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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Coral reefs in the central Red Sea are sparsely studied and in situ data on physico-chemical and key biotic variables that provide an important comparative baseline are missing. To address this gap, we simultaneously monitored three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient for an entire year over four seasons, collecting data on currents, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a, turbidity, inorganic nutrients, sedimentation, bacterial communities of reef water, and bacterial and algal composition of epilithic biofilms. Summer temperature (29–33°C) and salinity (39 PSU) exceeded average global maxima for coral reefs, whereas DO concentration was low (2–4 mg L-1). While temperature and salinity differences were most pronounced between seasons, DO, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and sedimentation varied most between reefs. Similarly, biotic communities were highly dynamic between reefs and seasons. Differences in bacterial biofilms were driven by four abundant families: Rhodobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Flammeovirgaceae, and Pseudanabaenaceae. In algal biofilms, green crusts, brown crusts, and crustose coralline algae were most abundant and accounted for most of the variability of the communities. Higher bacterial diversity of biofilms coincided with increased algal cover during spring and summer. By employing multivariate matching, we identified temperature, salinity, DO, and chlorophyll-a as the main contributing physico-chemical drivers of biotic community structures. These parameters are forecast to change most with the progression of ocean warming and increased nutrient input, which suggests an effect on the recruitment of Red Sea benthic communities as a result of climate change and anthropogenic influence. In conclusion, our study provides insight into coral reef functioning in the Red Sea and a comparative baseline to support coral reef studies in the region.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract An attempt was made to relate the early Zechstein facies distribution to the Zechstein substrate. Comparable developments in the Hessian Trough and along the Lower Rhine Embayment allow for the assumption that the creation of depocenters in the Weser/Ems area are governed by interrelated, late Saalic tectonic pulses. Due to differences in the architecture and mobility of the substrate, variations in the depositional model must be assumed. The area of interest is located approximately 50 km south of Bremen, near Sulingen. During the first cycle evaporite phase (A1) this area is characterized by a primary sabkha/ playa accumulation over a complexly faulted Lower Permian horst-graben structure. In the course of the second cycle carbonate phase (Ca2) sediment accumulation shifts generally basinwards within limits of well defined fault zones. These linear troughs are presumed to relate to splays of active strike-slip faults. The strongly tectonically overprinted morphology organizes the Stassfurt paleorelief into a platform to the south, and a complex internal sag/embayment as a transition to outer shoals further basinwards. Further to the north in continuation to the Rotliegend Basin a gradually subsiding basin is envisaged. It is suggested that the foundering areas are directly related to major Hercynian trending strike-slip lineaments.
    Abstract: Résumé Cette note propose de relier la distribution des facies du Zechstein au substratum du Zechstein. Une évolution comparable dans la dépression de Hesse et le long du Bas-Rhin permet de présumer que l'apparition de centres de sédimentation dans la région Weser-Ems a été déterminée par des impulsions tectoniques saaliennes tardives. En raison des différences dans l'architecture et la mobilité du substratum on doit s'attendre à des variations du modèle de dépôt. La région étudiée se trouve dans les environs de Scholen, près de la ville de Sulingen, située à quelque 50 km au sud de Brème. L'étude a montré que pour le premier cycle du Zechstein une accumulation primaire des évaporites (A1) de type sabkha-playa repose directement sur un substratum cassé par un système de failles formant des horsts et des grabens d'âge permien inférieur. Pendant la sédimentation des calcaires du second cycle (Ca2), des déformations tectoniques se sont localisées le long des zones de faiblesse, généralement en position plus interne (vers le nord) au bassin. Le paléorelief des calcaires de Stassfurt (Ca2) a été fortement influencé par le tectonique; il comporte une série de plate-formes au sud, séparées d'un bassin peu profond par des flexures complexes. La délineation de ce bassin interne est marquée par un système de baies et d'îlots. Plus au nord, dans les eaux plus profondes, s'est formé un bassin régional qui s'est affaisé lentement; cela c'est l'ancien bassin Permien méridional du Rotliegend. L'auteur propose de considérer les zones d'effondrement comme directement reliées aux blocs hercyniens.