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  • 1
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Metal colloids in CaF2 created by low energy electron irradiation are identified by their optical absorption bands. A mean colloid radius of 18 nm is deduced from a narrow colloid band found in crystals irradiated at room temperature. Absorption data reveal a strong influence of crystal temperature during irradiation on metallization efficiency, mean colloid size, and colloid size distribution. A reversible absorption band shift is observed when turning the electron beam on and off, which may indicate a decrease of colloid size during electron irradiation. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 81 (1997), S. 2966-2972 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A photothermal microscope that provides micrometer lateral and submicrometer depth resolution was designed. Thermal conductivity measurements with modulation frequencies up to 12 MHz on single grains in polycrystalline diamond demonstrate its lateral resolution power even for a highly conducting material. Measured conductivities strongly depend on the averaged volume and values up to 2200 W/mK are found in the high frequency limit where the properties inside a grain are sampled. The capability of the instrument to measure thermal parameters on thin films is demonstrated for gold films evaporated on quartz with a thickness ranging from 20 to 1500 nm. Measurements reveal a strong thickness dependence for both thin film conductivity and the contact resistance between film and substrate. Thermal conductivity decreases monotonically from 230 to 30 W/mK whereas the contact resistance rises from 2×10−7 to 8×10−6 m2K/W with decreasing film thickness. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 53 (1988), S. 2005-2007 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The technique of intensity dependent photoacoustic probe beam deflection has been applied to the determination of surface damage thresholds. We take advantage of an unambiguous correlation between the degree of laser damage and the energy in the generated acoustic pulse. The high sensitivity of this method, cross checked by measuring scatter losses in reflection, is independent of any surface optical properties. As an example for optical materials, damage thresholds for MgF2 and CaF2 have been determined to be about 1.4 GW/cm2 , and for LiF to be about 0.2 GW/cm2 .
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 80 (1996), S. 2013-2018 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The thermoreflectance technique is applied for imaging electric current distributions and thermal transfer in a temperature reference resistor heated by an alternating current. High-frequency scans (30 kHz) allow imaging of the current density distribution in conducting strips of the resistor while scans of amplitude and phase of the surface temperature variation at lower frequencies reveal plane, cylindrical, and spherical thermal waves. We investigate wave dimensionality as a function of heating geometry and thermal length, and present a simple method allowing a quantitative thermal analysis by exploiting the phase profile of cylindrical thermal waves. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Surfaces of fluoride crystals, fractured by a single excimer laser pulse and then covered by a thin conductive layer, are imaged by scanning electron microscopy in the low-voltage secondary electron mode. As a result of charging, at lower primary electron energies a contrast enhancement can be obtained for surface fragments that are no longer tightly attached to the crystal. This differs from high-energy ((approximately-greater-than)10 keV) imaging which only yields topographic contrasts and allows the analysis of the fractured structure by edge and shadowing effects. Even contrast inversion from positive to negative charging of an entire fragment can be achieved, depending on the primary electron energy. It is shown that this effect can be utilized to discriminate between fragments with a good mechanical contact to the bulk and partially detached ones by systematically studying the contrast as a function of electron energy and specimen inclination. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 78 (1995), S. 5266-5269 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A simple dispersion equation for surface thermal waves propagating along a solid surface covered with a thin film of higher thermal conductivity is presented. It is shown to describe well phase measurements with a photothermal microscope carried out on metal films on glass substrates. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 75 (1994), S. 1914-1922 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A theoretical model is presented describing harmonic heat flow in a two layer system heated by a modulated Gaussian laser beam. Amplitude and phase of the modulated temperature rise in the layers, as well as in the backing substrate and adjacent atmosphere, are calculated by solving the three-dimensional heat conduction equation with a source term including exponential absorption of the laser light in one or two layers. Heat conduction is assumed to be isotropic throughout the system, however, a thermal contact resistance between the two layers can be taken into account. Results are presented for single and double layer systems of gold and various dielectric thin film materials on glass substrates. Amplitude and phase of the harmonic temperature variation are calculated either as a function of position in the sample system or at the surface as a function of the laser beam modulation frequency. It is found that both amplitude and phase of the calculated temperature rise exhibit typical thin film features in their frequency dependence, however, the phase is more sensitive to thin film phenomena than the amplitude. The phase shows typical extrema in that frequency region, where the thermal diffusion length in the film is equal to the film thickness. Based on these findings, we demonstrate how these calculations can be utilized for the interpretation of thin film thermal parameter measurements. The influence of thermal wave interference is demonstrated, and it is discussed how the main thermal parameters like conductivity, effusivity, and thermal contact resistance of the thin film system can be extracted from measurements by a fit of theoretical curves to experimental data. Applying a simple one-dimensional thermal expansion model, surface displacements for thin film systems are calculated and the applicability of photothermal surface displacement for thin film conductivity measurements is discussed.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 68 (1997), S. 1510-1513 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Thermal conductivity of nickel and gold films on quartz (thickness 0.4–8 μm) was measured by a modulated thermoreflectance technique recording the surface temperature profile. Model calculations predict an optimum frequency for measuring thermal transport within the film. Measurements on films with various thicknesses reveal a thermal conductivity close to the bulk value for nickel while gold films exhibit a reduced conductivity with decreasing film thickness. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-9486
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Ablation thresholds and damage behavior of cleaved and polished CaF2(111) surfaces produced by single shot irradiation with 248nm/14ns laser pulses have been investigated using the photoacoustic mirage technique and scanning electron microscopy. The standard polishing yields an ablation threshold of typically 20 J/cm2. When surfaces are polished chemo-mechanically the threshold is raised to 43 J/cm2. Polishing by diamond turning leads to intermediate values around 30 J/cm2. Cleaved surfaces possess no well-defined damage threshold. The damage topography of conventionally polished surfaces shows ablation of flakes across the laser heated area with cracks along the cleavage planes. In the case of chemo-mechanical polishing only a few cracks appear. Diamond turned surfaces show small optical absorption, but cracks and ablation of tiles. The origin of such different damage behavior is discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0168-583X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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