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  • 1
    Call number: ZSP-201-80/20
    In: CRREL Report, 80-20
    Description / Table of Contents: Results of impulse radar studies of sea ice give support to the concept of a sea ice model in which the ice bottom is composed of an array of lossy parallel plate waveguides. The fundametal relation between the average bulk brine volume of sea ice and its electrical and strength properties is discussed as is the remote detection of under-ice current alignment. It was found that 1) the average effective bulk dielectric constant is dependent upon the average bulk brine volume of the sea ice; 2) sea ice anisotropy, arising from a bottom structure of crystal platelets with a preferred c-axis horizontal alignment, can be detected by radio echo sounding measurements made not only on the ice surface but also from an airborne platform; 3) the effective coefficient of reflection from the seaiIce bottom decreases with increasing average effective bulk dielectric constant of the ice, decreases with increasing bulk brine volume, and is typically one to two orders of magnitude lower dhan the coefficient of reflection from the ice surface; and 4) the losses In sea ice increase with increasing average bulk brine volume.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 18 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 80-24
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Field program Results and discussion Conclusions Literature cited Appendix: Data analysis procedures
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  • 2
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-80/18
    In: CRREL Report, 80-18
    Description / Table of Contents: The use of ice as a structural material is common practice for certain applications in cold regions. Techniques such as surface flooding or water spraying are used to accelerate ice growth rates, thereby lengthening the winter construction season. This report examines the heat and mass transfer rates from freely falling water drops in cold air. Design equations which predict the amount of supercooling of the drops as a function of outdoor ambient temperature, drop size and distance of fall are given
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 14 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 80-18
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Nomenclature Introduction Velocity problem Heat and mass transfer problem - A single drop Heat and mass transfer - A system of drops Literature cited Appendix A: FORTRAN IV program to calculate final drop temperature, air temperatureand humidity
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  • 3
    Call number: ZSP-201-80/19
    In: CRREL Report, 80-19
    Description / Table of Contents: During the period 1975-1978 the Federal Highway Administration sponsored a series of environmental engineering in­vestigations along the Yukon River to Prudhoe Bay Haul Road. In 1976 the Department of Energy joined these in­vestigations with a series of ecological projects which continue to the present. Both agencies research efforts were con­ducted on a cooperative basis with CRREL’s in-house research program. The objectives of the research focused on 1) an evaluation of the performance of the road, 2) an assessment of changes in the environment associated with the road, 3) documentation of flora and vegetation along the 577-km-long transect, 4) methodologies for revegetation and restoration, and 5) an assessment of biological parameters as indicators of environmental integrity. In support of these objectives, specific studies were undertaken that investigated the climate along the road, thaw and subsidence beneath and adjacent to the road, drainage and side slope performance, distribution and properties of road dust, vegetation distribution, vegetation disturbance and recovery, occurrence of weeds and weedy species, erosion and its control, revegetation and restoration, and construction of the fuel gas line. This report presents background, information on the region, detailed results of the road thaw subsidence and dust investigations, and summaries of revegetation, fuel gas line, vegetation distribution, soil, and weed studies.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: xv, 187 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 80-19
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Summary Introduction Chapter 1. The road and its environment Introduction General physiography Regional climate Surficial and bedrock geology Permafrost and ground ice General biota Vegetation Floristic survey Vegetation mapping Soils and mapping Chapter 2. Roadbed performance and associated investigations Roadbed investigations Roadbed performance Performance of drainage features Performance of sideslopes Conclusions from road, drainage and sideslope performance studies Fuel gas line construction Chapter 3. Distribution and properties of road dust along the northern portion of the Haul Road Introduction Methods Results of wind direction and velocity measurements Dust load and distribution Particle size analyses of dust Chemical composition properties of dust and related samples Soil cation composition Dust impacts on vegetation Discussion and conclusions Chapter 4. Revegetation and restoration investigations Introduction Revegetation approaches Alyeska erosion control and revegetation program Weeds and weedy plants Performance of revegetation Alyeska willow cutting program CRREL restoration experiments Conclusions Revegetation recommendations General report recommendations Literature cited Appendix A: General environmental guidelines applicable to subarctic and arctic road construction Appendix B: University-based studies along the Yukon River-Prudhoe Bay Haul Road Appendix C: CRREL maps of Haul Road showing locations of all study Sites Appendix D: Additional Haul Road cross-sectional profiles Appendix E: Clay mineralogy of road-related materials Appendix F: List of reports in the Joint State/Federal Fish and Wildlife Ad­visory Team series
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  • 4
    Call number: ZSP-201-80/16
