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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Northeast Atlantic marine ecosystems such as the Bay of Biscay, Celtic Sea, English Channel, Subpolar Gyre region, Icelandic waters and North Sea as well as the Mediterranean Sea show concomitant ‘regime shift’-like changes around the mid-1990s, which involved all biota of the pelagial: phytoplankton, zooplankton, pelagic fish assemblages, demersal fish assemblages and top predators. These shifts were caused by complex ocean-atmosphere interactions initiating large-scale changes in the strength and direction of the current systems, that move water masses around the North Atlantic, and involved the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), and the subpolar gyre (SPG). The contractions and expansions of the SPG and fluctuations of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) play a key role in these complex processes. Small pelagic fish population trends were the sentinels of these changes in the mid-1990s in the ecosystems under investigation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The synchrony of pelagic fish population dynamics with climate variability may impose significant alterations in their distribution and biomass, as well as catch composition, with potential effects on ecosystems and fisheries. This work examines the effect of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) signals across the Mediterranean Sea sub-regions (western, central and eastern), with respect to small (European sardine Sardina pilchardus, European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, round sardinella Sardinella aurita and European sprat Sprattus sprattus) and medium (Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus, Atlantic chub mackerel Scomber japonicus, Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus, Mediterranean horse mackerel Trachurus mediterraneus) pelagic fishes using various catch ratios and the mean temperature of the pelagic catch (MTpC) method for the period 1970–2014. The time until the pelagic fish communities react to the signals of the AMO and NAO, as revealed by the MTpC and catch ratios, varied among the Mediterranean sub-regions. The pelagic fishes of the central and eastern Mediterranean are those that responded most strongly to AMO variability, whereas those of the central and western Mediterranean also responded to the NAO. The effect of the NAO on pelagic fishes of the eastern Mediterranean was not significant.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Reviews in fish biology and fisheries 7 (1997), S. 297-329 
    ISSN: 1573-5184
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Two opposing concepts of Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L., population structure are critically reviewed with the objective of unifying these divergent views under the metapopulation concept. It is concluded that neither the discrete population concept nor the dynamic balance concept adequately explains all the data associated with herring population structure and dynamics, including meristic and morphometric measurements, life- history traits, homing, year-class twinning, and biochemical analyses. However, the available information does suggest that Atlantic herring population structure and dynamics are well described within the metapopulation concept. The example of sympatric seasonal-spawning populations is used to illustrate the strategy, opportunity and mechanism by which local population integrity and persistence are maintained within the adopted- migrant hypothesis. Local population integrity is maintained through behavioural isolation, i.e. repeat rather than natal homing to spawning areas, while local population persistence is ensured through the social transmission of migration patterns and spawning areas from adults to recruiting individuals
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-02-08
    Description: McQuinn, I. H., Dion, M., and St. Pierre, J.-F. 2013. The acoustic multifrequency classification of two sympatric euphausiid species (Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Thysanoessa raschii), with empirical and SDWBA model validation. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70: 636–649. The ecosystem approach to fishery management requires monitoring capabilities at all trophic levels, including pelagic organisms. However, the usefulness of active acoustics for ecosystem monitoring has been limited by ambiguities in the identification of scattering layers. Increasingly, multifrequency acoustic methods are being developed for the classification of scattering layers into species or species groups. We describe a method for distinguishing between sympatric northern and Arctic krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Thysanoessa raschii) using sv amplitude ratios from 38, 120, and 200 kHz data which were pre-processed through a self-noise removal algorithm. Acoustic frequency responses of both euphausiid species were predicted from species-specific parameterizations of a SDWBA physical model using specific body forms (shape, volume, and length) for Arctic and northern krill. Classification and model validation were achieved using macrozooplankton samples collected from multiple-sampler (BIONESS) and ringnet (JackNet) hauls, both equipped with a strobe light to reduce avoidance by euphausiids. SDWBA frequency responses were calculated for a range of orientations (± 45°) and compared with observed frequency responses, solving for orientation by least squares. A tilt angle distribution of N[9°,4°] and N[12°,6°] for T. raschii and M. norvegica, respectively resulted in best fits. The models also provided species-specific TS–length relationships.
