Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
Explanation for the widely reported observation that fully grouted reinforcement is more effective in hard rock that behaves as a discontinuum than in soft rock is presented. Analytical solutions are presented for the distribution of displacement and load along an untensioned fully grouted elastic bolt, of specified bond stiffness, which is activated during excavation by either a continuous or discontinuous distribution of rock displacement. The results indicate that significantly higher axial loads are developed for the discontinuous case.Since the mechanics of bond failure depend on the type of bolt and grout used, in the second part of the paper a finite difference formulation is introduced and combined with a non-linear model for the bond behaviour of a cement grouted seven-wire strand cable bolt. The results of a parametric study indicate that, because the bond is frictional and depends on confinement at the borehole wall, for the same profile of rock mass displacement lower loads are developed in soft rock. Furthermore, in soft rock, excavation induced stress changes can cause a dramatic reduction in bond strength, so that, even after significant rock mass displacement, the axial load developed is significantly less than the tensile strength of the cable. A combination of these effects can explain why failures of cable bolted ground involve debonding at the cable-grout interface in soft rock, and why instances of cable rupture are confined to hard, blocky rock masses.
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