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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    GeoJournal 22 (1990), S. 391-398 
    ISSN: 1572-9893
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: Abstract The classical methods for interpolating and spatial averaging of precipitation fields fail to quantify the accuracy of the estimate. On the other hand, kriging is an interpolation method for predicting values of regionalized variables at points (punctual kriging) or average values over an area (block kriging). This paper demonstrates the use of the kriging method for mapping and evaluating precipitation data for the State of Arizona. Using 158 rain gauge stations with 30 years or more of record, the precipitation over the state has been modeled as a realization of a two dimensional random field taking into consideration the spatial variability conditions. Three data sets have been used: (1) the mean annual precipitation over the state; (2) the mean summer rainy season; and (3) the mean winter rainy season. Validation of the empirical semi-variogram for a constant drift case indicated that the exponential model was appropriate for all the data sets. In addition to a global kriging analysis, the data have been examined under an anisotropic assumption which reflects the topographic structure of the state.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-174X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
    Notes: Abstract Israeli society is characterized by multilevel conflict in various domains of life. In an introductory course in Educational Anthropology offered in the School of Education at the University of Haifa, students were exposed to basic theoretical tenets of the field. The importance of openness and tolerance in inter-ethnic relations - stemming from cultural pluralism, cultural relativism and mediated via cross-cultural sensitization - was emphasized. The educational implications of these approaches were examined in terms of curriculum, classroom organization, teacher training, etc. Due to the fact that the course offered models of culture fair inter-group relations, one of the skills it was meant to develop was an ability to better deal with conflict. To assess the extent of skill development accomplished, students were assigned to draw up scenarios of conflict situations in an educational context based on cultural differences among the participants, analyze them and bring suggestions for their solution or prevention. The content analysis of the scenarios revealed differences in conflict resolution styles between Jewish and Arab students. The paper discusses the meaning, significance and implications of the two student groups' respective attitudes to this sensitive issue.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography , Geosciences
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0167-4889
    Keywords: (Rat adipose tissue) ; Glucose transporter distribution ; Insulin ; Subcellular fractionation
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Hydrology 149 (1993), S. 9-25 
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography , Geosciences
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford, West Yorkshire : Emerald
    Management of environmental quality 14 (2003), S. 22-38 
    ISSN: 1477-7835
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Year-to-year fluctuations of rainfall in the northern Negev desert provide an opportunity to characterize and assess the temporal dynamics of desertification, phenology, and drought processes. Such information was retrieved and analyzed by combined use of satellite imageries in the reflectivity and thermal spectral bands. Data covering four years of coarse spatial resolution and images from a high revisit time satellite, namely the NOAA-14, were used. The images were processed to produce the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the land surface temperature (LST). These measures were applied to the sand field in the northwestern Negev (Israel), which is almost totally covered by biological soil crusts, and to an adjacent region in Sinai (Egypt), consisting mainly of bare dune sands. Various manipulations of the data were applied. Time series presentation of the NDVI and LST reveals that the NDVI values correspond to the reaction of the vegetation to rainfall and that LST values represent seasonal climatic fluctuation. Scatterplot analysis of LST vs NDVI demonstrates the following: the two different biomes (Sinai and the Negev) exhibit different yearly variation of the phenological patterns (two seasons in Sinai moving along the LST axis, and three seasons in the Negev, where the NDVI axis represents the growing season); the Sinai has an ecosystem similar to that found in the Sahara, while the Negev, only a few kilometers away, has an ecosystem similar to the one found in the Sahel; and drought indicators were derived by using several geometrical expressions based on the two extreme points of the LST-NDVI scatterplot. The later analysis led to a discrimination function that aims to distinguish between the drought years and the wet years in both biomes. Results from the current study show that a great deal of information on dryland ecosystems can be derived from four, out of five, NOAA/AVHRR spectral bands. The NDVI is derived from the red and the near-infrared bands and the LST from the two thermal bands. Combined use of these two products provides more information than any product alone.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: To determine the environmental impact of industrial activity, we examined and compared the following parameters of physiological integrity in the epiphytic fruticose lichen Ramalina lacera. (1) Potential quantum yield of PSII expressed as the chlorophyll fluorescence ratio Fv/Fm. (2) Spectral reflectance expressed as values of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). (3) Production of ethylene. (4) Electrolyte leakage brought about by degrading cell membranes in terms of electric conductivity. (5) The ratio A435nm/A415nm indicating the disintegration of chlorophyll. The amounts of Ba, Cu, K, Ni, S, V and Zn contained in the lichen thallus were measured to quantify the degree of pollution. Some of the lichen-carrying twigs collected at a relatively unpolluted control site were resuspended on the original trees as controls. Other lichens were transplanted to 19 biomonitoring sites. Transplanted lichens in polluted sites contained higher amounts of Ba, Ni, S, V and Zn than lichens in the control site and in most of the rural sites upon an exposure period of 8 months. Statistical analysis revealed negative correlations between Fv/Fm ratios and Ba contents of transplants. High Ba, Cu, Ni and Zn contents correlated negatively with NDVI values. NDVI values correlated with A435nm/A415nm, Fv/Fm and K. The ratio A435nm/A415nm correlated positively with K and negatively with Ba, Cu and Zn. The production of ethylene correlated positively with Cu and Ba and negatively with A435nm/A415nm, Fv/Fm and NDVI. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with Ba, Cu, Na, S, V and Zn and negatively with NDVI. Both elemental content and physiological alterations in transplants of R. lacera point to a high degree of contamination in the Haifa Bay region, which is polluted by fuel-oil combustion apart from other industrial activities. The present work suggests that in our specific study area, the most sensitive parameter to assess the vitality of the lichen thallus is electric conductivity whereas ethylene production is less sensitive.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: To determine the environmental impact of oil-combustion pollutants and soil dust on a lichen, we examined the spectral reflectance of thalli of the epiphytic fruticose lichen, Ramalina duriaei, expressed as values of NDVI (the normalized difference vegetation index). We analyzed electrolyte leakage caused by degradation of cell membranes in terms of electric conductivity of water, apart from chlorophyll degradation, the latter expressed as changes in the A435 nm/A415 nm ratio to indicate the physiological status of the lichen. The concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, K, Ni, P, sulfate-S, Ti and V in the lichen thallus were measured to quantify the degree of pollution. Thalli of R. duriaei, growing in a nature reserve on the periphery of a 40-year-old industrial town, Ashdod, in southwest Israel were compared with thalli of R. duriaei from an unpolluted forest in the northeastern part of the country transplanted to the polluted areas in and around the town. After an exposure for 10 months, many transplants exhibited lower NDVI values, higher electric conductivity values as well as a lower A435 nm/A415 nm ratio. The three physical/physiological parameters thus reflected severe injury in the lichen transplants. The concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, Ni, sulfate-S, Ti and V in the lichen transplants were found to correlate inversely with the NDVI values, whereas the concentrations of Fe, Ni, Ti and V were found to correlate with electric conductivity. The decrease in the A435 nm/A415 nm ratio was found to correlate with high concentrations of Al, Fe, Ni, sulfate-S, Ti and V in the lichen transplants, whereas the concentration of K and P correlated with both the NDVI value and the A435 nm/A415 nm ratio. It is concluded that in situ thalli of R. duriaei, the only indigenous fruticose lichen growing in the region of Ashdod, are endangered by the presence of pollutants and by acid rain due to the combustion of heavy fuel oil.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: The role played by unsustainable resource management in initiating international conflicts is well documented. The Syrian Civil War, commencing in March 2011, presents such a case. The prevailing opinion links the unrest with sequential droughts occurring from 2007–2010. Our research, however, reveals that the winter-rainfed agricultural conditions before 2011, as detected by satellite-derived vegetation indices, were similar and even better for Syrian farmers than for those of their Turkish counterparts across the border. Concurrently, summer-irrigated crops, heavily dependent on Euphrates River water originating from Turkey, notably declined in Syria while flourishing in Turkey. These findings are firmly supported by other independent and validated datasets, including long-term cross-border discharge, the water level in Syrian and Turkish reservoirs, and transborder groundwater flow. We conclude that the Turkish policy of unilaterally diverting the Euphrates water was the main reason for the agricultural collapse and subsequent instability in Syria in 2011. The obvious inference is that while prolonged drought exacerbated conditions, unsustainable anthropogenic water management in Turkey was the proximate cause behind the Syrian uprising.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-09-29
    Description: The quantification of spatial rainfall is critical for distributed hydrological modeling. Rainfall spatial patterns generated by similar weather conditions can be extremely diverse. This variability can have a significant impact on hydrological processes. Stochastic simulation allows generating multiple realizations of spatial rainfall or filling missing data. The simulated data can then be used as input for numerical models to study the uncertainty on hydrological forecasts. In this paper, we use the direct sampling technique to generate stochastic simulations of high-resolution (1-km) daily rainfall fields, conditioned by elevation and weather state. The technique associates historical radar estimates to variables describing the daily weather conditions, such as the rainfall type and mean intensity, and selects radar images accordingly to form a conditional training image set of each day. Rainfall fields are then generated by resampling pixels from these images. The simulation at each location is conditioned by neighbor patterns of rainfall amount and elevation. The technique is tested on the simulation of daily rainfall amount for the eastern Mediterranean. The results show that it can generate realistic rainfall fields for different weather types, preserving the temporal weather pattern, the spatial features, and the complex relation with elevation. The concept of conditional training image provides added value to multiple-point simulation techniques dealing with extremely non-stationary heterogeneities and extensive datasets.
    Print ISSN: 0043-1397
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-7973
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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