    In: CRREL Report, 80-16
    Description / Table of Contents: Eight species of loricate choanoflagellates (Acanthoccidae), Acanthoecopsis spiculifera, Bicosta spinifera, Bicosta antennigera, Callicantha simplex, Calliacantha multispina aff., Crinolina aperta, Diaphanoeca multionnulata, and Parvicorbicula socialis, were observed in samples obtained from the Weddell Sea during the austral summer, 1977. D. multiannulata was described for the first time from these samples; the other organisms have either been described previously or are being described at this time. The distribution of most species within the Weddell Sea was widespread. The distributional, environmental, and morphological range of A. spiculifera, B. spinifera, C. aperta, and P. socialis was expanded. Habitats in which choanoflagellates were found included the water column, the edges of ice floes, ponds on ice floes, and the interiors of ice floes. The presence of choanoflagellates within the ice indicates that there may be a closely coupled trophic relationship with the other two biological components of the ice community, the ice algae and the bacteria. The presence in the ice of seven species with both a caudal appendage and anterior projections suggests a positive relationship between this lorica configuration and the ice habitat. Mechanisms of variance of transverse costal diameters between genera may be useful to the taxonomy and phylogeny of this family.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: vi, 26 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 80-16
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Introduction Literature review Objectives Materials and methods Results Observations Distribution and environmental tolerances Discussion Morphology Distribution Habitat Summary Conclusions Recommendations for future work Literature cited Appendix A Type descriptions of Acanthoecidae collected from the Weddell Sea
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  • 5
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-80/15
    In: CRREL Report, 80-15
    Description / Table of Contents: This report discusses the time constraints on measuring the thermal resistance (R-value) of building components. Temperature changes on either side of a building component perturb measurement accuracy. Long measurement times and measurement times corresponding to a consistent diurnal cycle can be satisfactory; however, individual temperature changes cause significant error for shorter measurement periods. This report shows how to scale the thermal properties of individual constituent materials in a building element to determine its characteristic thermal time constant. The report then demonstrates the size of measurement error resulting from a variety of changes in temperature with representative walls of different time constants.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iii, 30 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 80-15
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Conversion factors Introduction Field measurement and analysis of transient heat flow A closer look at handling the constraints Random change Step change Ramp change Application of theory Literature cited Appendix A. Percentage error from a step input Appendix B. Time constraints of sample walls Appendix C. Percentage error from a ramp input Appendix D. Percentage error from a sinusoidal input Appendix E. Percentage error programs for a Hewlett-Packard HP-25 calculator Appendix F. Experimental determination of time constants Appendix G. Derivation of time constant formula for multiple layers
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  • 6
    Call number: ZSP-201-80/17
    In: CRREL Report, 80-17
    Description / Table of Contents: Construction pads made of snow were used to build two sections of the Trans Alaska Pipeline and a small gas pipeline during the winter of 1975-76. Construction during the winter has become increasingly common in the Arctic. Surface travel and the use of heavy construction equipment on the unprotected tundra have been severely restricted, even during the winter, so the use of temporary winter roads and construction pads built of snow and ice has been advocated and is being adopted. The three snow construction pads mentioned above were the first snow roads and construction pads used on a large scale in Alaska. Snow roads and construction pads have two objectives: to protect the underlying vegetation and upper layers of the ground, and to provide a hard, smooth surface for travel and the operation of equipment. Several types have been built, and a brief discussion is given of their history and classification systems. The three snow construction pads used in construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and the small gas pipeline in 1975-76 were visited and observed while in use. The Globe Creek snow pad, about 50 miles north of Fairbanks, was built primarily of manufactured snow hauled to the site and watered. With very high densities this pad withstood heavy traffic and use by heavy construction equipment except on one steep slope. There, the use of tracked vehicles and vehicles without front wheel drive disaggregated the snow on and near the surface so that vehicles without front wheel drive were unable to climb the hill. The Toolik snow pad, just north of the Brooks Range, was built of compacted snow and proved capable of supporting the heaviest traffic and construction equipment. The fuel gasline snow pad ran from the northern Brooks Range to the Arctic Coast and also proved capable of supporting the necessary traffic. Both the Toolik snow pad and the fuel gasline snow pad failed in very early May because of unseasonably warm and clear weather before the associated construction projects were completed. However, the three snow pads must be considered successful. Common problems were the lack of snow, slopes, unseasonably warm spring weather, and inexperience on the part of contractors and construction personnel.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 28 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 80-17
