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  • Harlow, England : Pearson  (1)
  • Singapore : Imprint: Springer
  • [Erscheinungsort nicht ermittelbar]
  • Boulder, Colo. : National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • Bonn : Rheinwerk Verlag
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    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Harlow, England : Pearson
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: xxv, 810 Seiten , Illustrationen, Karten , 28 cm
    Edition: Fourth edition
    ISBN: 9781292083575
    Language: English
    Note: Preface to the fourth edition xv Contributors xvii Editor's acknowledgements xviii Acknowledgements xix Part I: The role of physical geography 1 1 Approaching physical geography 3 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Historical development of physical geography 5 1.2.1 Physical geography before 1800 5 1.2.2 Physical geography between 1800 and 1950 6 1.2.3 Physical geography since 1950 8 1.3 Scientific methods 10 1.3.1 The positivist method 10 1.3.2 Critique of the positivist method 11 1.3.3 Realism as an alternative positivist approach 12 1.3.4 Benefits of multiple scientific methods in physical geography 13 1.4 The field, the laboratory and the model 14 1.4.1 Approaching data collection from the environment 14 1.4.2 Approaching laboratory work 16 1.4.3 Approaching numerical modelling 16 1.5 Using physical geography for managing the environment 20 1.6 Summary 25 Further reading 26 Part II: Continents and oceans 27 2 Earth geology and tectonics 29 2.1 Introduction 29 2.2 The Earth's structure 30 2.2.1 The interior of the Earth 30 2.2.2 The outer layers of the Earth 30 2.3 Rock type and formation 31 2.3.1 Igneous rock 2.3.2 Sedimentary rock 31 2.3.3 Metamorphic rock 33 2.3.4 The rock cycle 33 2.4 History of plate tectonics 33 2.4.1 Early ideas of global tectonics 33 2.4.2 Evidence that led directly to plate tectonic theory 34 2.5 The theory of plate tectonics 37 2.5.1 Lithospheric plates 37 2.5.2 Rates of plate movement 38 2.6 Structural features related directly to motion of the plates 39 2.6.1 Divergent plate boundaries 39 2.6.2 Transform faults 41 2.6.3 Convergent plate boundaries 42 2.6.4 Hot spots 50 2.7 The history of the continents 51 2.8 Summary 52 Further reading 52 3 Oceans 53 3.1 Introduction 53 3.2 The ocean basins 54 3.2.1 The scale of the oceans 54 3.2.2 Geological structure of the ocean basins 54 3.2.3 The depth and shape of the ocean basins 55 3.3 Physical properties of the ocean 55 3.3.1 Salinity 55 3.3.2 Temperature structure of the oceans 59 3.4 Ocean circulation 60 3.4.1 Surface currents 60 3.4.2 The deep currents of the oceans 62 3.4.3 The weather of the ocean 64 3.5 Sediments in the ocean 65 3.6 Biological productivity 67 3.6.1 Photosynthesis in the ocean 67 3.6.2 Importance of nutrient supply to primary productivity 68 3.6.3 Animals of the sea 69 3.6.4 Pollution 73 3.7 Effect of global climate change on the oceans 74 3.8 Summary 75 Further reading 76 Part III: Past, present and future climate and weather 77 4 The Pleistocene 79 4.1 Introduction 79 4.2 Long-term cycles, astronomical forcing and feedback mechanisms 81 4.2.1 Orbital forcing theory 81 4.2.2 Evidence that orbital forcing causes climate change 82 4.2.3 Problems with orbital forcing theory 85 4.2.4 Internal feedback mechanisms 85 4.3 Short-term cycles 89 4.3.1 Glacial instability 89 4.3.2 The Younger Dryas 90 4.4 Further evidence for environmental change 91 4.4.1 Landforms 92 4.4.2 Plants 97 4.4.3 Insects 98 4.4.4 Other animal remains 99 4.5 Dating methods 100 4.5.1 Age estimation techniques 100 4.5.2 Age equivalent labels 101 4.5.3 Relative chronology 101 4.6 Pleistocene stratigraphy and correlation 101 4.7 Palaeodimate modelling 105 4.8 Summary 106 Further reading 107 5 The Holocene 108 5.1 Introduction 108 5.2 Holocene climatic change 109 5.2.1 How the Holocene began 109 5.2.2 Drivers of climate change during the Holocene 110 5.2.3 The Little Ice Age 116 5.3 Holocene geomorphological change 117 5.3.1 Retreating ice sheets 117 5.3.2 Rising seas 118 5.4 Holocene ecosystem change 120 5.4.1 Responses of ecosystems to the end of the last glacial 120 5.4.2 Tropical Africa and the Sahara 122 5.4.3 European ecosystems 5.4.4 Island ecosystems 124 5.5 The rise of civilizations 125 5.5.1 Humans