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Monograph available for loan
Monograph available for loan
Cambridge [u.a.] : Cambridge Univ. Press
Call number: AWI Bio-89-0410
In: Studies in Polar research
Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
Pages: 303 S. : Abb., Diagr. ; 25 cm
ISBN: 0521328756
Series Statement: Studies in Polar research
Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Cambridge [u.a.] : Cambridge Univ. Press
    Call number: AWI G3-98-0301
    In: Studies in Polar research
    Description / Table of Contents: This translation of the classic Russian work on geocryology makes available for the first time in English a wide ranging and up-to-date review of permafrost science, unique in presenting the Russian viewpoint. This revealing account demonstrates how the field developed in the former USSR (largely in isolation from related studies elsewhere), and provides a fascinating insight into the extent of Russian scientific involvement and input. The fundamental physics of frozen ground, geotechnical procedures for construction problems, distribution of permafrost in terms of geological history, and planetary geocryology are all considered. This English edition brings the work to a larger readership, allowing the value of the knowledge and concepts developed to be realised more widely.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XXIII, 580 S.
    ISBN: 0521473349
    Series Statement: Studies in Polar research
    Uniform Title: Obscaja geokriologija
    Language: English
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 3
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Cambridge [u.a.] : Cambridge Univ. Press
    Call number: AWI G3-04-0106
    In: Studies in Polar research
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: X, 358 S.
    Edition: 1. publ.
    ISBN: 0521564069
    Series Statement: Studies in Polar research
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 4
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Cambridge [u.a.] : Cambridge Univ. Press
    Call number: AWI A11-94-0066a+b ; MOP 46729 / Mitte
    In: Studies in Polar research
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XVI, 328 S. : Ill., graph. Darst
    ISBN: 0521330009
    Series Statement: Studies in Polar research
    Branch Library: AWI Library
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 5
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Cambridge [u.a.] : Cambridge Univ. Press
    Call number: AWI Bio-92-0502
    In: Studies in Polar research
    Description / Table of Contents: Now available in paperback, this wide-ranging account of the life of the tundra provides a fascinating insight into the ways in which animals, plants and climate interact in an inhospitable environment. Although the tundra is not rich in species compared with habitats in the tropics or even in temperate regions, it is an area of great interest to ecologists, botanists and zoologists alike, as an excellent example of nature contending with extreme environmental stress. As a biogeographer and ecologist the author has used his first-hand experience of the Eurasian Sub-Arctic to present an overview of life on the tundra of the Soviet Northlands that has become a classic of ecological literature. The tradition of interdisciplinary studies is very strong among Soviet tundra scientists. The present work, which was the author's first to be translated into English, provides a broad view of the complexities of life in the Soviet Northlands and makes a strong plea for its protection. This important book is a valuable guide to the life of the tundra and will interest all those interested in the conservation of its flora and fauna.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XIII, 213 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
    Edition: 1. paperback ed.
    ISBN: 0521357543
    Series Statement: Studies in Polar research
    Uniform Title: Žizn' tundry
    Language: English
    Note: Contents: Translator's foreword. - Preface to English edition. - Abstract. - Map showing major place names. - 1 Introduction. - 2 What is the tundra?. - 3 Temperature and humidity in the tundra. - 4 The diversity of tundra landscapes. - 5 Snow and its role in the life of the tundra. - 6 Adaptation of living organisms to conditions in the tundra zone. - 7 Distribution of animals and plants. - 8 Interrelationships between organisms. - 9 Man and the tundra. - Bibliography. - Index. , Aus dem Russ. übers.
