necessary to improve the functioning of Kazakhstan’s agricultural land markets.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; land rental market ; credit market ; land reforms ; allocative efficiency ; Kazakhstan
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2021-01-05
    Description: What is the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the 2020 U.S. presidential election? Guided by a pre-analysis plan, we estimate the effect of COVID- 19 cases and deaths on the change in county-level voting for Donald Trump between 2016 and 2020. To account for potential confounders, we include a large number of COVID-19-related controls as well as demographic and so- cioeconomic variables. Moreover, we instrument the numbers of cases and deaths with the share of workers employed in meat-processing factories to sharpen our identification strategy. We find that COVID-19 cases negatively affected Trump's vote share. The estimated effect appears strongest in ur- ban counties, in states without stay-at-home orders, in swing states, and in states that Trump won in 2016. A simple counterfactual analysis suggests that Trump would likely have won re-election if COVID-19 cases had been 5 percent lower. We also find some evidence that the COVID-19 incidence had a positive effect on voters' mobilization, helping Biden win the presidency.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; D72 ; I18 ; COVID-19 ; pandemic ; elections ; political behavior ; pre-analysis plan
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  • 60
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    Essen: Global Labor Organization (GLO)
    Publication Date: 2021-01-05
    Description: This paper studies whether research universities can boost regional economic development through an exogenous shock of a forced relocation of a research university in China. We analyze the development in the treated regions compared with a set of control regions that are created using the synthetic control method and find that research universities can have negative effects on local economic development. We then perform a series of robustness checks. Our main results carry through. By employing a more exogenous shock and more reliable identification strategies, our study provides evidence that research universities do not necessarily promote regional economic development.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; O15 ; O18 ; R11 ; Research Universities ; Regional Economic Development ; Synthetic Control Method
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2021-01-05
    Description: Employing nonparametric bounds, we examine the effect of military service on incarceration outcomes using the Vietnam draft lotteries as a possibly invalid instrumental variable for military service. The draft is allowed to have a direct effect on the outcomes independently of military service, disposing of the exclusion restriction. We find: (i) suggestive but not strong statistical evidence that the direct effect of the draft increases the incarceration rate for violent offenses for a particular cohort of draft avoiders, and (ii) military service increases the incarceration rate for violent and nonviolent crimes of white volunteers and veterans in certain birth cohorts.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; K4 ; C31 ; C36 ; Conscription ; Military Service ; Incarceration ; Crime ; Nonparametric Bounds
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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