Vancomycin is an effective but potentially nephrotoxic antibiotic commonly used for severe infections. Dosing guidelines for vancomycin in obese children and adolescents with or without renal impairment are currently lacking. This study describes the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in a large pediatric cohort with varying degrees of obesity and renal function to design practical dosing guidelines for this population. A multi-center retrospective population pharmacokinetic study was conducted using data from patients aged 1−18 years who received 〉1 dose of vancomycin and had ≥1 vancomycin concentration measured between January 2006 and December 2012. Besides pharmacokinetic data, age, gender, body weight, creatinine clearance (CLcr, bedside Schwartz equation), ward, race, and neutropenic status were collected. Population pharmacokinetic analysis and simulations were performed using NONMEM7.4. A total of 1892 patients (5524 samples) were included, with total body weight (TBW) ranging 6−188 kg (1344 normal weight, 247 overweight, and 301 obese patients) and CLcr down to 8.6 mL/min/1.73 m2. The two-compartment model, with clearance (CL) significantly increasing with TBW and CLcr, central and peripheral volume of distribution and inter-compartmental clearance increasing with TBW, performed well for all age, weight, and renal function ranges. A dosing guideline is proposed that integrates body weight and CLcr resulting in effective and safe exposures across all ages, body weight, and renal functions in the pediatric population. We have characterized the full pharmacokinetic profile of vancomycin in obese children and adolescents aged 1−18 years and propose a practical dosing guideline that integrates both body weight and renal function.
Chemistry and Pharmacology