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  • 6
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Cambridge [u.a.] : Cambridge Univ. Press
    Call number: AWI E3-92-0498
    In: Studies in Polar research
    Description / Table of Contents: Antarctica has long provided scientists with a unique window for the observation of the natural world. Most recently, atmospheric and other studies have provided valuable indicators of the possible effects of humankind's activities on the global environment, promoting the continent to a key position in the study of natural global systems and our potential to affect them. This book is the first to describe the development of scientific activity in the Antarctic (as distinct from exploration) in all its aspects. Coverage spans three centuries, starting with Halley who laid the foundations of geophysics which was to be the principal driving force behind Antarctic science for most of its history. Although early researchers built up a picture of the main features of the Antarctic environment, the idea of science specific to the continent emerged only later. As the main disciplines of oceanography, earth sciences, the sciences of atmosphere and geospace, terrestrial biology, medicine, and conservation developed, the clear interactions between them within an Antarctic context led to the emergence of the holistic view of Antarctic science which we hold today. For anyone with an interest in the history, conservation or politics of this special part of the world, or in the history of the development of science, this book will provide a mine of information and will act as a rich source of reference for many years to come.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XXI, 483 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Edition: First published
    ISBN: 0521361133
    Series Statement: Studies in Polar research
    Language: English
    Note: Contents Foreword by the Rt. Hon. Margaret Thatcher, OM, PC, FRS Preface A note for the reader 1 Introduction Endnote 2 The science of the early explorations 2.1 The scientific and technological background 2.2 Edmond Halley 2.3 Terra Australis lncognita and the theoretical geographers 2.4 The voyages of James Cook 2.5 The voyage of Thaddeus Bellingshausen 2.6 Explorations by sealers 2. 7 William Scores by: pioneer polar scientist Endnotes 3 The national expeditions of 1828 to 1843 3.1 The scientific and social background 3.2 The United States exploring expedition 3.3 The French expedition 3.4 Geodesy and the visit of HMS Chanticleer to Deception Island 3.5 'The magnetic crusade' 3.6 The Antarctic voyage of HMS Erebus and HMS Terror 3.7 Comment on the mid-nineteenth century expeditions Endnotes 4 Averted interest and consolidation 4.1 The mid-nineteenth century view of Antarctica 4.2 Maury's campaign for an expedition south 4.3 The rise of oceanography and Challenger's incursion into Antarctic waters 4.4 Neumayer and the growth of German interest in the Antarctic 4.5 Weyprecht and the First International Polar Year 4.6 Reconnaissances by whalers 4.7 Growing interest among scientists 4.8 The voyages of the Belgica, Valdivia and Southern Cross 4.9 Naval tradition versus science: the Discovery expedition 4.10 The Gauss expedition 4.11 The Antarctica expedition 4.12 Scientific expeditions in the first quarter of the twentieth century 4.13 The coming-of-age of Antarctic science Endnotes 5 The modern period - logistics and materiel 5.1 The inter-related growth of science and technology 5.2 Development of organization: the polar institutes 5.3 The Byrd expeditions and the general introduction of technology 5.3.1 Ships 5.3.2 Electrical communication 5.3.3 Mechanized surface transport 5.3.4 Aircraft 5.3.5 Aerial photography 5.3.6 Laboratories 5.3.7 Techniques for living 5.4 Post-Second World War developments 5.5 Developments following the International Geophysical Year 5.6 Ships in the modern period 5.7 Building technology 5.8 The advent of satellites 5.9 The impact of equality of the sexes Endnotes 6 The modern period - the involvement with politics 6.1 The dependence of Antarctic science on public money 6.2 Regulating of whaling and Antarctic research 6.3 Nationalistic and imperialistic influences up to the Second World War 6.4 The Antarctic in the Second World War 6.5 The Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey 6.6 The assertion of American interest 6.7 The growing problems arising from territorial claims 6.8 The International Geophysical Year 6.9 The Antarctic Treaty 6.10 The Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research 6.11 National Antarctic research organizations and