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction History of snow and ice roads Classification of snow and ice roads Snow pads used by Alyeska during the winter of 1975-1976 The Globe Creek snow pad The Toolik snow pad The gasline snow pad Summary and conclusions Literature cited
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  • 7
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-80/13
    In: CRREL Report, 80-13
    Description / Table of Contents: Specimens prepared from various types of ice without introducing excessive defects were tested at temperatures ranging from -2° to -190°C. These tests indicated slightly higher Charpy values at lower temperatures and in more highly dispersed material concentrations. Three modes of fracture occurred during testing. Depending on the temperature and the material composition, either of the first two modes, normal fracture or multiple fracture, will appear and will show a normal frequency distribution of Charpy values in each type of ice. The third mode, fracture from both ends,which frequently occurred in the NH4F doped ice, gave Chaipy values two to five times higher than the mean value for normal fracture. It can, therefore, be concluded that certain types of doping can alter the mode of fracture, through which drastic modifications of impact resistance my be possible.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iii, 13 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 80-13
    Language: English
    Note: Contents Abstract Preface lntroduction Experimental Sample preparation Testing procedure Results General features Commercial Ice Notched commercial ice Sanded commercial ice Pure ice Single crystal ice Snow-ice Colloidal alumina-dispersed ice Colloidal silica.dispersed ice NH4F doped ice HF doped ice Discussion literature cited
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  • 8
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-80/27
    In: CRREL Report, 80-27
    Description / Table of Contents: No general, analytical solution exists for phase change around a cylinder, thus, approximate methods have been evaluated. The heat balance integral technique applied to the cylinder gave excellent results when compared to published numerical solutions. Graphical solutions are given for phase change about a cylinder for ranges of the Stefan number, superheat parameter, and property value ratios for typical soils. An approximate, general solution has been derived which is reasonably accurate and can be used for any values of the above-mentioned parameters. The effective thermal diffusivity method has been shown to be useful for practical problems of phase change.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 18 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 80-27
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Nomenclature Introduction Zero superheat Constant phase change rate Zero sensible heat Finite sensible heat Finite superheat Quasi-steady solution Heat balance integral solution Approximate methods Conclusions Literature cited
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  • 9
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-80/26
    In: CRREL Report, 80-26
    Description / Table of Contents: A vital concern to the survivability of hardened underground structures in rock is the relative displacement induced along geologic discontinuities by nearby explosions. Such displacement, commonly termed block motion, can occur along faults, joints, bedding planes and other structural weaknesses in rock. This report documents all occurrences of block motion observed during the development of DIHEST, a series of shallow-buried high explosive experiments designed to simulate the direct induced ground motions from a nuclear surface burst. Instances of block motion are described, along with pertinent details of the explosive arrays, geology and ground motion fields. The influence of these and other factors on the direction and magnitude of block motion is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: vi, 62 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 80-26
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Conversion factors Introduction STARMET Test description Test results PLANEWAVE II Test description Test results DATEX II Test description Test results HANDEC II Test description Test results ROCKTEST II Test description Test results Summary and discussion Literature cited
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  • 10
    Call number: ZSP-201-80/25
    In: CRREL Report, 80-25
    Description / Table of Contents: Two new types of load cells for attachment to bridge piers and direct measurement of ice forces were developed and tested with one type being installed on a pier of the Yukon River Bridge northwest of Fairbanks, Alaska. Both types of load cells used beams supported by base plates and carried nose plates that were loaded by the ice. The loads were imposed at the beams at locations differing from the support reactions so that the loads developed moments in the beams. By instrumenting them with strain gauges, the loads could be measured. Details of the design of the load cells, the means of calculating the loads and experience obtained with load cells are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iii, 17 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 80-25
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Preface Conversion factors Introduction Estimates and field measurements of ice forces on structures General Indirect estimates Direct measurements Small-scale and laboratory studies Instrumentation plan for measuring ice loads on the Yukon River Bridge Load cell development The single reaction beam system Performance of a single reaction beam load cell The double reation beam load cell Reaction beam design Stress in the beam Deflection Axial tensile stress in the reaction beam Measurement techniques Conclusions Literature cited Appendix A. Finding load magnitude and location with a single reaction beam device Appendix B. Finding load magnitude and location on a double reaction beam device
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