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  • 1
  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-8099
    Keywords: Shipboard fires ; low expansion foams ; high expansion foams AFFF ; dry chemicals ; sodium bicarbonate ; potassium bicarbonate ; Monnex ; protein foam ; alcohol foam
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We examined the annual exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and moist tussock and dry heath tundra ecosystems (which together account for over one-third of the low arctic land area) under ambient field conditions and under increased winter snow deposition, increased summer temperatures, or both. Our results indicate that these two arctic tundra ecosystems were net annual sources of CO2 to the atmosphere from September 1994 to September 1996 under ambient weather conditions and under our three climate change scenarios. Carbon was lost from these ecosystems in both winter and summer, although the majority of CO2 evolution took place during the short summer. Our results indicate that (1) warmer summer temperatures will increase annual CO2 efflux from both moist and dry tundra ecosystems by 45–55% compared to current ambient temperatures; (2) deeper winter snow cover will increase winter CO2 efflux in both moist and dry tundra ecosystems, but will decrease net summer CO2 efflux; and (3) deeper winter snow cover coupled with warmer summer temperatures will nearly double the annual amount of CO2 emitted from moist tundra and will result in a 24% increase in the annual CO2 efflux of dry tundra. If, as predicted, climate change alters both winter snow deposition and summer temperatures, then shifts in CO2 exchange between the biosphere and atmosphere will likely not be uniform across the Arctic tundra landscape. Increased snow deposition in dry tundra is likely to have a larger effect on annual CO2 flux than warmer summer temperatures alone or warmer temperatures coupled with increased winter snow depth. The combined effects of increased summer temperatures and winter snow deposition on annual CO2 flux in moist tundra will be much larger than the effects of either climate change scenario alone.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 300 (1959), S. 130-141 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: By decomposition of mixed crystals of nickel oxalate and zinc oxalate in a hydrogen stream catalysts are obtained which are characterized by high activity for gas-phase reaction. Hydrogenation of acetone and benzene is complete at temperatures far below 100°. With a high content of zinc the catalysts can excellently be used for dehydrogenation of naphthenes without any losses. Since paraffines do not tend to be destructively hydrogenated, a dehydrogenation of gasoline fractions containing naphthenes is possible.
    Notes: Durch Zersetzung von Nickeloxalat-Zinkoxalat-Mischkristallen im Wasserstoffstrom werden Katalysatoren erhalten, die sich bei Reaktionen in der Gasphase durch hohe Aktivität auszeichnen. Die Hydrierung von Aceton und Benzol verläuft schon bei Temperaturen weit unter 100° vollständig. Bei hohem Zinkgehalt sind die Katalysatoren zur verlustlosen Dehydrierung von Naphthenen im Wasserstoffstrom vorzüglich geeignet. Da Paraffine nicht in nennenswertem Maße der destruktiven Hydrierung unterliegen, ist eine Dehydrierung von naphthenhaltigen Benzinfraktionen möglich.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-4483
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary Recent climate change scenarios resulting from elevated trace gasses may alter environmental temperature and moisture. The ecological consequences, however, are uncertain requiring an understanding of how soil-plant systems will respond to different conditions. This study examines the temporal characteristics of soil water retention in a temperate grassland following natural and simulated summer showers. We have used weighting lysimeters located in grassland stands of 360 m2, 2.25 m2 and lone lysimeters measuring 0.07 m2. Water deposited from natural summer rainfall on these grasslands is likely to be lost in less than two days because 92% of the rainshowers are 〈 10 mm having residence times of less than two days. Showers 〉 10 mm did, however, consistently remain in the soil-plant system for periods longer than light showers. When the largest plots (360 m2) were wetted by small (〈 3 mm) natural rainfall events covering a portion of the entire valley (30–70 km2), soil water depletion rates were not significantly different than if just the 360 m2 plots were wetted by irrigations of the same size. If anthopogenetic changes occur in the rainfall amounts of summer showers in the Northern Great Plains, our results support the contention that soil water retention and associated ecosystem processes may be significantly altered inAgropyron smithii (Rybd.) grasslands.