operations 6.12 Private expeditions 6.13 The politics of conservation 6.14 The problems of emergencies Endnotes 7 The sciences of the Antarctic seas 7.1 The scope of the chapter 7.2 Physical oceanography at the beginning of the twentieth century 7.3 Marine biology and biological oceanography in the early twentieth century 7.4 The inter-war period and the Discovery Investigations 7.5 The impact of the Second World War on oceanography 7.6 Marine biology in the immediate post-Second World War years 7.7 Physical oceanography in the modern period: the advent of remote sensing 7.8 Studies on sea-ice and icebergs 7.9 Biological oceanography: productivity and the pelagic ecosystem 7.10 BIOMASS 7.11 Inshore marine biology Endnotes 8 The earth sciences 8.1 The geological outlook at the beginning of the twentieth century 8.2 Geological reconnaissance 8.3 Geology during and after the IGY: the dry valleys 8.4 The continental drift theory and the tectonic structure of Antarctica 8.5 The ice-cap and the land underneath it 8.6 Glaciology 8.7 Climatic history and the records in ice-cores 8.8 Meteorites on the ice-sheet 8.9 Denudation processes 8.10 Soil 8.11 Physical limnology 8.12 The wider role of geologists in Antarctica Endnotes 9 The sciences of atmosphere and geospace 9.1 The atmospheric sciences at the end of the nineteenth century 9.2 Heroic age meteorology 2 9.3 Meteorology from 1920 until the IGY 9.4 Meteorology during IGY 9.5 Post-IGY meteorology 9.6 Atmospheric chemistry: ozone 9.7 Energy balance and modelling 9.8 The beginnings of study of the upper atmosphere 9.9 The concept of geospace 9.10 Ionospherics up to the IGY 9.11 Ionospherics during the IGY 9.12 Geospace research since the IGY 9.13 Cosmic ray studies and astronomy in the Antarctic Endnotes 10 Land-based biology 10.1 The natural history of the Antarctic 10.2 The development of Antarctic biology 10.3 The physiological ecology of plants 10.4 Invertebrate ecology and physiology 10.5 Microbiology 10.6 Limnology 10.7 Ornithology 10.8 Seal studies 10.9 Conclusions Endnotes 11 Man and the Antarctic environment 11.1 Heroic age medicine 11.2 Medical research before and during the IGY 11.3 Medical and psychological research after the IGY 11.4 The International Biomedical Expedition 11.5 Sledge dog physiology 11.6 Introduced organisms 11.7 Conservation Endnotes 12 Some concluding comments 12.1 The persistent features of Antarctic science 12.2 The contribution to science in general 12.3 Arctic and Antarctic 12.4 Internationalism 12.5 Antarctic science and politics 12.6 The effects ofbureaucracy on Antarctic science 12.7 Science and the humanist view of Antarctica Endnotes 13 Postscript Endnotes References Index
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  • 7
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press
    Call number: AWI G3-92-0286 ; AWI G3-18-76411
    In: Studies in Polar research
    Description / Table of Contents: This book describes the effects of cold climates on the surface of the earth. Using scientific principles, the authors describe the evolution of ground thermal conditions and the origin of natural features such as frost heave, solifluction, slope instabilities, patterned ground, pingos and ice wedges. The thermodynamic conditions accompanying the freezing of water in porous materials are examined and their fundamental role in the ice segregation and frost heave processes is demonstrated in a clear and simple manner. This book concentrates on the analysis of the causes and effects of frozen ground phenomena, rather than on the description of the natural features characteristic of freezing or thawing ground. Its scientific approach provides a basis for geotechnical analyses such as those essential to resource development.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XVI, 306 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Edition: First published 1989, Re-issued in this digitally printed version 2008
    ISBN: 0521424234
    Series Statement: Studies in polar research
    Language: English
