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  • 1
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Gieskes, Joris M; Sirocky, Frank X; LaKind, Judy (1983): Interstitial water studies, Leg 72. In: Barker, PF; Carlson, RL; Johnson, DA; et al. (eds.), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 72, 391-394, https://doi.org/10.2973/dsdp.proc.72.109.1983
    Publication Date: 2018-09-27
    Description: Interstitial waters collected at Sites 515 and 516 during DSDP Leg 72 have been analyzed for major and minor constituents. At both sites increases in dissolved calcium and decreases in dissolved magnesium with depth imply reactions in the sediment column involving these constituents. It is suggested that these concentration changes are related to reactions involving biogenic silica transformation.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 286 data points
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  • 2
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    Unknown
    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Gieskes, Joris M; Sirocky, Frank X; LaKind, Judy (1984): Interstitial water studies, Leg 73. In: Hsü, KJ; LaBrecque, JL; et al. (eds.), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 73, 539-541, https://doi.org/10.2973/dsdp.proc.73.119.1984
    Publication Date: 2018-09-27
    Description: Interstitial waters obtained from a transect east from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on progressively older oceanic crust (Sites 519-522) indicate a general absence of concentration gradients in calcium and magnesium. The lack of gradients indicates little or no exchange of these seawater constituents with the underlying basalts. Only at Site 520, where there are increases in calcium and decreases in magnesium, do reactions in the silica-enriched zone appear to have affected interstitial water composition. At Site 524, on the eastern flank of the Walvis Ridge, large changes in calcium and magnesium occur as a result of reactions involving the volcanic materials that are both dispersed in the sediment column and present in the underlying basalts.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 225 data points
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  • 3
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Gieskes, Joris M; Elderfield, Henry; Lawrence, James R; LaKind, Judy (1984): Interstitial water studies, Leg 78A. In: Biju-Duval, B; Moore, JC; et al. (eds.), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 78A, 377-384, https://doi.org/10.2973/dsdp.proc.78a.116.1984
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: Studies of interstitial water carried out during Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 78A (Sites 541, 542, and 543) have revealed that alteration of volcanic material dispersed in the sediments is largely responsible for increased concentrations of dissolved calcium and decreased concentrations of dissolved magnesium and potassium. This conclusion is supported by studies of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of dissolved strontium, as well as by studies of the oxygen isotopic composition of interstitial waters. At Site 543 a large part of the d18O decrease in the interstitial waters must result from diffusive exchange with underlying basement rocks. Data from studies of interstitial water do not indicate upward advection of fluids at Sites 541 and 542.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 397 data points
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Environmental science & technology 24 (1990), S. 963-965 
    ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1539-6924
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Concentrating on exposure in workplaces where smoking occurs, we examined environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related concentration data from the 16-City This study.(1,2) This study involved a large population of nonsmokers, used personal monitors, and encompassed a wide selection of ETS-related constituents. This first article in a series of three describes the 16-City Study, considers the impact of demographic variables, and concludes that these variables did not explain differences in exposure to ETS. We compared 16-City Study concentrations obtained in the workplace to previously reported workplace concentrations and determined that data from this study were representative of current ETS exposure in nonmanufacturing workplaces where smoking occurs. Considering factors other than demographic factors, we found that, not surprisingly, the number of cigarettes observed in the workplace had an impact on exposure concentrations. Finally, we compared people from homes where smoking occurs with people from nonsmoking homes and found that people from smoking homes observed more smoking in the workplace and experienced higher concentrations of ETS-related compounds in the workplace, even when they observed the same number of cigarettes being smoked in the workplace. In two subsequent articles in this series, we discuss relationships between various ETS markers and provide estimates of distributions of doses to nonsmoking workers employed in workplaces where smoking occurs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1539-6924
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, we discussthe merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 11/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. We considered the relation between nicotine and saliva cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level. That is, for each cell (smoking home and work, smoking home but nonsmoking work, and so forth), there was high correlation between average cotinine and 24-hour time-weighted average (TWA) nicotine concentrations. However, on the individual level, the correlations, although significant, were not biologically meaningful. A consideration of cotinine and nicotine or 3-EP on a subset of the study whoseonly exposure to ETS was exclusively at work or exclusively at home showed that home exposure was a more important source of ETS than work exposure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1539-6924
