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    Call number: 9783319601878 (e-book)
    Description / Table of Contents: The purpose of this textbook is to enable a Neuroscientist to discuss the structure and functions of the brain at a level appropriate for students at many levels of study including undergraduate, graduate, dental or medical school level. It is truer in neurology than in any other system of medicine that a firm knowledge of basic science material, that is, the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nervous system, enables one to readily arrive at the diagnosis of where the disease process is located and to apply their knowledge at solving problems in clinical situations. The authors have a long experience in teaching neuroscience courses at the first or second year level to medical and dental students and to residents in which clinical information and clinical problem solving are integral to the course.
    Type of Medium: 12
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (xxi, 689 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    Edition: third edition
    ISBN: 9783319601878 , 978-3-319-60187-8
    Language: English
    Note: Contents Part I Introduction to the Central Nervous System 1 Introduction to the Central Nervous System 1.1 The Neuron 1.2 The Nervous System 1.2.1 Peripheral Nervous System (Fig. 1.3) 1.2.2 Central Nervous System Bibliography 2 Neurocytology: Cells of the CNS 2.1 The Neuron 2.1.1 Dendrites 2.1.2 Soma 2.1.3 Golgi Type I and II Neurons 2.1.4 Dendritic Spines (Fig. 2.2) 2.1.5 Nucleus 2.1.6 Neuronal Cytoskeleton 2.1.7 Microtubules and Axoplasmic Flow 2.1.8 Neurofibrillary Tangles 2.2 Synapse 2.2.1 Synaptic Structure 2.2.2 Synaptic Types 2.2.3 Synaptic Transmission 2.2.4 Neurotransmitters (Table 2.3) 2.2.5 Modulators of Neurotransmission 2.2.6 Synaptic Vesicles (Fig. 2.16) (Table 2.4) 2.2.7 Effectors and Receptors 2.3 Supporting Cells of the Central Nervous System 2.3.1 Astrocytes (Figs. 2.6 and 2.14; Table 2.7) 2.3.2 Oligodendrocytes (Fig. 2.9) 2.3.3 Endothelial Cells 2.3.4 Mononuclear Cells: Monocytes and Microglia 2.3.5 Ependymal Cells (Fig. 2.20) 2.3.6 Supporting Cells in the Peripheral Nervous System 2.4 Response of the Nervous System to Injury 2.4.1 Degeneration 2.5 Regeneration 2.5.1 Peripheral Nerve Regeneration 2.5.2 Regeneration in the Central Nervous System 2.5.3 Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain Stem 2.5.4 Nerve Growth Factors (NGF) 2.5.5 Glial Response to Injury 2.6 Blood–Brain Barrier 2.6.1 Blood–Brain Barrier (Fig. 2.24) 2.6.2 Extracellular Space Specific References 3 Neuroembryology and Congenital Malformations 3.1 Formation of the Central Nervous System 3.2 Histogenesis 3.2.1 Repair of Damaged Nervous System 3.2.2 Growth Cone Guidance 3.2.3 Programmed Cell Death (PCD): Apoptosis 3.2.4 Neuronal Death 3.2.5 Development of Blood Vessels in the Brain 3.2.6 Ventricular System 3.2.7 Formation of Peripheral Nervous System 3.2.8 Spinal Cord Differentiation 3.3 Brain Differentiation 3.3.1 Rhombencephalon (Hindbrain) 〉 Pons, Medulla, and Cerebellum 3.3.2 