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 14 (1974), S. 717-723 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: During an investigation of the time for ignition of polymeric materials under the influence of radiant heating, it was found that the polymer surface reflectance-absorptance characteristics were a major factor in the variance of the ignition times. A subsequent research study was made of the reflectance-absorptance characteristics of those polymers used in the ignition testing. Reflectance values were obtained over the wavelength of 0.3 to 2.5 microns using a double-beam Cary model 14 spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere reflectometer and over the wavelengths of 1.0 to 10.0 microns using a Gier-Dunkle Hohlraum with a Perkin-Elmer spectrophotometer. Absorptance values were obtained by means of Kirchoff's Law,Drawings and graphs are included which illustrate the test apparatus and type of data collected. A table of average absorptances of several polymers are given and listed according to the particular type of heat source used. \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$ \alpha _\lambda + r_\lambda = 1 $$\end{document} Average absorptances of the polymers over the monochromatic wavelength span of the heat sources were calculated using the equation \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$ \alpha _{{\rm av}} = \frac{{\int_{\lambda _1 }^{\lambda _2 } {\alpha _\lambda e_\lambda d\lambda } }}{{\int_{\lambda _1 }^{\lambda _2 } {e_\lambda {\rm d}\lambda}}} $$\end{document} Mathematical analyses were developed and are presented for both the integrating sphere reflectometer and Gier-Dunkle Hohlraum unit.Drawings and graphs are included which illustrate the test apparatus and type of data collected. A table of average absorptances of several polymers are given and listed according to the particular type of heat source used.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: One method of predicting vaporization equilibrium ratios for the components of a multicomponent mixture is through the use of standard state liquid fugacities, standard state vapor fugacities, liquid phase activity coefficients, and vapor phase activity coefficients. The relationship among these variables will be shown.It is the purpose of this paper to present a method for evaluating the fugacities of the components of a multicomponent liquid mixture which is in equilibrium with its vapors; to present a method for evaluating the standard state fugacities of hypothetical liquids and to disclose these values for methane and ethane up to a reduced temperature of 1.6 and values for propane up to a reduced temperature of 1.3; to present the coincident derived values of the vaporization equilibrium constants, Z factors, and solubility parameters; and to show correlations of these values.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 17 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-12-09
    Description: Reconstructions of Quaternary climate are often based on the isotopic content of paleo-precipitation preserved in proxy records. While many paleo-precipitation isotope records are available, few studies have synthesized these dispersed records to explore spatial patterns of late-glacial precipitation δ18O. Here we present a synthesis of 86 globally distributed groundwater (n = 59), 
cave calcite (n = 15) and ice core (n = 12)
 isotope records spanning the late-glacial (defined as
 ~ 50000 to ∼ 20000 years ago) to the late-Holocene (within the past ∼5000 years). We show that precipitation δ18O changes from the late-glacial to the late-Holocene range from −7.1 ‰ (δ18Olate-Holocene 〉 δ18Olate-glacial) to +1.7 ‰ (δ18Olate-glacial 〉 δ18Olate-Holocene), with the majority (77 %) of records having lower late-glacial δ18O than late-Holocene δ18O values. High-magnitude, negative precipitation δ18O shifts are common at high latitudes, high altitudes and continental interiors (δ18Olate-Holocene 〉 δ18Olate-glacial by more than 3‰). Conversely, low-magnitude, positive precipitation δ18O shifts are concentrated along tropical and subtropical coasts (δ18Olate-glacial 〉 δ18Olate-Holocene by less than 2 ‰). Broad, global patterns of late-glacial to late-Holocene precipitation δ18O shifts suggest that stronger-than-modern isotopic distillation of air masses prevailed during the late-glacial, likely impacted by larger global temperature differences between the tropics and the poles. Further, to test how well general circulation models reproduce global precipitation δ18O shifts, we compiled simulated precipitation δ18O shifts from five isotope-enabled general circulation models simulated under recent and last glacial maximum climate states. Climate simulations generally show better inter-model and model-measurement agreement in temperate regions than in the tropics, highlighting a need for further research to better understand how inter-model spread in convective rainout, seawater δ18O and glacial topography parameterizations impact simulated precipitation δ18O. Future research on paleo-precipitation δ18O records can use the global maps of measured and simulated late-glacial precipitation isotope compositions to target and prioritize field sites.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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