Description / Table of Contents:
The cryosphere, that region of the world where water is temporarily or permanently frozen, plays a crucial role on our planet. Recent developments in remote sensing techniques, and the acquisition of new data sets, have resulted in significant advances in our understanding of all components of the cryosphere and its processes. This book, based on contributions from 40 leading experts, offers a comprehensive and authoritative overview of the methods, techniques and recent advances in applications of remote sensing of the cryosphere. Examples of the topics covered include: snow extent, depth, grain size and impurities; surface and subsurface melting; glaciers; accumulation over the Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets; ice thickness and velocities; gravimetric measurements from space; sea, lake and river ice; frozen ground and permafrost; fieldwork activities; recent and future cryosphere-oriented missions and experiments.
Type of Medium:
Monograph available for loan
408 S. : überw. farb. Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
The cryosphere science series
Table of Contents: List of contributors. - Cryosphere Science: Series Preface. - Preface. - Acknowledgments. - About the companion website. - 1 Remote sensing and the cryosphere. - 1.1 Introduction. - 1.2 Remote sensing. - 1.2.1 The electromagnetic spectrum and blackbody radiation. - 1.2.2 Passive systems. - 1.2.3 Active systems. - 1.3 The cryosphere. - References. - 2 Electromagnetic properties of components of the cryosphere. - 2.1 Electromagnetic properties of snow. - 2.1.1 Visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared. - 2.1.2 Microwave region. - 2.2 Electromagnetic properties of sea ice. - 2.2.1 Visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared. - 2.2.2 Microwave region. - 2.3 Electromagnetic properties of freshwater ice. - 2.4 Electromagnetic properties of glaciers and ice sheets. - 2.4.1 Visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared. - 2.4.2 Microwave region. - 2.5 Electromagnetic properties of frozen soil. - 2.5.1 Visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared. - 2.5.2 Microwave region. - References. - Acronyms. - Websites cited. - 3 Remote sensing of snow extent. - 3.1 lntroduction. - 3.2 Visible/near-infrared snow products. - 3.2.1 The normalized difference snow index (NDSI). - 3.3 Passive microwave products. - 3.4 Blended VNIR/PM products. - 3.5 Satellite snow extent as input to hydrological models. - 3.6 Concluding remarks. - Acknowledgments. - References. - Acronyms. - Websites cited. - 4 Remote sensing of snow albedo, grain size, and pollution from space. - 4.1 Introduction. - 4.2 Forward modeling. - 4.3 Local optical properties of a snow layer. - 4.4 Inverse problem. - 4.5 Pitfalls of retrievals. - 4.6 Conclusions. - Acknowledgments. - References. - Acronyms. - Websites cited. - 5 Remote sensing of snow depth and snow water equivalent. - 5.1 Introduction. - 5.2 Photogrammetry. - 5.3 LiDAR. - 5.4 Gamma radiation. - 5.5 Gravity data. - 5.6 Passive microwave data. - 5.7 Active microwave data. - 5.8 Conclusions. - References. - Acronyms. - Websites cited. - 6 Remote sensing of melting snow and ice. - 6.1 Introduction. - 6.2 General considerations on optical/thermal and microwave sensors and techniques for remote sensing of melting. - 6.2.1 Optical and thermal sensors. - 6.2.2 Microwave sensors. - 6.2.3 Electromagnetic properties of dry and wet snow. - 6.3 Remote sensing of melting over land. - 6.4 Remote sensing of melting over Greenland. - 6.4.1 Thermal infrared sensors. - 6.4.2 Microwave sensors. - 6.5 Remote sensing of melting over Antarctica. - 6.6 Conclusions. - References. - Acronyms. - 7 Remote sensing of glaciers. - 7.1 Introduction. - 7.2 Fundamentals. - 7.3 Satellite instruments for glacier research. - 7.4 Methods. - 7.4.1 Image classification for glacier mapping. - 7.4.2 Mapping debris-covered glaciers. - 7.4.3 Glacier mapping with SAR data. - 7.4.4 Assessing glacier changes. - 7.4.5 Area and length changes. - 7.4.6 Volumetrie glacier changes. - 7.4.7 Glacier velocity. - 7.5 Glaciers of the Greenland ice sheet. - 7.5.1 Surface elevation. - 7.5.2 Glacier extent. - 7.5.3 Glacier dynamics. - 7.6 Summary. - References. - Acronyms. - Websites cited. - 8 Remote sensing of accumulation over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. - 8.1 Introduction to accumulation. - 8.2 Spaceborne methods for determining accumulation over ice sheets. - 8.2.1 Microwave remote sensing. - 8.2.2 Other remote sensing techniques and combined methods. - 8.3 Airborne and ground-based measurements of accumulation. - 8.3.1 Ground-based. - 8.3.2 Airborne. - 8.4 Modeling of accumulation. - 8.5 The future for remote sensing of accumulation. - 8.6 Conclusions. - References. - Acronyms. - Website cited. - 9 Remote sensing of ice thickness and surface velocity. - 9.1 Introduction. - 9.1.1 Electrical properties of glacial ice. - 9.2 Radar principles. - 9.2.1 Radar sounder. - 9.2.2 Radar equation. - 9.3 Pulse compression. - 9.4 Antennas. - 9.5 Example results. - 9.6 SAR and array processing. - 9.7 SAR Interferometry. - 9. 