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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-five of 37Cryptococcus neoformans strains of known serotype produced the basidiomycetousFilobasidiella state either alone or when paired with a strain of compatible mating-type. Sixteen strains were “α” mating-type, four strains were “a” mating-type, and five strains were self-fertile.F. neoformans serotypes A and D were interfertile with compatible mating-types ofF. bacillispora serotypes B and C.C. neoformans var.gattii was interfertile with compatible mating-types ofF. neoformans andF. bacillispora. F. bacillispora strains, which utilized creatinine andl-malic acid, were interfertile with compatible mating-types ofF. neoformans, which did not utilize creatinine andl-malic acid. The interfertility between serotypes and biotypes eliminates the need for recognizing the names ofC. neoformans var.gattii, C. bacillisporus, andF. bacillispora. It is proposed thatC. neoformans var.gattii andC. bacillisporus be regarded as later, facultative synonyms ofC. neoformans and thatF. bacillispora be regarded as a later, facultative synonym ofF. neoformans.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 84 (1984), S. 121-131 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Ninety-seven strains of Cryptococcus neoformans and C. bacillisporus were examined for 44 biochemical characters and the results were analyzed numerically. One phenon emerged at the 86% level of similarity when strains were clustered according to their M-similarity values. All strains grew in ten carbon sources (D-glucose, D-galactose, arbutin, maltose, sucrose, D-melezitose, D-xylose, D-mannitol, D-glucitol, and meso-inositol), and also grew at 37 ° C and produced urease and phenoloxidase. None of them grew in melibiose, lactose, nor valine, and none reduced nitrate to nitrite. Comparison of selected biochemical characters, creatinine utilization, and serotypes of 49 aberrant strains is presented. Forty-eight of the 97 strains produced the Filobasidiella state either alone or when paired with a strain of compatible mating-type. Filobasidiella neoformans serotypes A and D were interfertile with compatible mating-types of F. bacillispora serotypes B and C. The 44 biochemical characters and 4 serotypes did not predict barriers to mating competence. The present study further substantiates that Filobasidiella neoformans and F. bacillispora are one species.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Alkali metal germanides and stannides ; Zintl cluster anions ; Vibrational spectra ; Thermal decomposition ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The binary germanides M12Ge17 and M4Ge9 (M = Na, K, Rb, Cs) and the stannides M12Sn17 and M4Sn9 (M = K, Rb, Cs) were identified by a combination of direct synthesis, thermogravimetric analysis, vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray powder data and single crystal structure analysis. The M12E17 phases contain the cluster anions [E9]4- and [E4]4- in the ratio 1:2, forming a hierarchical structure with the cluster anions at the atomic positions of the hexagonal Laves phase MgZn2. Like the M4E4 phases, the M4Ge9 compounds are hierarchical derivatives of the cubic Cr3Si structure but with [Ge9]4- anions. The thermogravimetric analyses give strong evidence for the existence of at least one more phase with [E9]4- and [E4]4- clusters and of the clathrate phases M6E136 in addition to the well-known M8E44□2 chlathrates.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Ba3Ge4C2 ; Zintl Phase ; tetrahedro-Tetragermanide [Ge4]4- Anions ; Acetylenide [C2]2- Anions ; Vibrational Spectra ; Force Constants ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Tribarium tetrahedro-Tetragermanid- Acetylenid, Ba3[Ge4][C2] - Synthese, Struktur und EigenschaftenBa3Ge4C2 bildet sich aus den Elementen order durch die Umsetzung von BaC2 mit BaGe2 bei 1530 K (korundtiegel in geschlossener Stahlampulle). Die Verbindung ist ein Halbleiter (grau; Eg = 1.1 eV), spröde, und sehr feuchtigkeitsempfindlich. Sie reagiert mit NH4Cl bei ca. 400 K unter Bildung von Acetylen und Germanen bis Ge4Hn. Der neue Ba3Ge4C2-Strukturtyp (Raumgruppe I4/mcm, No. 140; a = 8.840(1) Å, c = 12.466(1) Å; Z = 4, Pearsonsymbol tI36) enthält zwei isolierte Polyanionen, nämlich Tetrahedro-tetragermanid [Ge4]4- und Acetylenid [C2]2-. Die Bindungslängen betragen d(Ge—Ge) = 2.517 Å (4×) bzw. 2.641 Å (2x) und d(C≡C) = 1.20 Å. Die Struktur von Ba3[Ge4][C2] ist durch Atom/Cluster-Substitutionen ([Ge4] statt Ca; [C2] statt Ti; Ba statt O) eine hierarchische Variante der Perowskit-Struktur CaTiO3. Das Raman-Spektrum zeigt Banden bei 168, 199 und 280 cm-1 bzw. 1796 cm-1, die für die Polyanionen [Ge4]4- und [C2]2- charakteristisch sind.
    Notes: Ba3Ge4C2 is formed at 1530 K from the elements or by reaction of BaC2 with BaGe2 (corundum crucible; steel ampoule). The compound is a semiconductor (grey colour; Eg = 1.1 eV), brittle, very sensitive to moisture, and reacts with NH4Cl at about 400 K forming acetylene and germanes up to Ge4Hn. The new Ba3Ge4C2 structure type (space group I4/mcm, No. 140; a = 8.840(1) Å, c = 12.466(1) Å; Z = 4, Pearson code tI36), contains two kinds of isolated polyanions, namely tetrahedro-tetragermanide [Ge4]4- and acetylenide [C2]2- anions. The bond lengths are d(Ge-Ge) = 2.517 Å (4×) and 2.641 Å (2×), and d(C≡C) = 1.20 Å. The Ba3[Ge4][C2] structure is a hierarchical derivative of the perovskite (CaTiO3) generated by a partial atom/cluster replacement ([Ge4] for Ca, [C2] for Ti and Ba for O). The Raman spectrum shows bands at 168, 199 and 280 cm-1, and at 1796cm-1 characteristic for [Ge4]4- and [C2]2- polyanions, respectively.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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