    Print ISSN: 1054-3139
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9289
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2003-01-01
    Description: Vertical orientation (tilt angle) is known to affect the target strength (TS) of ensonified fish and is a large component of the variability inherent in acoustic-biomass estimates. To measure the effects of changes in tilt angle on TS during diel vertical migrations, a concentration of migrating Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was observed acoustically from a research vessel over several days. Single-target data were collected from a split-beam echosounder and were subsequently tracked, corrected for vessel orientation and movement, and analysed for 3-dimensional displacement (speed and direction). The results revealed a large variability in TS and several patterns of swimming behaviour from random to directed orientation and movement, with changes in both vertical and horizontal displacements and inferred orientation. These behavioural patterns and their affects on TS were analysed as a function of “time-since-sunset”. Regular diel orientation patterns were observed as cod rose from the ocean bottom in the evening, increasing their tilt angle, and descended at sunrise to regain the ocean floor. Standardized TS (B20) was found to be highly correlated with tilt angle. This relationship can be used to correct for the diel changes in the TS of these migrating cod as a function of the in situ-measured tilt angle and thus to improve the accuracy of acoustic-biomass estimation.
    Print ISSN: 1054-3139
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9289
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-02-18
    Description: Plourde, S., McQuinn, I. H., Maps, F., St-Pierre, J-F., Lavoie, D., and Joly, P. 2014. Daytime depth and thermal habitat of two sympatric krill species in response to surface salinity variability in the Gulf of St Lawrence, eastern Canada. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 71: 272–281. We describe the response of acoustically determined weighted mean depth (WMD) of two sympatric species of krill, Thysanoessa raschii and Meganyctiphanes norvegica, to variations in surface salinity during summer in the Gulf of St Lawrence. In this coastal system, non-living particulates and CDOM carried by the freshwater run-off of the St Lawrence River and several large rivers have a strong impact on turbidity and light attenuance in the surface layer. The WMD of T. raschii and M. norvegica were significantly and positively related to surface salinity. However, M. norvegica was found deeper and in warmer water than T. raschii, and the latter had a steeper response to surface salinity. The species-specific relationships between daytime WMD and surface salinity enabled us to estimate both species regional and interannual variations in summertime temperature habitat during a 21-year period (1991–2011). The variability in daytime WMD resulted in significant inter- and intraspecific differences in the temperature experienced by adult krill that may impact development, growth, and reproduction. Our study illustrated the importance of considering species-specific responses to environmental forcing in coupled biophysical models that aim to explore the impacts of environmental variations on krill dynamics.
    Print ISSN: 1054-3139
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9289
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2005-01-01
    Description: The objectives of this study were to design an operationally efficient groundfish survey integrating both acoustic and trawl methodologies, to measure the changing vertical availability of cod to each method over 24 h and to compare cod-biomass estimates from the two methods within two experimental sub-regions. The two-phased sampling design involved (i) conducting an initial systematic acoustic survey to locate an area of high cod concentrations, (ii) using the acoustic-backscatter information to stratify the sub-regions into density strata for the allocation of trawl hauls, and (iii) conducting a second systematic acoustic survey at the same time as a random-stratified trawl survey. This protocol permitted the optimization of trawl sampling according to population density and the realization of simultaneous trawl and acoustic estimates for direct comparison. These cod showed extensive diel vertical migrations, which affected their availability to the trawl gear at night and the acoustic beam by day. An acoustic dead-zone correction was applied to the acoustic estimates, averaging 4–15% of the biomass for the night-time transects and 11–36% for the daytime transects. The detailed temporal acoustic monitoring of the vertical migrations permitted the quantification of the change in cod availability to the trawl gear. From 6% to 47% of cod were above the effective trawl height at night, while 0–10% of cod were in the “trawl dead zone” by day. Estimated cod densities were very similar between the two methods on a haul-by-haul basis after correcting each method for their respective inherent sampling biases. The total biomass estimates were also comparable between the two methods for one sub-region, although significantly higher from the trawl data for the other. The discrepancies were most likely a result of differences in the sampling density of the two methods.
    Print ISSN: 1054-3139
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9289
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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