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  • 1
    ISSN: 0920-3796
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1612-4766
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Zur Bekämpfung von Stechmücken-Larven geeignete Präparate vonBacillus thuringiensis var.israelensis (B. t. i. = Serotyp H14) enthalten Sporen und parasporale Toxinkristalle. Um die Belastung von Oberflächenwasser mit aktiven Sporen bei einer solchen Bekämpfung möglichst gering zu halten, wurden Untersuchungen durchgeführt mit dem Ziel, die Keimzahl des Biopräparates zu reduzieren. Bei Versuchen mit einem UV-Entkeimungsgerät für Trinkwasser wurde eine 99,99%ige Inaktivierung der Sporen erzielt. Im Biotest bewirkte das bestrahlte Präparat nahezu den gleichen Effekt gegenüber Mückenlarven wie die nichtbestrahlte Suspension. Bei der Anwendung dieses neuenB. t. i.-Präparates in der kalkulierten Aufwandmenge in Oberflächenwasser wird nicht einmal die Toleranzgrenze für die Trinkwasser-Qualität überschritten. Das bedeutet, daß der Einsatz eines UV-behandeltenB. t. i.-Präparates zur Mückenbekämpfung hygienisch unbedenklich ist.
    Notes: Abstract Preparations ofBacillus thuringiensis var.israelensis (B. t. i.= serotype H14) contain spores and toxic parasporal crystals. To minimize the loading of surface water with active spores in connection with mosquito control, studies were carried out to reduce the germination index of the spores using an UV equipment for sterilization of drinking water. With this method an inactivation rate of 99.99% could be obtained. In our biotest with mosquito larvae the irradiated preparation induced the same effect as the non treated one. For use ofB. t. i. in the calculated dosage in surface water the tolerance limit for drinking water will not be exceeded. Therefore, application of an UV-treatedB. t. i.-preparation for mosquito control should not be hampered by safety considerations.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1744-313X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The possible involvement of a suppressor cell mechanism in neonatally induced allograft tolerance was tested in two different mouse-strain combinations. In an H-2 incompatible donor-recipient combination presented by the congeneic strains B10.D2 and B10.D2(M504), adoptive transfer of tolerance with 5 × 107 spleen cells to syngeneic sublethally (400 R) irradiated recipients was successful resulting in a markedly prolonged test graft survival or even take. The result of tests for negative tolerance (which should be susceptible to abolition by means of cells from normally reactive donors) did not indicate that neonatally induced tolerance across the given barrier rested on this principle. The suppressor mechanism seemed to be involved in neonatally induced allograft tolerance also in the other strain combination (B10–40NX).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) is an important model for identifying plant genes and determining their function. To assist biological investigations and to define chromosome structure, a coordinated effort to sequence the Arabidopsis genome was initiated in late 1996. Here we ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) were transformed with a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase gene resulting in mannitol accumulation. Experiments were conducted to determine whether mannitol provides salt and/or drought stress protection through osmotic adjustment. Non-stressed transgenic plants were 20–25% smaller than non-stressed, non-transformed (wild-type) plants in both salinity and drought experiments. However, salt stress reduced dry weight in wild-type plants by 44%, but did not reduce the dry weight of transgenic plants. Transgenic plants adjusted osmotically by 0.57 MPa, whereas wild-type plants did not adjust osmotically in response to salt stress. Calculations of solute contribution to osmotic adjustment showed that mannitol contributed only 0-003-0-004 MPa to the 0.2 MPa difference in full turgor osmotic potential (πo) between salt-stressed transgenic and wild-type plants. Assuming a cytoplasmic location for mannitol and that the cytoplasm constituted 5% of the total water volume, mannitol accounted for only 30–40% of the change in πo of the cytoplasm. Inositol, a naturally occurring polyol in tobacco, accumulated in response to salt stress in both transgenic and wild-type plants, and was 3-fold more abundant than mannitol in transgenic plants.Drought stress reduced the leaf relative water content, leaf expansion, and dry weight of transgenic and wild-type plants. However, πo was not significantly reduced by drought stress in transgenic or wild-type plants, despite an increase in non-structural carbohydrates and mannitol in droughted plants. We conclude that (1) mannitol was a relatively minor osmolyte in transgenic tobacco, but may have indirectly enhanced osmotic adjustment and salt tolerance; (2) inositol cannot substitute for mannitol in this role; (3) slower growth of the transgenic plants, and not the presence of mannitol per se, may have been the cause of greater salt tolerance, and (4) mannitol accumulation was enhanced by drought stress but did not affect πo or drought tolerance.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of materials science 10 (1999), S. 9-17 
