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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The Sumatran subduction zone exhibits strong seismic and tsunamogenic potential with the prominent examples of the 2004, 2005 and 2007 earthquakes. Here, we invert travel time data of local earthquakes for vp and vp/vs velocity models of the central Sumatran forearc. Data were acquired by an amphibious seismometer network consisting of 52 land stations and 10 ocean bottom seismometers located on a segment of the Sumatran subduction zone that had not ruptured in a great earthquake since 1797 but witnessed recent ruptures to the north in 2005 (Nias earthquake, Mw = 8.7) and to the south in 2007 (Bengkulu earthquake, Mw = 8.5). 2D and 3D vp velocity anomalies reveal the downgoing slab and the sedimentary basins. Although the seismicity pattern in the study area appears to be strongly influenced by the obliquely subducting Investigator Fracture Zone to at least 200 km depth, the 3D velocity model shows prevailing trench parallel structures at depths of the plate interface. The tomographic model suggests a thinned crust below the basin east of the forearc islands (Nias, Pulau Batu, Siberut) at ~ 180 km distance to the trench. Vp velocities beneath the magmatic arc and the Sumatran fault zone SFZ are around 5 km/s at 10 km depth and the vp/vs ratios in the uppermost 10 km are low, indicating the presence of felsic lithologies typical for continental crust. We find moderately elevated vp/vs values of 1.85 at ~ 150 km distance to the trench in the region of the Mentawai fault. Vp/vs ratios suggest absence of large scale alteration of the mantle wedge and might explain why the seismogenic plate interface (observed as a locked zone from geodetic data) extends below the continental forearc Moho in Sumatra. Reduced vp velocities beneath the forearc basin covering the region between Mentawai Islands and the Sumatra mainland possibly reflect a reduced thickness of the overriding crust.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    In:  [Poster] In: AGU Fall Meeting 2014, 15.-19.12.2014, San Francisco, USA .
    Publication Date: 2014-12-17
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-01-06
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-02-24
    Description: The combination of the Sunda megathrust and the (strike-slip) Sumatran Fault (SF) represents a type example of slip-partitioning. However, superimposed on the SF are geometrical irregularities that disrupt the local strain field. The largest such feature is in central Sumatra where the SF splits into two fault strands up to 35 km apart. A dense local network was installed along a 350 km section around this bifurcation, registering 1016 crustal events between April 2008 and February 2009. 528 of these events, with magnitudes between 1.1 and 6.0, were located using the double-difference relative location method. These relative hypocentre locations reveal several new features about the crustal structure of the SF. Northwest and southeast of the bifurcation, where the SF has only one fault strand, seismicity is strongly focused below the surface trace, indicating a vertical fault that is seismogenic to ∼15 km depth. By contrast intense seismicity is observed within the bifurcation, displaying streaks in plan and cross-section that indicate a complex system of faults bisecting the bifurcation. In combination with analysis of topography and focal mechanisms, we propose that the bifurcation is a strike-slip duplex system with complex faulting between the two main fault branches.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-03-06
    Description: Subduction zone earthquakes are known to create segmented patches of co-seismic rupture along-strike of a margin. Offshore Sumatra, repeated rupture occurred within segments bounded by permanent barriers, whose origin however is still not fully understood. In this study we image the structural variations across the rupture segment boundary between the Mw 9.1 December 26, 2004 and the Mw 8.6 March 28, 2005 Sumatra earthquakes. A set of collocated reflection and wide-angle seismic profiles are available on both sides of the segment boundary, located offshore Simeulue Island. We present the results of the seismic tomography modeling of wide-angle ocean bottom data, enhanced with MCS data and gravity modeling for the southern 2005 segment of the margin and compare it to the published model for the 2004 northern segment. Our study reveals principal differences in the structure of the subduction system north and south of the segment boundary, attributed to the subduction of 96°E fracture zone. The key differences include a change in the crustal thickness of the oceanic plate, a decrease in the amount of sediment in the trench as well as variations in the morphology and volume of the accretionary prism. These differences suggest that the 96°E fracture zone acts as an efficient barrier in the trench parallel sediment transport, as well as a divider between oceanic crustal blocks of different structure. The variability of seismic behavior is caused by the distinct changes in the morphology of the subduction complex across the boundary related to the difference in the sediment supply.
