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  • 1
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    In:  [Other] In: EGU General Assembly 2005, 24.-29.04, Vienna, Austria .
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    Cambridge University Press
    In:  Geological Magazine, 143 (3). pp. 257-268.
    Publication Date: 2019-01-22
    Description: Ocean island volcanoes frequently develop local rift zones associated with flank movement and flank collapses. The ocean island El Hierro grew by coalescence and collapse of three volcanic edifices, which are an elongated topographic ridge (the Southern Ridge) and two semi-circular volcanic cones (Ti˜nor volcano, El Golfo volcano). During edifice growth and volcano coalescence, eruption fissures nucleated into rift zones that developed a complex triangle pattern. In scaled analogue experimentswe could successfully reproduce the geometry of rift zones and unstable flanks as observed on El Hierro. The experimental results suggest that the rift configuration on El Hierro is the result of gravitational volcano spreading over deformable basal substrata, rather than of deep-seated magma updoming as thought previously. This paper elucidates the importance of the basal substratum and gravitational spreading, and the relationship to rifting and flank instability on El Hierro Island, and may help in understanding similar volcano architectures elsewhere.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-04-25
    Description: Abundant grabens transect the volcano Alba Patera. Their complex geometry and formation mechanisms are still poorly understood. Tectonic processes and magmatic intrusions are responsible for these long surface features. Cross-cutting relationships of the grabens show radial fractures that were formed during early stages and were progressively overprinted by concentric fractures on the mid and upper flanks of the volcano. Two modeling methods are used to understand the formation of the observed structures and to evaluate their implications for hidden subvolcanic processes. Surface deformation and fault arrangements predicted in finite element models are compared to the graben systems observed in Viking images. The orientation and position of the concentric grabens are found to be best reproduced by local crustal subsidence, superimposed on a regional NW-SE oriented extension with decreasing magnitude from south to north. In analogue sandbox models we also simulate surface structures of arrangements that almost perfectly mimic the observed lineaments on Alba Patera. Formation of the grabens spans a period on the order of a billion years, suggesting long-term geodynamic processes to be responsible for the subsidence of the central Alba Patera area. The progressive change toward higher concentricity is likely resultant from an increase in density in the crust by accumulation of intrusive material and cooling, thus causing subsidence of the region above this volcanic root.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-01-27
    Description: Many volcanic rift zones show dikes that are oriented oblique rather than parallel to the morphological ridge axis. We have evidence that gravitational spreading of volcanoes may adjust the orientation of ascending dikes within the crust and segment them into en-echelon arrays. This is exemplified by the Desertas Islands which are the surface expression of a 60 km long submarine ridge in southeastern Madeira Archipelago. The azimuth of the main dike swarm (average = 145°) deviates significantly from that of the morphological ridge (163°) defining an en-echelon type arrangement. We propose that this deviation results from the gravitational stress field of the overlapping volcanic edifices, reinforced by volcano spreading on weak substratum. We tested our thesis experimentally by mounting analogue sand piles onto a sand and viscous PDMS substratum. Gravitational spreading of this setup produced en-echelon fractures that clearly mimic the dike orientations observed, with a deviation of 10°–32° between the model’s ridge axis and that of the main fracture swarm. Using simple numerical models of segmented dike intrusion we found systematic changes of displacement vectors with depth and also with distance to the rift zone resulting in a complex displacement field. We propose that at depth beneath the Desertas Islands, magmas ascended along the ridge to produce the overall present-day morphology. Above the oceanic basement, gravitational stress and volcano spreading adjusted the principal stress axes’ orientations causing counterclockwise dike rotation of up to 40°. This effect limits the possible extent of lateral dike propagation at shallow levels and may have strong control on rift evolution and flank stability. The results highlight the importance of gravitational stress as a major, if not dominant factor in the evolution of volcanic rift zones.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
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    Star Publ. Comp.
    In:  In: The Yogyakarta Earthquake of May 27, 2006. , ed. by Karnawati, D., Pramumijoyo, S., Anderson, R. and Husein, S. Star Publ. Comp., Belmont, CA, pp. 2-1. ISBN 978-0-89863-304-7
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Book chapter , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    Elsevier
    In:  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 305 (3-4). pp. 445-455.