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The ultimate values for compressive strength, Young's modulus, and toughness of cylindrical specimens of unitary aspect ratios and uniform grain-size distributions were extrapolated for hydroxyapatite (HAP) to 70 MPa, 9.2 GPa, and 0.36 J cm-3, and for tricalcium phosphate (TCP), to 315 MPa, 21 GPa, and 2.34 J cm-3. For total volume porosities of 50%, the corresponding values were determined: for HAP, 9.3 MPa, 1.2 GPa, 0.042 J cm-3, for TCP, 13 MPa, 1.6 GP, 0.077 J cm-3. Porosities of HAP specimens ranged from 3%–50%; TCP from 10%–70%. Two pore-size distributions were employed. Exponential dependencies of the mechanical properties were found upon porosity (p≡0.0001). No differences in measured mechanical properties, as determined in compression, could be attributed to pore size. The superiority of TCP increases with density and suggests that a larger or more selective pore-size distribution could be effectively employed in TCP biological implants. This work also suggests the dominant role of secondary calcium phosphates in increasing compressive strengths. © 1999 Kluwer Academic Publishers
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: The use of acrylic bone cement has a number of shortcomings, viz., high curing temperatures that can cause thermal necrosis, release of toxic monomer, and a less than perfect cement-to-bone bond. However, by modifying the cement composition through the addition of a soluble, nontoxic filler such as sucrose or tricalcium phosphate which does not impair the workability of the material during surgery, a significant improvement in the performance of the cement can be achieved.Because the filler replaces part of the acrylic components, less heat is generated during curing while the filler itself acts as a heat sink. Also, less monomer, proportional to the amount replaced by the filler, diffuses from the implant site.Upon elution of the filler, a porous cement will be obtained provided that a critical minimum percentage loading is exceeded so that the filler crystals will make physical contact with each other. The value of this percentage depends on both crystal modification and size. In the 125-175 μm sucrose crystal size range, the critical minimum percentage lies in the range of 20-28 wt % loading. Above 30%, the interconnecting pore size increases sharply to a value which allows good tissue ingrowth into the pores.The introduction of filler and pores causes a drop in strength, but the diametral tensile strength of modified cement containing up to 40% pores and sucrose lies between .7 and 1.5 kg/mm2, respectively, which is still in the same range as that of bone.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Two studies were conducted to observe effects of dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT) on larvae of Mytilus edulis for an exposure period of 25 d. Endpoints for evaluation were shell growth and mortality measured at 33 d. Larvae were cultured in a new laboratory assay chamber in a recirculating static test. The control, 2, 20, and 200 μg/l DBT-treated populations had mean shell lengths of 527, 523, 417, and 180 μm, respectively. Survival was 1% for the 200 μg/l DBT-treated population, but ranged from 73 to 83% for controls, 2, and 20 μg/l treatments. The no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was 2 μg/l for DBT, while the lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) was 20 μg/l. The chronic toxicity value was 6.3 μg/l. In the TBT bioassay, mean shell lengths for the control, 0.006, 0.050, and 0.130 μg/l-treated populations were 565, 437, 385, and 292 μm, respectively. Control survival was 74%, whereas TBT-treated populations survival ranged from 52 to 58%. The NOEC for TBT was 0.006 μg/l TBT and the LOEC was 0.050. A chronic toxicity value of 0.017 μg/l was calculated. The results of this study indicated that the toxicity of DBT was less than that of TBT. It was concluded that shell length was inversely related to exposure level in both DBT and TBT bioassays. In this study, we have observed TBT effects at lower exposure levels in the laboratory than previously reported, and also report the first data for DBT effects on mussel larvae.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Solid State Electronics 32 (1989), S. 1229-1233 
    ISSN: 0038-1101
    Keywords: Boltzmann equations ; Distribution functions ; Hot carriers ; Hot phonons ; Monte Carlo methods ; Numerical methods ; Transport
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Solid State Electronics 32 (1989), S. 1399-1403 
    ISSN: 0038-1101
    Keywords: Boltzmann equation ; cellular automaton ; device simulation ; lattice gas ; semiconductor transport
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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