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  • Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory  (9)
  • Cambridge, Massachusetts : The MIT Press
  • London : The Geological Society
  • Potsdam
  • 1
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    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-202-109
    In: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 109
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary: The present paper contains a critical study of a number of foundation models suggested by various investigators, as well as a further development of some of the ideas involved. It is found that the model by Pasternak is the most natural extension of the Winkler foundation. It is also shown that the "non-solvability" of the problem of a finite bean or plate resting on a continuous foundation as posed by Wieghardt and further elaborated by Pflanz is not correct, and that problems of this type are solvable for any load distribution permissible in classical plate theory. The paper concludes with derivations of differential equations for plates resting on viscous and viscoelastic foundations, which may be used for solving problems involving compacted snow and permafrost bases.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 15 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 109
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Preface Summary Introduction The Hetényi foundation The Filonenko-Borodich foundation The Pasternak foundation Plates on a Pasternak foundation Visco-elastic Pasternak foundation Plates on visco-elastic foundations References Appendix A: Notation
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  • 2
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-202-108
    In: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 108
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary: The theory of snow densification is further developed on the basis of an exponential relation between viscosity and density. A linear relation between load-stress and strain rate is not valid for high stresses, and is replaced by a hyperbolic sine function. An empirical function is given for the temperature cycle correction. Two equations are derived for calculating depth-density curves with computers, and a simplified one for use with desk calculators. Instructions are given for determination of function parameters from field data. Four depth-density curves for Greenland and Antarctic locations are computed and graphed to show that the theory is useful.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 18, A3, B5 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 108
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Preface Summary Introduction Notation Stress analysis Analysis of densification process Non-Newtonian densification Equation for hyperbolic sine densification law Determination of parameters Discussion Glaciological engineering aspects References Appendix A: Example of calculation Appendix B: Snow density profiles
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  • 3
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-202-99
    In: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 99
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary: A study of how age hardening affects the various mechanical properties of processed snow was made. A description of how the age hardening process is affected by the variables of density, temperature, grain size, and shape is given. An empirical equation relating creep rate to stress, age, and density was obtained. The study also shows that the various mechanical properties are related to age by an exponential function.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 12 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 99
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Preface Summary Introduction Experimental facilities Experimental in-place measurements Density and homogeneity of processed snow Ram hardness Temperature measurements Mechanical properties Unconfined compressive strength Stress-strain relationships in unconfined compress ion Creep in unconfined compression Tensile strength Discussion of results References
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  • 4
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    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-202-101
    In: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 101
    Description / Table of Contents: Partial Summary: This paper is a pilot study of interrelations between structural features readily observed in horizontal thin sections of sea ice under low magnification. The core studied was 31.4 cm in length and was collected from Elson Lagoon at Point Barrow, Alaska on 26 October 1960.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 11 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 101
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Preface Summary Introduction Petrographic characteristics Intercrystalline features Intracrystalline features References
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  • 5
    Call number: ZSP-202-100
    In: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 100
    Description / Table of Contents: From the Summary: During the summer of 1960, observations were made of ground fog on the Greenland Ice Cap and of sea fog in the Thule area in northwestern Greenland. A microscope-stage-fog impactor was designed, and its collection efficiency determined both empirically and by computation from the theoretical work of Langmuir and Blodgett (1946). The empirical efficiency was found to be considerably greater than the theoretical efficiency.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 13 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 100
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Preface Summary Introduction Method Design and operation of the impactor Collection efficiency Computation from theoretical values of Langmuir and Blodgett Empirical values Observations and results Fog on the ice cap Sea fog near Thule Discussion Conclusions References
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  • 6
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    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-202-105
    In: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 105
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary: A principle of particle segregation by freezing is presented. It is demonstrated experimentally by using a transparent freezing cabinet in which a sample of distilled water freezes from the bottom upward. In this way the freezing front line travels vertically and the particles are carried against gravity. By using the same material with different shapes (glass beads and broken quartz or glass) it is demonstrated that an important factor in particle migration is the shape of the particle or its contact area with the interface. By testing other materials with different shapes and sizes, it is demonstrated that another important factor is particle size and rate of freezing. Fine particles migrate under a wide range of rates of freezing; coarser ones migrate at lower and more limited ranges of rates of freezing. It is suggested that, for determining frost behavior of soils in permafrost regions, freezing from the bottom upward is a more reliable test than freezing from the top down. Freezing from the bottom more closely approximates freezing of the active layer above permafrost; also, friction with the cylinder testing wall is eliminated. The implication of this principle in engineering and studies of soil genesis in cold regions is emphasized.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 8 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 105
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Preface Summary Introduction Experimental procedure Experimental results Conclusions and recommendations References
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  • 7
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    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
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    Call number: ZSP-202-103
    In: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 103
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary: The effect of air flow on the thermal conductivity of snow was investigated. Steady-state temperature measurements were made along the edge and axis of a cylindrical bed of snow to determine the effective axial thermal conductivity of snow. Unconsolidated snow samples were used, with densities ranging from 0.376 to 0.472 g/cm^3 and corresponding snow particle sizes of 0.065 to 0.219 cm nominal diameter; the mass flow rates employed ranged from approximately 10-40 x 10^-4g/cm^2 sec. Snow density and sample size apparently have opposite effects on the effective thermal conductivity because of the flow of fluid in snow. The test apparatus is described in detail and is illustrated. The results of the experiments are tabulated, and a least square equation is given which represents the results well.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 14, A2 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 103
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Preface Summary Introduction Theory Apparatus and experimental procedure Results and discussion References Appendix A: Sample calculations of a and ke
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  • 8
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    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-202-107
    In: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 107
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary: The formation of lake ice was studied during the winter of 1956-57 at Post Pond, Lyme, N. H. Tabular, columnar, granular, and crenulate textures of 36 blocks of ice observed are discussed in terms of relative growth velocity and shown in a classification chart. Ice structures are characterized by Forel striations, Tyndall figures, bubbles and strain shadows. Average crystal areas increased with ice thickness, the rate of increase being greater toward lake center, and ceased to enlarge when in a continuous bubble layer. The lake-ice sheet grew both from top and bottom, .downward growth resulting from crystals in a favorable vertical orientation of a-axes and upward growth coming about by water flowing on the original upper ice surface and freezing. Exception to this type of growth was found in the lake area which froze first, where individual crystal areas were larger at the surface and there was no upper surface ice accretion. Fabric diagrams of ice outside the anomolous area show a change of optic axis orientation from a high percentage of c-axes vertical near the surface to a high percentage horizontal at the bottom.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 22, A2, B1 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 107
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Preface Summary Description of the lake Cli rna te of the lake Methods of study Ice textures Crystal size Ice structures Crystal fabric studies Growth of an ice sheet References Appendix A: Weather data Appendix B: Sample data
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  • 9
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-202-106
    In: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 106
    Description / Table of Contents: From the Preface: This paper presents a method for determining the extent of heat transfer due to vapor transfer in snow with air flowing through it, which could be useful in connection with studies concerning the changes of physical and mechanical properties of a snow cover caused by temperature gradients and wind currents.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 8, A2, B2, C4 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 106
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Summary Introduction Theory Experimental apparatus apd procedures Results and discussion References Appendix A: Evaluation of d^2Ps/dx^2, dps/dx Appendix B: Sample calculations of β0, β, and De Appendix C: Experimental results and calculated data
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