Mesencephalon 〉 Adult Midbrain 3.3.3 Prosencephalon 〉 Cerebral Hemispheres and Diencephalon 3.3.4 Diencephalon 3.3.5 Cranial Nerves 3.3.6 Telencephalon 3.3.7 Primary Sulci 3.3.8 Development of the Cerebral Cortex 3.4 Prenatal Development of the Cerebral Cortex 3.5 Changes in the Cortical Architecture as a Function of Postnatal Age 3.6 Abnormal Development 3.6.1 Malformations Resulting from Abnormalities in Growth and Migration with Incomplete Development of the Brain 3.6.2 Genetically Linked Migration Disorders 3.6.3 Environmentally Induced Migration Disorder: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 3.6.4 Malformations Resulting from Chromosomal Trisomy and Translocation 3.6.5 Malformations Resulting from Defective Fusion of Dorsal Structures 3.6.6 Malformations Characterized by Excessive Growth of Ectodermal and Mesodermal Tissue Affecting the Skin, Nervous System, and Other Tissues 3.6.7 Cutaneous Angiomatosis with Associated Malformations of the Central Nervous System 3.6.8 Malformations Resulting from Abnormalities in the Ventricular System Bibliography 4 Spinal Cord 4.1 Gross Anatomy 4.1.1 Spinal Cord: Structure and Function 4.1.2 Nerve Roots 4.1.3 Gray Matter 4.2 Interneurons 4.3 Central Pattern Generators 4.4 Segmental Function 4.4.1 Motor/Ventral Horn Cells 4.4.2 Sensory Receptors 4.4.3 Stretch Receptors 4.5 Nociception and Pain 4.5.1 Modulation of Pain Transmission 4.6 White Matter Tracts 4.6.1 Descending Tracts in the Spinal Cord 4.6.2 Ascending Tracts in the Spinal Cord 4.6.3 The Anterolateral Pathway 4.7 Upper and Lower Motor Neurons Lesions 4.7.1 Upper Motor Neuron Lesion (UMN) 4.7.2 Lower Motor Neuron Lesion 4.8 Illustrative Spinal Cord Case Histories 4.9 Illustrative Non-spinal Cord Cases with Involvement of Specific Peripheral Nerves: Case Histories 4.8–4.10 4.10 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Bibliography 5 Brain Stem: Gross Anatomy 5.1 Gross Anatomical Divisions 5.1.1 Sites of Transition 5.2 Relationship of Regions in the Brain to the Ventricular System: Fig. 5.2 5.3 Gross Anatomy of Brain Stem and Diencephalon 5.3.1 Anterior Surface of Gross Brain Stem: Fig. 5.3 5.3.2 Posterior Surface of Brain Stem and Diencephalon: Fig. 5.4 5.4 Arterial Blood Supply to the Brain Stem and Diencephalon (Fig. 5.5) 5.4.1 Medulla 5.4.2 Pons 5.4.3 Midbrain 5.4.4 Diencephalon Bibliography 6 Brain Stem Functional Localization 6.1 Introduction to the Brain Stem 6.2 Differences Between the Spinal Cord and Brain Stem 6.3 Functional Localization in Brain Stem Coronal Sections and an Atlas of the Brain Stem 6.3.1 Medulla 6.3.2 Pons-Blood Supply: Basilar Artery and Its Branches 6.3.3 Midbrain Blood Supply: Basila Arrteraynd Posterio Crerebral Arteries 6.4 Midbrain Tectum 6.5 Midbrain Tegmentum 6.6 Superior Colliculus 6.6.1 Midbrain Tegmentum 6.6.2 Blood Supply: Posterior Cerebral Arteries 6.7 Superior Colliculus Tectum 6.8 Superior Colliculus Tegmentum 6.8.1 Superior ColliculusVentricular Zone 6.9 Functional Centers in the Brain Stem 6.9.1 Reticular Formation 6.9.2 Respiration Centers 6.9.3 Cardiovascular Centers 6.9.4 Deglutition 