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  • 6
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    AGU / Wiley
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 118 (10). pp. 5372-5390.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Description: An important tool for understanding deformation occurring within a subduction zone is the measurement of seismic anisotropy through observations of shear wave splitting (SWS). In Sumatra, two temporary seismic networks were deployed between December 2007 and February 2009, covering the fore arc between the fore-arc islands to the back arc. We use SKS and local SWS measurements to determine the type, amount, and location of anisotropy. Local SWS measurements from the fore-arc islands exhibit trench-parallel fast directions which can be attributed to shape preferred orientation of cracks/fractures in the overriding sediments. In the Sumatran Fault region, the predominant fast direction is fault/trench parallel, while in the back-arc region it is trench perpendicular. The trench-perpendicular measurements exhibit a positive correlation between delay time and raypath length in the mantle wedge, while the fault-parallel measurements are similar to the fault-parallel fast directions observed for two crustal events at the Sumatran Fault. This suggests that there are two layers of anisotropy: one due to entrained flow within the mantle wedge and a second layer within the overriding crust due to the shear strain caused by the Sumatran Fault. SKS splitting results show a NNW-SSE fast direction with delay times of 0.8–3.0 s. The fast directions are approximately parallel to the absolute plate motion of the subducting Indo-Australian Plate. The small delay times exhibited by the local SWS (0.05–0.45 s), in combination with the large SKS delay times, suggest that the anisotropy generating the teleseismic SWS is dominated by entrained flow in the asthenosphere below the slab.
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  • 7
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    GeoForschungsZentrum
    In:  [Talk] In: Sonderkolloquium "Geotechnologien", GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, 09.-10.06.2005, Potsdam . Continental margins - earth's focal points of usage and hazard potential ; pp. 100-105 .
    Publication Date: 2012-07-06
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-06-20
    Description: The combination of the Sunda megathrust and the (strike-slip) Sumatran Fault (SF) represents a type example of slip-partitioning. However, superimposed on the SF are geometrical irregularities that disrupt the local strain field. The largest such feature is in central Sumatra where the SF splits into two fault strands up to 35 km apart. A dense local network was installed along a 350 km section around this bifurcation, registering 1016 crustal events between April 2008 and February 2009. 528 of these events, with magnitudes between 1.1 and 6.0, were located using the double-difference relative location method. These relative hypocentre locations reveal several new features about the crustal structure of the SF. Northwest and southeast of the bifurcation, where the SF has only one fault strand, seismicity is strongly focused below the surface trace, indicating a vertical fault that is seismogenic to ∼15 km depth. By contrast intense seismicity is observed within the bifurcation, displaying streaks in plan and cross-section that indicate a complex system of faults bisecting the bifurcation. In combination with analysis of topography and focal mechanisms, we propose that the bifurcation is a strike-slip duplex system with complex faulting between the two main fault branches.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: On 27 February 2010 the Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake in Central Chile ruptured a seismic gap where significant strain had accumulated since 1835. Shortly after the mainshock a dense network of temporary seismic stations was installed along the whole rupture zone in order to capture the aftershock activity. Here, we present the aftershock distribution and first motion polarity focal mechanisms based on automatic detection algorithms and picking engines. By processing the seismic data between 15 March and 30 September 2010 from stations from IRIS, IPGP, GFZ and University of Liverpool we determined 20,205 hypocentres with magnitudes Mw between 1 and 5.5. Seismic activity occurs in six groups: 1.) Normal faulting outer rise events 2.) A shallow group of plate interface seismicity apparent at 25–35 km depth and 50–120 km distance to the trench with some variations between profiles. Along strike, the aftershocks occur largely within the zone of coseismic slip but extend ~ 50 km further north, and with predominantly shallowly dipping thrust mechanisms. Along dip, the events are either within the zone of coseismic slip, or downdip from it, depending on the coseismic slip model used. 3.) A third band of seismicity is observed further downdip at 40–50 km depth and further inland at 150–160 km trench perpendicular distance, with mostly shallow dipping (~ 28°) thrust focal mechanisms indicating rupture of the plate interface significantly downdip of the coseismic rupture, and presumably above the intersection of the continental Moho with the plate interface. 4.) A deep group of intermediate depth events between 80 and 120 km depth is present north of 36°S. Within the Maule segment, a large portion of events during the inter-seismic phase originated from this depth range. 5.) The magmatic arc exhibits a small amount of crustal seismicity but does not appear to show significantly enhanced activity after the Mw 8.8 Maule 2010 earthquake. 6.) Pronounced crustal aftershock activity with mainly normal faulting mechanisms is found in the region of Pichilemu (~ 34.5°S). These crustal events occur in a ~ 30 km wide region with sharp inclined boundaries and oriented oblique to the trench. The best-located events describe a plane dipping to the southwest, consistent with one of the focal planes of the large normal-faulting aftershock (Mw = 6.9) on 11 March 2010.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
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