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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2005
    Description: Earthquake scarps associated with recent historical events have been found on the floor of the Sea of Marmara, along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). The MAuto-Regressive Moving Average-processRASCARPS cruise using an unmanned submersible (ROV) provides direct observations to study the fine-scale morphology and geology of those scarps, their distribution, and geometry. The observations are consistent with the diversity of fault mechanisms and the fault segmentation within the north Marmara extensional step-over, between the strike-slip Ganos and Izmit faults. Smaller strike-slip segments and pull-apart basins alternate within the main step-over, commonly combining strike-slip and extension. Rapid sedimentation rates of 1-3 mm/yr appear to compete with normal faulting components of up to 6 mm/yr at the pull-apart margins. In spite of the fast sedimentation rates the submarine scarps are preserved and accumulate relief. Sets of youthful earthquake scarps extend offshore from the Ganos and Izmit faults on land into the Sea of Marmara. Our observations suggest that they correspond to the submarine ruptures of the 1999 Izmit (Mw 7.4) and the 1912 Ganos (Ms 7.4) earthquakes. While the 1999 rupture ends at the immediate eastern entrance of the extensional Cinarcik Basin, the 1912 rupture appears to have crossed the Ganos restraining bend into the Sea of Marmara floor for 60 km with a right-lateral slip of 5 m, ending in the Central Basin step-over. From the Gulf of Saros to Marmara the total 1912 rupture length is probably about 140 km, not 50 km as previously thought. The direct observations of submarine scarps in Marmara are critical to defining barriers that have arrested past earthquakes as well as defining a possible segmentation of the contemporary state of loading. Incorporating the submarine scarp evidence modifies substantially our understanding of the current state of loading along the NAF next to Istanbul. Coulomb stress modeling shows a zone of maximum loading with at least 4-5 m of slip deficit encompassing the strike-slip segment 70 km long between the Cinarcik and Central Basins. That segment alone would be capable of generating a large-magnitude earthquake (Mw 7.2). Other segments in Marmara appear less loaded. FROTH
    Keywords: Earthquake hazard ; Turkey ; Fault zone ; NAF ; G3 ; G-cubed ; AGU ; Ucarkus ; Lepinay ; Cagatay ; Cakir ; Structural geology ; 7230 ; Seismology: ; Seismicity ; and ; tectonics ; Oezalaybey ; Ozalaybey ; Lefevre ; 7223 ; Earthquake ; interaction, ; forecasting, ; and ; prediction ; morphology ; submersible ; 8110 ; Tectonophysics: ; Continental ; tectonics: ; general ; 1766 ; 1894 ; 1912 ; 1999 ; Earthquake
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-01
    Description: Haiti has been the locus of a number of large and damaging historical earthquakes. The recent 12 January 2010 M w  7.0 earthquake affected cities that were largely unprepared, which resulted in tremendous losses. It was initially assumed that the earthquake ruptured the Enriquillo Plantain Garden fault (EPGF), a major active structure in southern Haiti, known from geodetic measurements and its geomorphic expression to be capable of producing M  7 or larger earthquakes. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data, however, showed that the event ruptured a previously unmapped fault, the Léogâne fault, a north-dipping oblique transpressional fault located immediately north of the EPGF. Following the earthquake, several groups installed temporary seismic stations to record aftershocks, including ocean-bottom seismometers on either side of the EPGF. We use data from the complete set of stations deployed after the event, on land and offshore, to relocate all aftershocks from 10 February to 24 June 2010, determine a 1D regional crustal velocity model, and calculate focal mechanisms. The aftershock locations from the combined dataset clearly delineate the Léogâne fault, with a geometry close to that inferred from geodetic data. Its strike and dip closely agree with the global centroid moment tensor solution of the mainshock but with a steeper dip than inferred from previous finite fault inversions. The aftershocks also delineate a structure with shallower southward dip offshore and to the west of the rupture zone, which could indicate triggered seismicity on the offshore Trois Baies reverse fault. We use first-motion focal mechanisms to clarify the relationship of the fault geometry to the triggered aftershocks. Online Material: Tables of hypocenter locations and focal mechanisms, and Figure showing azimuthal variation with respect to travel-time residuals.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-11-01
    Description: The main Marmara Fault exhibits numerous sites of fluid venting, observed during previous cruises and in particular with R.O.V. VICTOR during the MARMARASCARPS cruise (2002). Long CALYPSO cores were recovered near active vents and at reference sites during the MARMARA-VT cruise (2004), together with echosounder sub-bottom profiles (frequency of 3.5kHz). We compiled R.O.V. video observations from MARMARASCARPS cruise and show that all known seeps occur in relationship with strike-slip faults, providing pathways for fluid migration. Among the main active sites, a distinction is made between gas seeps and water seeps. At gas seeps, bubble emissions at the seafloor or disturbed echofacies on sounder profiles demonstrate the presence of free methane gas at a shallow depth within the sediment. Most cores displayed gas-related expansion, most intense for cores taken within the gas plumes. On the other hand. authigenic carbonate chimneys characterize the water seeps and visible water outflow was observed at two sites (in the Tekirdag and Central basins). The pore fluid chemistry data show that the water expelled at these sites is brackish water trapped in the sediment during lacustrine times (before 14 cal kyr BP), in relation with the paleoceanography in the Sea of Marmara. The chimney site in the Tekirdag Basin is located at the outlet of a canyon feeding a buried fan with coarse sandy turbidites. Pore fluid composition profiles indicate that the sand layers channel the brackish fluids laterally from the basin into the fault zone at less than 20 m depth. However, a deeper gas source cannot be excluded. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-07-31
    Description: Haiti has been the locus of a number of large and damaging historical earthquakes. The recent 12 January 2010 M (sub w) 7.0 earthquake affected cities that were largely unprepared, which resulted in tremendous losses. It was initially assumed that the earthquake ruptured the Enriquillo Plantain Garden fault (EPGF), a major active structure in southern Haiti, known from geodetic measurements and its geomorphic expression to be capable of producing M 7 or larger earthquakes. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data, however, showed that the event ruptured a previously unmapped fault, the Leogane fault, a north-dipping oblique transpressional fault located immediately north of the EPGF. Following the earthquake, several groups installed temporary seismic stations to record aftershocks, including ocean-bottom seismometers on either side of the EPGF. We use data from the complete set of stations deployed after the event, on land and offshore, to relocate all aftershocks from 10 February to 24 June 2010, determine a 1D regional crustal velocity model, and calculate focal mechanisms. The aftershock locations from the combined dataset clearly delineate the Leogane fault, with a geometry close to that inferred from geodetic data. Its strike and dip closely agree with the global centroid moment tensor solution of the mainshock but with a steeper dip than inferred from previous finite fault inversions. The aftershocks also delineate a structure with shallower southward dip offshore and to the west of the rupture zone, which could indicate triggered seismicity on the offshore Trois Baies reverse fault. We use first-motion focal mechanisms to clarify the relationship of the fault geometry to the triggered aftershocks.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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