    Note: Contents: Symbols. - Preface. - Acknowledgements. - 1 PERIGLACIAL CONDITIONS. - 1.1 The significance of freezing in soils and rocks. - 1.2 Freezing and thawing in porous materials. - 1.3 Climate and ground freezing. - 1.3.1 Permafrost. - 1.3.2 Ephemeral freezing. - 1.4 Characteristics of permafrost. - 1.5 Manifestations of freezing and thawing of the ground. - 2 MORPHOLOGY OF PERMAFROST AND SEASONALLY FROZEN GROUND. - 2.1 Frozen ground as a geological material. - 2.2 Ice in the ground. - 2.2.1 Excess ice. - 2.2.2 Frost-heave ice: segregation ice. - 2.2.3 Intrusive ice; ice wedge ice, and other forms. - 2.2.4 Ice of external origin: buried glacier, snow, lake and river ice; icings. - 2.2.5 Age of ice in permafrost. - 2.2.6 Distribution of ground ice. - 2.2.7 Submarine frozen ground. - 2.2.8 Micromorphology of freezing soils. - 2.2.9 Pedology and soil freezing. - 2.3 Gas hydrates (clathrates). - 2.4 World distribution of permafrost. - 2.4.1 Land permafrost. - 2.4.2 Submarine distribution. - 2.5 Seasonal freezing. - 3 CLIMATE AND FROZEN GROUND. - 3.1 Introduction. - 3.2 Seasonal frost and permafrost. - 3.3 Climate and permafrost distribution. - 3.4 The importance of microclimates. - 3.5 The surface energy balance. - 3.5.1 The nature of surface interactions. - 3.5.2 A buffer layer model. - 3.5.3 Effects of surface changes. - 3.6 Possible effects of climatic change. - 3.7 Summary. - 4 THE GROUND THERMAL REGIME. - 4.1 Introduction. - 4.2 Heat flow in the ground. - 4.2.1 The heat conduction equation. - 4.3 Thermal properties. - 4.3.1 Thermal conductivity. - 4.3.2 Heat capacity. - 4.3.3 Thermal diffusivity. - 4.4 Ground thermal conditions. - 4.4.1 Geothermal heat flow and permafrost thickness. - 4.4.2 Effects of climatic change. - 4.4.3 Seasonal temperature variations. - 4.5 Lateral variations in ground temperatures. - 4.5.1 Influence of water bodies. - 4.6 Summary. - 5 THE FORMS OF THE GROUND SURFACE 1: SLOPES AND SUBSIDENCES. - 5.1 Freezing and thawing and displacements of the ground. - 5.2 Instability of soil on slopes: overview. - 5.3 The mystery of solifluction. - 5.3.1 Origin of small movements. - 5.3.2 Creep in the frozen state. - 5.4 Rock glaciers. - 5.5 Effects of thawing: landslides and slumps. - 5.5.1 Loss of cohesive strength. - 5.5.2 Soil consolation and strength during thaw. - 5.5.3 Thermokarst. - 5.6 The extent and variety of movements on slopes. - 6 THE FORMS OF THE GROUND SURFACE 2: STRUCTURES AND MICROTOPOGRAPHY OF LEVEL GROUND. - 6.1 Surface characteristics. - 6.2 Features characterised by accumulation of ice. - 6.2.1 Pingos. - 6.2.2 Palsa. - 6.2.3 Hydrolaccoliths. - 6.3 Differential freeze-thaw effects. - 6.3.1 Uplift of stones. - 6.3.2 Soil hummocks. - 6.3.3 Earth circles. - 6.3.4 Stone polygons and rings. - 6.4 Thermal contraction and cracking. - 6.4.1 Soil and ice wedges. - 7 THERMODYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR OF FROZEN SOILS. - 7.1 Soil: A porous system. - 7.1.1 'Freezing points' and latent heat. - 7.1.2 Proportions of ice and water. - 7.1.3 Water contents and thermal properties. - 7.2 Energy status, or potential, of soil water. - 7.2.1 Freezing point depression, potential, and free energy. - 7.2.2 Potential of water in freezing soils. - 7.3 Pressure and temperature relations. - 7.4 Origin of frost heave and frost heave pressures. - 7.5 Permeability of frozen soils. - 7.6 Frost heave as a thermodynamic-rheologic process. - 8 HYDROLOGY OF FROZEN GROUND. - 8.1 Introduction. - 8.2 Surface hydrology. - 8.2.1 Bank stability in permafrost regions. - 8.3 Groundwater. - 8.3.1 Icings and frost blisters. - 8.3.2 Water supply. - 8.4 Hydrodynamics of frozen ground. - 8.4.1 Unfrozen water content. - 8.4.2 Gradients of water potential due to freezing temperatures. - 8.4.3 Moisture transfer mechanisms. - 8.4.4 Moisture transport in saturated soils. - 8.4.5 Moisture transport in unsaturated soils. - 8.5 Ice segregation and frost heaving. - 8.5.1 Coupled heat and moisture flow at freezing temperatures. - 8.5.2 The hydrodynamic model. - 8.5.3 The rigid ice model. - 8.5.4 Extreme forms of ice segregation. - 8.6 Seasonal hydrodynamics in permafrost. - 8.6.1 Water migration beyond the fringe. - 8.6.2 Development of aggradational ice. - 9 THE MECHANICS OF FROZEN GROUND. - 9.1 Introduction. - 9.2 The frozen soil system. - 9.2.1 Properties of the ice. - 9.2.2 The strength of soils. - 9.3 Deformation of frozen ground. - 9.3.1 Characteristics of creep. - 9.3.2 The origins of creep. - 9.4 Strength characteristics of frozen soils. - 9.4.1 Rates of strain and processes of deformation. - 9.5 Temperature dependence of creep rate and strength. - 9.6 Effect of soil composition. - 9.6.1 Size of soil particles. - 9.6.2 Ice content. - 9.6.3 Pore water salinity. - 9.7 Effect of normal and confining stresses on strength and deformation. - 9.7.1 Internal, thermodynamically controlled stresses. - 9.8 Field situations. - 9.8.1 Role of temperature and pressure variations. - 10 GEOCRYOLOGY PAST AND FUTURE. - 10.1 Geocryology and geotechnique. - 10.2 Energy exchange and climate instability. - 10.3 Thermodynamic and mechanical properties of frozen ground. - 10.4 Submarine and other extreme conditions for permafrost. - References. - Index.
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