    Publication Date: 2017-03-06
    Description: Tharsis Tholus, a more than 3.9 Ga old composite shield volcano to the east of the major Tharsis Montes, has experienced a complex history of growth and destruction. On the basis of new high resolution images we analysed the morphology as well as the tectonic structures of the Tharsis Tholus volcano in detail. From morphological data, cross-cutting relations of the surface structures, and crater modelling ages we propose a chronostratigraphy for the volcano-tectonic history of Tharsis Tholus. The strongly faulted volcano reveals two large-scale landslide events followed by two subsequent shield re-growth phases between 3.8 and 1.7 Ga and two caldera collapses. Tharsis Tholus was also affected by regional extensional tectonics between 1.7 Ga and 0.4 Ga recorded by sub-parallel sets of NE trending graben structures. The steep and up to 5.4 km high landslide scarps on Tharsis Tholus suggest deep faulting of the edifice. In order to confirm this hypothesis we used analogue sand box models in which we demonstrated that gravitational flank movement on top of weak basal substrata may have produced the deformation structures as observed on Tharsis Tholus. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-03-29
    Description: Displacements and stress-field changes associated with earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides and human activity are often simulated using numerical models in an attempt to understand the underlying processes and their governing physics. The application of elastic dislocation theory to these problems, however, may be biased because of numerical instabilities in the calculations. Here, we present a new method that is free of artefact singularities and numerical instabilities in analytical solutions for triangular dislocations (TDs) in both full-space and half-space. We apply the method to both the displacement and the stress fields. The entire 3-D Euclidean space $\mathbb {R}^{3}$ is divided into two complementary subspaces, in the sense that in each one, a particular analytical formulation fulfils the requirements for the ideal, artefact-free solution for a TD. The primary advantage of the presented method is that the development of our solutions involves neither numerical approximations nor series expansion methods. As a result, the final outputs are independent of the scale of the input parameters, including the size and position of the dislocation as well as its corresponding slip vector components. Our solutions are therefore well suited for application at various scales in geoscience, physics and engineering. We validate the solutions through comparison to other well-known analytical methods and provide the MATLAB codes.
    Keywords: Geodynamics and Tectonics
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-12-13
    Description: During the 20th century, a series of devastating earthquakes occurred along the North Anatolian Fault. These generally propagated westwards, such that the main fault segment beneath the Marmara Sea appears as a seismic gap. For the nearby megacity Istanbul, rapid seismic hazard assessment is currently of great importance. A key issue is how a strong earthquake in the Marmara Sea can be characterized reliably and rapidly using the seismic network currently operating in this region. In order to investigate this issue, several scenario earthquakes on the main Marmara fault are simulated through dynamic modelling based on a 3-D structure model. The synthetic datasets are then used to reconstruct the source processes of the causal events with a recently developed iterative deconvolution and stacking method based on simplified 1-D Earth structure models. The results indicate that, by using certain a priori information about the fault geometry and focal mechanism, the tempo-spatial slip patterns of the input scenarios can be well resolved. If reasonable uncertainties are considered for the a priori information, the key source parameters, such as moment magnitude, fault size and slip centroid, can still be estimated reliably, while the detailed tempo-spatial rupture pattern may reveal significant variations. To reduce the effect induced by employing the inaccurate event location and focal mechanism, a new approach for absolute source imaging is proposed and tested. We also investigate the performance of the new source imaging tool for near real-time source inversion under the current network configuration in the Marmara Sea region. The results obtained are meaningful particularly for developing the rapid earthquake response system for the megacity Istanbul.
    Keywords: Seismology
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2005-04-01
    Description: The relationship between rift zones and flank instability in ocean island volcanoes is often inferred but rarely documented. Our field data, aerial image analysis, and 40Ar/39Ar chronology from Anaga basaltic shield volcano on Tenerife, Canary Islands, support a rift zone—flank instability relationship. A single rift zone dominated the early stage of the Anaga edifice (~6–4.5 Ma). Destabilization of the northern sector led to partial seaward collapse at about ~4.5 Ma, resulting in a giant landslide. The remnant highly fractured northern flank is part of the destabilized sector. A curved rift zone developed within and around this unstable sector between 4.5 and 3.5 Ma. Induced by the dilatation of the curved rift, a further rift-arm developed to the south, generating a three-armed rift system. This evolutionary sequence is supported by elastic dislocation models that illustrate how a curved rift zone accelerates flank instability on one side of a rift, and facilitates dike intrusions on the opposite side. Our study demonstrates a feedback relationship between flank instability and intrusive development, a scenario probably common in ocean island volcanoes. We therefore propose that ocean island rift zones represent geologically unsteady structures that migrate and reorganize in response to volcano flank instability. ©2004 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0258-8900
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0819
    Topics: Geosciences
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