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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-06-16
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-11-07
    Description: Accurate quantification of the millennial-scale mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to global sea-level rise remain challenging because of sparse in situ observations in key regions. Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is the ongoing response of the solid Earth to ice and ocean load changes occurring since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~21 thousand years ago) and may be used to constrain the GrIS deglaciation history. We use data from the Greenland Global Positioning System network to directly measure GIA and estimate basin-wide mass changes since the LGM. Unpredicted, large GIA uplift rates of +12 mm/year are found in southeast Greenland. These rates are due to low upper mantle viscosity in the region, from when Greenland passed over the Iceland hot spot about 40 million years ago. This region of concentrated soft rheology has a profound influence on reconstructing the deglaciation history of Greenland. We reevaluate the evolution of the GrIS since LGM and obtain a loss of 1.5-m sea-level equivalent from the northwest and southeast. These same sectors are dominating modern mass loss. We suggest that the present destabilization of these marine-based sectors may increase sea level for centuries to come. Our new deglaciation history and GIA uplift estimates suggest that studies that use the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission to infer present-day changes in the GrIS may have erroneously corrected for GIA and underestimated the mass loss by about 20 gigatons/year.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2006-10-01
    Description: We present a spatial averaging method for Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity-field solutions based on the Wiener optimal filtering. The optimal filter is designed from the least-square minimization of the difference between the desired and filtered signals. It requires information about the power spectra of the desired gravitational signal and the contaminating noise, which is inferred from the average GRACE degree-power spectrum. We show that the signal decreases with increasing spherical harmonic degree j with approximately j−b, where b = 1.5 for GRACE data investigations. This is termed the Second Kaula rule of thumb for temporal variations of the Earth’s gravity field. The degree power of the noise increases, in the logarithmic scale, linearly with increasing j. The Wiener optimal filter obtained for the signal model with b = 1.5 closely corresponds to a Gaussian filter with a spatial half width of 4° (∼440 km). We find that the filtered GRACE gravity signal is relatively insensitive to the exponent b of the signal model, which indicates the robustness of Wiener optimal filtering. This is demonstrated using the GFZ-GRACE gravity-field solution for April 2004. ©2006 StudiaGeo s.r.o.
    Print ISSN: 0039-3169
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1626
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-03-01
    Description: In the last decade, satellite gravimetry has been revealed as a pioneering technique for mapping mass redistributions within the Earth system. This fact has allowed us to have an improved understanding of the dynamic processes that take place within and between the Earth’s various constituents. Results from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission have revolutionized Earth system research and have established the necessity for future satellite gravity missions. In 2010, a comprehensive team of European and Canadian scientists and industrial partners proposed the e.motion (Earth system mass transport mission) concept to the European Space Agency. The proposal is based on two tandem satellites in a pendulum orbit configuration at an altitude of about 370 km, carrying a laser interferometer inter-satellite ranging instrument and improved accelerometers. In this paper, we review and discuss a wide range of mass signals related to the global water cycle and to solid Earth deformations that were outlined in the e.motion proposal. The technological and mission challenges that need to be addressed in order to detect these signals are emphasized within the context of the scientific return. This analysis presents a broad perspective on the value and need for future satellite gravimetry missions. ©2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
    Print ISSN: 0169-3298
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-0956
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-11-07
    Description: In this study, a new method for computing the sensitivity of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) forward solution with respect to the Earth's mantle viscosity, the so-called the forward sensitivity method (FSM), and a method for computing the gradient of data misfit with respect to viscosity parameters, the so-called adjoint-state method (ASM), are presented. These advanced formal methods complement each other in the inverse modelling of GIA-related observations. When solving this inverse problem, the first step is to calculate the forward sensitivities by the FSM and use them to fix the model parameters that do not affect the forward model solution, as well as identifying and removing redundant parts of the inferred viscosity structure. Once the viscosity model is optimized in view of the forward sensitivities, the minimization of the data misfit with respect to the viscosity parameters can be carried out by a gradient technique which makes use of the ASM. The aim is this paper is to derive the FSM and ASM in the forms that are closely associated with the forward solver of GIA developed by Martinec. Since this method is based on a continuous form of the forward model equations, which are then discretized by spectral and finite elements, we first derive the continuous forms of the FSM and ASM and then discretize them by the spectral and finite elements used in the discretization of the forward model equations. The advantage of this approach is that all three methods (forward, FSM and ASM) have the same matrix of equations and use the same methodology for the implementation of the time evolution of stresses. The only difference between the forward method and the FSM and ASM is that the different numerical differencing schemes for the time evolution of the Maxwell and generalized Maxwell viscous stresses are applied in the respective methods. However, it requires only a little extra computational time for carrying out the FSM and ASM numerically. An straightforward approach to compute the gradient of the data misfit is the brute-force method, whereby the partial derivatives of the misfit with respect to model parameters are approximated by the centred difference of two forward model runs. Although the brute-force method is useful for computing the gradient of the data misfit with respect to a small number of model parameters, it becomes expensive for a viscosity model with a large number of parameters. The ASM offers an efficient alternative for computing the gradient of the misfit since the computational time of the ASM is independent of the number of viscosity parameters. The ASM is thus highly efficient for calculating the gradient of the misfit for models with large numbers of parameters. However, the forward-model solution for each time step must be stored, hence the memory demands scale linearly with the number of time steps. This is the main drawback of the ASM.
    Keywords: Geodynamics and Tectonics
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: Accurate quantification of the millennial-scale mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to global sea-level rise remain challenging because of sparse in situ observations in key regions. Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is the ongoing response of the solid Earth to ice and ocean load changes occurring since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~21 thousand years ago) and may be used to constrain the GrIS deglaciation history. We use data from the Greenland Global Positioning System network to directly measure GIA and estimate basin-wide mass changes since the LGM. Unpredicted, large GIA uplift rates of +12 mm/year are found in southeast Greenland. These rates are due to low upper mantle viscosity in the region, from when Greenland passed over the Iceland hot spot about 40 million years ago. This region of concentrated soft rheology has a profound influence on reconstructing the deglaciation history of Greenland. We reevaluate the evolution of the GrIS since LGM and obtain a loss of 1.5-m sea-level equivalent from the northwest and southeast. These same sectors are dominating modern mass loss. We suggest that the present destabilization of these marine-based sectors may increase sea level for centuries to come. Our new deglaciation history and GIA uplift estimates suggest that studies that use the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission to infer present-day changes in the GrIS may have erroneously corrected for GIA and underestimated the mass loss by about 20 gigatons/year.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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