6.9.5 Vomiting 6.9.6 Emetic Center 6.9.7 Coughing 6.9.8 Taste 6.10 Localiozation of Dysfunction in the Cranial Nerves Associated with the Eye (Table 6.8) 6.11 Localization of Disease Processes in the Brain Stem 6.11.1 Exercise to Identify the Tracts and Nuclei in the Brain Stem (Figs. 6.10–6.14) Bibliography 7 The Cranial Nerves 7.1 How the Cranial Nerves Got Their Numbers 7.2 Functional Organization of Cranial Nerves 7.3 The Individual Cranial Nerves 7.3.1 Cranial Nerve I, Olfactory (Fig. 7.4), Special Sensory/Special Visceral Afferent 7.3.2 Cranial Nerve II, Optic (Fig. 7.5), Special Somatic Sensory 7.3.3 Cranial Nerve III, Oculomotor (Fig. 7.6), Pure Motor (Somatic and Parasympathetic, Only III) 7.3.4 Cranial Nerve IV, Trochlear (Fig. 7.6), Pure Motor 7.3.5 Cranial Nerve VI, Abducens (Fig. 7.6), Pure Motor 7.3.6 Cranial Nerve V, Trigeminal (Fig. 7.7), Mixed Nerve (Sensory and Motor but No Parasympathetic) 7.3.7 Cranial Nerve VII, Facial (Fig. 7.8), Mixed Nerve (Sensory, Motor, Parasympathetic) 7.3.8 Cranial Nerve VIII, Vestibulocochlear (Fig. 7.9), Pure Special Somatic Sensory 7.4 Auditory Pathway 7.4.1 Cranial Nerve IX, Glossopharyngeal (Fig. 7.13), Mixed (Sensory, Motor, Parasympathetic): Nerve to Third Pharyngeal Arch 7.4.2 Cranial Nerve X, Vagus (Fig. 7.14), Mixed (Sensory, Motor, Parasympathetic), and Longest Cranial Nerve 7.4.3 Cranial Nerve XI, Spinal Accessory (Fig. 7.15), Pure Motor: Somatic and Visceral 7.4.4 Cranial Nerve XII, Hypoglossal (Fig. 7.16): Pure Motor Nerve 7.5 Cranial Nerve Dysfunction 7.6 Cranial Nerve Case Histories Bibliography 8 Diencephalon 8.1 Overview 8.2 Functional Organization of Thalamic Nuclei (Table 8.1) 8.2.1 Sensory and Motor Relay Nuclei: The Ventrobasal Complex and Lateral Nucleus 8.2.2 Limbic Nuclei: The Anterior, Medial, Lateral Dorsal, Midline, and Intralaminar Nuclei (Fig. 8.4) 8.2.3 Specific Associational: Polymodal/Somatic Nuclei, the Pulvinar Nuclei (Fig. 8.5) 8.2.4 Special Somatic Sensory Nuclei: Vision and Audition, the Lateral Geniculate and Medial Geniculate Nuclei of the Metathalamus (Fig. 8.5): The Special Somatic Sensory Cranial Nerves Are Cranial Nerves II and VIII 8.2.5 Nonspecific Associational 8.3 White Matter of the Diencephalon 8.4 Relationship Between the Thalamus and the Cerebral Cortex (Figs. 8.7 and 8.8) 8.5 Subthalamus (Fig. 8.3) 8.6 Thalamic Atlas Figs. 8.10, 8.11, and 8.12 8.7 Level: Midbrain, Diencephalic Junction (Fig. 8.10) 8.8 Level: Midthalamus (Fig. 8.11) 8.9 Level: Anterior Tubercle of Thalamus (Fig. 8.12) Bibliography 9 Hypothalamus, Neuroendocrine System, and Autonomic Nervous System 9.1 Hypothalamus 9.1.1 Hypothalamic Nuclei 9.1.2 Afferent Pathways 9.1.3 Efferent Pathways (Fig. 9.6) 9.1.4 Functional Stability 9.2 Neuroendocrine System, the Hypothalamus, and Its Relation to the Hypophysis 9.2.1 Hypophysis Cerebri 9.2.2 Hypothalamic–Hypophyseal Portal System 9.2.3 Hypophysiotrophic Area 9.2.4 Hormones Produced by Hypothalamus 9.2.5 Hormones Produced in Adenohypophysis (Fig. 9.12) 9.2.6 Case 9.1 9.2.7 Hypothalamus and the Autono
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