at the end of the last glacial 125 5.5.2 The beginnings of agriculture 126 5.5.3 Social and environmental consequences of agriculture 127 5.6 Human interaction with physical geography 128 5.6.1 Out of Eden? 128 5.6.2 Deforestation 128 5.6.3 Soil erosion and impoverishment 132 5.6.4 Irrigation and drainage 133 5.7 Summary 135 Further reading 136 6 Atmospheric processes 137 6.1 Introduction 137 6.2 The basics of climate 139 6.3 The global atmospheric circulation 141 6.4 Radiative and energy systems 142 6.4.1 The nature of energy 142 6.4.2 Distinguishing between temperature and heat 144 6.4.3 Radiation 144 6.4.4 Thermal inertia 149 6.4.5 The atmospheric energy balance 150 6.5 Moisture circulation systems 150 6.5.1 Moisture in the atmosphere and the hydrological cycle 150 6.5.2 Global distribution of precipitation and evaporation 151 6.5.3 The influence of vegetation on evaporation 153 6.5.4 Drought 153 6.6 Motion in the atmosphere 154 6.6.1 Convective overturning 154 6.6.2 The Earth's rotation and the winds 155 6.6.3 Long waves. Planetary Waves and Rossby Waves 156 6.6.4 Jet streams 159 6.7 The influence of oceans and ice on atmospheric processes 161 6.8 The Walker circulation 163 6.8.1 El Niño Southern Oscillation 164 6.8.2 North Atlantic Oscillation 166 6.9 Interactions between radiation, atmospheric trace gases and clouds 167 6.9.1 The greenhouse effect 167 6.9.2 A simple climate model of the enhanced greenhouse effect 167 6.9.3 Radiative interactions with clouds and sulfate aerosols 6.10 Ceoengineering 173 6.11 Summary 174 Further reading 174 7 Contemporary climate change 175 7.1 Introduction 175 7.2 Climate change 176 7.2.1 Long-term change 176 7.2.2 Recent climate change and its causes 177 7.2.3 Predictions from global climate models (GCMs) 180 7.2.4 Critical evaluation of the state-of-the-art in GCMs 182 7.3 The carbon cycle: interaction with the climate system 184 7.4 Mitigation 186 7.5 Destruction of the ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) 187 7.6 The future 189 7.7 Summary 193 Further reading 194 8 Global climate and weather 195 8.1 Introduction 195 8.2 General controls of global climates 196 8.3 The tropics and subtropics 201 8.3.1 Equatorial regions 201 8.3.2 The Sahel and desert margins 209 8.3.3 Subtropical deserts 210 8.3.4 Humid subtropics 211 8.4 Mid and high-latitude climates 215 8.4.1 Depressions, fronts and anticyclones 215 8.4.2 Mid-latitude western continental margins 219 8.4.3 Mid-latitude east continental margins and continental interiors 220 8.5 Polar climates 221 8.6 A global overview 222 8.7 Summary 228 Further reading 228 9 Regional and local climates 229 9.1 Introduction 229 9.2 Altitude and topography 230 9.2.1 Pressure 233 9.2.2 Temperature 233 9.2.3 Wind 234 9.2.4 Precipitation 235 9.2.5 Frost hollows 240 9.3 Influence of water bodies 240 9.4 Human influences 242 9.4.1 Shelter belts 242 9.4.2 Urban climates 243 9.4.3 Atmospheric pollution and haze 9.5 Summary 248 Further reading 249 Part IV: Biogeography and ecology 251 10 The biosphere 253 10.1 Introduction 253 10.2 Biological concepts 254 10.2.1 What is a species? 254 10.2.2 The naming of species 254 10.2.3 Levels of organization 255 10.2.4 Biodiversity 255 10.3 Patterns of distribution 258 10.3.1 Potential species distributions 258 10.3.2 Actual species distributions 259 10.3.3 Spatial patterns in biodiversity 260 10.4 Terrestrial biomes 261 10.4.1 Equatorial and tropical forests 262 10.4.2 Savanna 265 10.4.3 Hot Desert 266 10.4.4 Mediterranean-type biome 266 10.4.5 Temperate grassland 268 10.4.6 Temperate broadleaf forest 268 10.4.7 Taiga 269 10.4.8 Tundra 270 10.5 Aquatic biomes 272 10.5.1 Marine regions 272 10.5.2 Freshwater regions 274 10.6 Summary 275 Further reading 276 11 Ecosystem processes 277 11.1 Introduction 277 11.2 The flow of energy and resources 278 11.2.1 Energy entering an ecosystem 278 11.2.2 Ecological thermodynamics 278 11.2.3 Trophic levels and food webs 279 11.2.4 Biogeochemical cycles 280 11.3 Biotic interactions 281 11.3.1 Mutualism 282 11.3.2 Herbivory, prédation and parasitism 282 11.3.3 Commensalism 283 11.3.4 Amensalism 284 11.3.5 Competition 284 11.4 Temporal change in ecosystems 285 11.4.1 Short-term changes 285 11.4.2 Disturbance and resilience 286 11.4.3 Succession 286 11.5 Human
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