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: The ultimate goal of the research reported in this series of three articles is to derive distributions of doses of selected environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related chemicals for nonsmoking workers. This analysis uses data from the 16-City Study collected with personal monitors over the course of one workday in workplaces where smoking occurred. In this article, we describe distributions of ETS chemical concentrations and the characteristicsof those distributions (e.g., whether the distribution was log normal for agiven constituent) for the workplace exposure. Next, we present population parameters relevant for estimating dose distributions and the methods used for estimating those dose distributions. Finally, we derive distributions of doses of selected ETS-related constituents obtained in the workplace for people in smoking work environments. Estimating dose distributions providedinformation beyond the usual point estimate of dose and showed that the preponderance of individuals exposed to ETS in the workplace were exposed at the low end of the dose distribution curve. The results of this analysis include estimations of hourly maxima and time-weighted average (TWA) doses of nicotine from workplace exposures to ETS (extrapolated from 1 day to 1 week) and doses derived from modeled lung burdens of ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM) and solanesol resulting from workplace exposures to ETS (extrapolated from 1 day to 1 year).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1539-6924
    Keywords: 16-City Study ; environmental tobacco smoke ; markers ; nicotine ; personal monitoring ; saliva cotinine ; workplace exposure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, we discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 1 1/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. We considered the relation between nicotine and saliva cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level. That is, for each cell (smoking home and work, smoking home but nonsmoking work, and so forth), there was high correlation between average cotinine and 24-hour time-weighted average (TWA) nicotine concentrations. However, on the individual level, the correlations, although significant, were not biologically meaningful. A consideration of cotinine and nicotine or 3-EP on a subset of the study whose only exposure to ETS was exclusively at work or exclusively at home showed that home exposure was a more important source of ETS than work exposure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1539-6924
    Keywords: 16-City Study ; distributional analysis ; dose distributions ; environmental tobacco smoke ; Monte Carlo ; nicotine ; solanesol ; ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter ; workplace exposure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The ultimate goal of the research reported in this series of three articles is to derive distributions of doses of selected environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related chemicals for nonsmoking workers. This analysis uses data from the 16-City Study collected with personal monitors over the course of one workday in workplaces where smoking occurred. In this article, we describe distributions of ETS chemical concentrations and the characteristics of those distributions (e.g., whether the distribution was log normal for a given constituent) for the workplace exposure. Next, we present population parameters relevant for estimating dose distributions and the methods used for estimating those dose distributions. Finally, we derive distributions of doses of selected ETS-related constituents obtained in the workplace for people in smoking work environments. Estimating dose distributions provided information beyond the usual point estimate of dose and showed that the preponderance of individuals exposed to ETS in the workplace were exposed at the low end of the dose distribution curve. The results of this analysis include estimations of hourly maxima and time-weighted average (TWA) doses of nicotine from workplace exposures to ETS (extrapolated from 1 day to 1 week) and doses derived from modeled lung burdens of ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM) and solanesol resulting from workplace exposures to ETS (extrapolated from 1 day to 1 year).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1539-6924
    Keywords: 16-City Study ; avoidance ; environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) ; personal monitoring ; workplace exposure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Concentrating on exposure in workplaces where smoking occurs, we examined environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related concentration data from the 16-City Study.(1,2) This study involved a large population of nonsmokers, used personal monitors, and encompassed a wide selection of ETS-related constituents. This first article in a series of three describes the 16-City Study, considers the impact of demographic variables, and concludes that these variables did not explain differences in exposure to ETS. We compared 16-City Study concentrations obtained in the workplace to previously reported workplace concentrations and determined that data from this study were representative of current ETS exposure in nonmanufacturing workplaces where smoking occurs. Considering factors other than demographic factors, we found that, not surprisingly, the number of cigarettes observed in the workplace had an impact on exposure concentrations. Finally, we compared people from homes where smoking occurs with people from nonsmoking homes and found that people from smoking homes observed more smoking in the workplace and experienced higher concentrations of ETS-related compounds in the workplace, even when they observed the same number of cigarettes being smoked in the workplace. In two subsequent articles in this series, we discuss relationships between various ETS markers and provide estimates of distributions of doses to nonsmoking workers employed in workplaces where smoking occurs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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