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Ein Versuch wurde unternommen, die Zechstein Faziesverteilung mit dem Zechstein Unterbau in Zusammenhang zu bringen. Vergleichbare strukturelle Entwicklungen in der Hessischen Senke wie am Niederrhein lassen vermuten, daß die Ausbildung von Ablagerungströgen im Weser/Emsgebiet durch dieselben, spät saalischen tektonischen Impulse gesteuert wurden. Durch eine differenzierte Architektur und Mobilität des Unterbaus dürfen unterschiedliche, jedoch prinzipiell verwandte, Ablagerungsmodelle in Betracht gezogen werden. Das hier besprochene Beispiel aus dem Scholengebiet bei Sulingen, welches ungefähr 50 km südlich von Bremen gelegen ist, zeigt während des Z1-Zyklus die Entwicklung von Sabkha-Playaablagerungen über einer vielfach gestörten frühpermischen Horst-Graben-Struktur. Während der Ca2 Ablagerung wird ein hauptsächlich beckenwärts angrenzendes Nachbargebiet entlang vorgezeichneten Schwächezonen destabilisiert, mit dem Resultat, daß eine deutlich begrenzte interne Senkung entsteht. Die hauptsächlich tektonisch geprägte Morphologie gliedert das Ca2 Paleorelief in einen Plattformgürtel im Süden. Als Übergang zum Becken hin darf eine interne Senke betrachtet werden, welche sich damals wohl als komplexes Buchtensystem zwischen der Plattform und den beckenwärtigen Untiefen und Inselketten entwickelt hatte. Beckenwärts von diesen Untiefen wird ein sich langsam absenkendes Großbecken postuliert, welches schon seit dem frühen Perm bekannt ist. Es wird vorgeschlagen, daß die untertauchenden Schollen einem vorwiegend herzynisch streichenden Blattverschiebungssystem zuzuordnen sind.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Adrenaline ; epinephrine ; phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase ; PNMT ; epinine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Adrenaline (A) is synthesized in the adrenal medullae by the enzyme phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT). After surgical removal of the adrenal medullae tissue A levels ranged from 22% of control in the heart to 125% of control in the liver. Use of a novel assay to measure tissue A formation revealed that many tissues can synthesize A using PNMT and another enzyme that N-methylates both noradrenaline and dopamine. These enzymes are non-neuronal, inducible and synthesize a major fraction of tissue and urine A.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Bovine insulin, proinsulin, and intermediate form were prepared by Sephadex gelfiltration and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Using a goat anti-insulin serum, the cross-reactions of proinsulin and intermediate form could be shown by immuno-precipitation. A method is described for the separation of proinsulin from insulin in agar gel. New compounds related to proinsulin or insulin were found in human insulin preparations by means of immunoelectrophoresis.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Insulin- und Glukagonsekretion sowie der Hormongehalt kultivierter Langerhans'scher Inseln der Wistarratte wurden nach Gabe von 2 mM Dibutyryl-cycl. AMP (DB-CAMP) in Gegenwart von 5 mM bzw. 15 mM Glukose bestimmt. DB-CAMP steigert sowohl die Sekretion als auch den Glukagongehalt der A-Zellen, während die B-Zellen bei unveränderter Speicherfähigkeit durch eine höhere Hormonabgabe gekennzeichnet sind. Die Insulinsekretion kultivierter Inseln, die 4–6 Tage bei 5 mM Glukose inkubiert wurden, konnte auch durch Erhöhung der Glukosekonzentration auf 15 mM gesteigert werden.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary It is suggested that insulin is capable of activating cerebral NaK-ATPase in a dose-dependent manner.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Antiserum was produced against beef insulin in male goats (goat anti-insulin-serum). It contains precipitating insulin antibodies; they were identified by immunelectrophoresis as a fraction ofγ-globulin.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Subcutaneous injection of exogenous insulin always results in a production of antibodies against insulin. But after a slowly increased dose of insulin (a daily end dose of 3.5–4.2 U/kg) insulin antibodies could not be found in the serum of 2 dogs. This failure of immunogenic action of insulin is discussed as an induction of immunotolerance by the modus of initial antigen application.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 7-day-cultured islets from pregnant Wistar rats released at 5.6 mM glucose significantly more insulin than islets from nonpregnant rats, whereas in vivo this heigthened glucose sensitivity is lost 48 h post partum.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Isolated islets from C57B1/6J mice exposed to 10 mmoles/1 glucose supplemented with 5 μg/ml glibenclamide for 48 h released significantly less insulin in the subsequent short-time incubation thanuntreated controls (without glibenclamide), whereas insulin biosynthesis was not suppressed by glibenclamide treatment.
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