On 27 February 2010 the Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake in Central Chile ruptured a seismic gap where significant strain had accumulated since 1835. Shortly after the mainshock a dense network of temporary seismic stations was installed along the whole rupture zone in order to capture the aftershock activity. Here, we present the aftershock distribution and first motion polarity focal mechanisms based on automatic detection algorithms and picking engines. By processing the seismic data between 15 March and 30 September 2010 from stations from IRIS, IPGP, GFZ and University of Liverpool we determined 20,205 hypocentres with magnitudes Mw between 1 and 5.5. Seismic activity occurs in six groups: 1.) Normal faulting outer rise events 2.) A shallow group of plate interface seismicity apparent at 25–35 km depth and 50–120 km distance to the trench with some variations between profiles. Along strike, the aftershocks occur largely within the zone of coseismic slip but extend ~ 50 km further north, and with predominantly shallowly dipping thrust mechanisms. Along dip, the events are either within the zone of coseismic slip, or downdip from it, depending on the coseismic slip model used. 3.) A third band of seismicity is observed further downdip at 40–50 km depth and further inland at 150–160 km trench perpendicular distance, with mostly shallow dipping (~ 28°) thrust focal mechanisms indicating rupture of the plate interface significantly downdip of the coseismic rupture, and presumably above the intersection of the continental Moho with the plate interface. 4.) A deep group of intermediate depth events between 80 and 120 km depth is present north of 36°S. Within the Maule segment, a large portion of events during the inter-seismic phase originated from this depth range. 5.) The magmatic arc exhibits a small amount of crustal seismicity but does not appear to show significantly enhanced activity after the Mw 8.8 Maule 2010 earthquake. 6.) Pronounced crustal aftershock activity with mainly normal faulting mechanisms is found in the region of Pichilemu (~ 34.5°S). These crustal events occur in a ~ 30 km wide region with sharp inclined boundaries and oriented oblique to the trench. The best-located events describe a plane dipping to the southwest, consistent with one of the focal planes of the large normal-faulting aftershock (Mw = 6.9) on 11 March 2010.