7.1 Introduction. - 9.7.2 Basic theory. - 9.7.3 Practical considerations of InSAR systems. - 9.7.4 Application of InSAR to Cryosphere remote sensing. - 9.8 Conclusions. - References. - Acronyms. - 10 Gravimetry measurements from space. - 10.1 Introduction. - 10.2 Observing the Earth's gravity field with inter-satellite ranging. - 10.3 Surface mass variability from GRACE. - 10.4 Results. - 10.5 Conclusions. - References. - Acronyms. - 11 Remote sensing of sea ice. - 11.1 Introduction. - 11.2 Sea ice concentration and extent. - 11.2.1 Passive microwave radiometers. - 11.2.2 Active microwave - scatterometry and radar. - 11.2.3 Visible and infrared. - 11.2.4 Operational sea ice analyses. - 11.3 Sea ice drift. - 11.4 Sea ice thickness and age, and snow depth. - 11.4.1 Altimetric thickness estimates. - 11.4.2 Radiometric thickness estimates. - 11.4.3 Sea ice age estimates as a proxy for ice thickness. - 11.5 Sea ice melt onset and freeze-up, albedo, melt pond fraction and surface temperature. - 11.5.1 Melt onset and freeze-up. - 11.5.2 Sea ice albedo and melt pond fraction. - 11.5.3 Sea ice surface temperature. - 11.6 Summary, challenges and the road ahead. - References. - Acronyms. - Website cited. - 12 Remote sensing of lake and river ice. - 12.1 Introduction. - 12.2 Remote sensing of lake ice. - 12.2.1 Ice concentration, extent and phenology. - 12.2.2 Ice types. - 12.2.3 Ice thickness and snow on ice. - 12.2.4 Snow/ice surface temperature. - 12.2.5 Floating and grounded ice: the special case of shallow Arctic/sub-Arctic lakes. - 12.3 Remote sensing of river ice. - 12.3.1 Ice extent and phenology. - 12.3.2 lce types, ice jams and flooded areas. - 12.3.3 Ice thickness. - 12.3.4 Surface flow velocities. - 12.3.5 Incorporating SAR-derived ice information into a GIS-based system in support of river-flow modeling and flood forecasting. - 12.4 Conclusions and outlook. - Acknowledgments. - References. - Acronyms. - Websites cited. - 13 Remote sensing of permafrost and frozen ground. - 13.1 Permafrost - an essential climate variable of the "Global Climate Observing System". - 13.2 Mountain permafrost. - 13.2.1 Remote sensing of surface features and permafrost landforms. - 13.2.2 Generation of digital elevation models. - 13.2.3 Terrain elevation change and displacement. - 13.3 Lowland permafrost - identification and mapping of surface features. - 13.3.1 Land cover and vegetation. - 13.3.2 Permafrost landforms. - 13.3.3 Landforms and processes indicating permafrost degradation. - 13.4 Lowland permafrost - remote sensing of physical variables related to the thermal permafrost state. - 13.4.1 Land surface temperature through thermal remote sensing. - 13.4.2 Freeze-thaw state of the surface soil through microwave remote sensing. - 13.4.3 Permafrost mapping with airborne electromagnetic surveys. - 13.4.4 Regional surface deformation through radar interferometry. - 13.4.5 A gravimetric signal of permafrost thaw?. - 13.5 Outlook - remote sensing data and permafrost models. - References. - Acronyms. - 14 Field measurements for remote sensing of the cryosphere. - 14.1 Introduction. - 14.2 Physical properties of interest. - 14.2.1 Surface properties. - 14.2.2 Sub-surface properties. - 14.3 Standard techniques for direct measurements of physical properties. - 14.3.1 Topography. - 14.3.2 Snow depth. - 14.3.3 Snow water equivalent and density. - 14.3.4 Temperature. - 14.3.5 Stratigraphy. - 14.3.6 Sea ice depth and ice thickness. - 14.4 New techniques for high spatial resolution measurements. - 14.4.1 Topography. - 14.4.2 Surface properties. - 14.4.3 Sub-surface properties. - 14.5 Simulating airborne and spaceborne observations from the ground. - 14.5.1 Active microwave. - 14.5.2 Passive microwave. - 14.6 Sampling strategies for remote sensing field campaigns: concepts and examples. - 14.6.1 Ice sheet campaigns. - 14.6.2 Seasonal snow campaigns. - 14.6.3 Sea ice campaigns. - 14.7 Conclusions. - References. - Acronyms. - Websites cited. - 15 Remote sensing missions and the cryosphere. - 15.1 In
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