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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: In this paper a sea surface radar echo spectral analysis technique to correct for the rainfall velocity error caused by radar-pointing uncertainty is presented. The correction procedure is quite straightforward when the radar is observing a homogeneous rainfall field. When nonuniform beam filling (NUBF) occurs and attenuating frequencies are used, however, additional steps are necessary in order to correctly estimate the antenna-pointing direction. This new technique relies on the application of the combined frequency-time (CFT) algorithm to correct for uneven attenuation effects on the observed sea surface Doppler spectrum. The performance of this correction technique was evaluated by a Monte Carlo simulation of the Doppler precipitation radar backscatter from high-resolution 3D rain fields (either generated by a cloud resolving numerical model or retrieved from airborne radar measurements). The results show that the antenna-pointing-induced error can, indeed, be reduced by the proposed technique in order to achieve 1 m s(exp -1) accuracy on rainfall vertical velocity estimates.
    Keywords: Communications and Radar
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology; Volume 22; Issue 11; 1676-1690
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Numerous studies have documented the effect of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on rainfall in many regions of the globe. The question of whether ENSO is the single most important factor in interannual rainfall variability has received less attention, mostly because the kind of data that would be required to make such an assessment were simply not available. Until 1979 the evidence linking El Nino with changes in rainfall around the world came from rain gauges measuring precipitation over land masses and a handful of islands. From 1980 until the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in November 1997 the remote sensing evidence was confined to ocean rainfall because of the very poor sensitivity of the instruments over land. In this paper we summarize the results of a principal component analysis of TRMM's 60-month (January 1998 to December 2002) global land and ocean remote-sensing record of monthly rainfall accumulations. Contrary to the first principal component of the rainfall itself, the first three indices of the anomaly are most sensitive to precipitation over the ocean rather than over the land. With the help of archived surface station data the first TRMM rain anomaly index is extended back several decades. Comparison of the extended index with the Southern Oscillation Index confirms that the first principal component of the rainfall anomaly is strongly correlated with the ENSO indices.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; Volume 109; D17103
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: In this paper, we expand the previous theory to be applied to a generic drop size distribution with spheroidal raindrops including spherical raindrops. Results will be used to discuss the multiple scattering effects on the backscatter measurements acquired by a W-band nadir-pointing radar.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: One of fundamental problems in the Mars science is the determination of Martian volatile budget. Of Primary importance is the knowledge of the planetwide distribution of ground ice.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Keywords: Communications and Radar
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: The significant ambiguities inherent in the determination of a particular vertical rain intensity profile from a given time profile of radar echo powers measured by a downward-looking (spaceborne or airborne) radar at a single attenuating frequency are well-documented. Indeed, one already knows that by appropriately varying the parameters of the reflectivity-rain-rate (Z - R) and/or attenuation-rain-rate (k - R) relationships, one can produce several substantially different hypothetical rain rate profiles which would have the same radar power profile. Imposing the additional constraint that the path-averaged rain-rate be a given fixed number does reduce the ambiguities but falls far short of eliminating them. While we now know how to generate as many mutually ambiguous rain-rate profiles from a given profile of received radar reflectivities as we like, there remains to produce a quantitative measure to assess how likely each of these profiles is, what the appropriate 'average' profile should be, and what the 'variance' of these multiple solutions is. Of course, in order to do this, one needs to spell out the stochastic constraints that can allow us to make sense of the words 'average' and 'variance' in a mathematically rigorous way. Such a quantitative approach would be particularly well-suited for such systems as the proposed Precipitation Radar of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Indeed, one would then be able to use the radar reflectivities measured by the TRMM radar from one particular look in order to estimate the most likely rain-rate profile that would have produced the measurements, as well as the uncertainty in the estimated rain-rates as a function of range. Such an optimal approach is described in this paper.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Effects of multiple scattering on reflectivity are studied for millimeter wavelength weather radars. A time-independent vector theory, including up to second-order scattering, is derived for a single layer of hydrometeors of a uniform density and a uniform diameter. In this theory, spherical waves with a Gaussian antenna pattern are used to calculate ladder and cross terms in the analytical scattering theory. The former terms represent the conventional multiple scattering, while the latter terms cause backscattering enhancement in both the copolarized and cross-polarized components. As the optical thickness of the hydrometeor layer increases, the differences from the conventional plane wave theory become more significant, and essentially, the reflectivity of multiple scattering depends on the ratio of mean free path to radar footprint radius. These results must be taken into account when analyzing radar reflectivity for use in remote sensing.
    Keywords: Communications and Radar
    Type: Radio Science; Volume 40
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: This paper presents some crucial design parameters and a strawman system design for a nadir-looking, 94-GHz spaceborne cloud profiling radar. This sensor is expected to provide cloud measurements at vertical resolution of 500 m and with a minimum detectable cloud reflectivity of slightly better than -30 dBZ. The radar design is intended to be accommodated by a spacecraft with limited resources. It uses a 2-m antenna and an extended interaction amplifier (EIA) that are readily available in either ground-based and airborne applications. For space application, improvements in the EIA lifetime and space qualification will be required. For various reasons, the spaceborne cloud radar system development is expected to be greatly benefited by the implementation of an aircraft cloud radar instrument.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: The Cassini Radar's synthetic aperture radar (SAR) ambiguity analysis is unique with respect to other spaceborne SAR ambiguity analyses owing to the non-orbiting spacecraft trajectory, asymmetric antenna pattern, and burst mode of data collection. By properly varying the pointing, burst mode timing, and radar parameters along the trajectory this study shows that the signal-to-ambiguity ratio of better than 15 dB can be achieved for all images obtained by the Cassini Radar.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: IEEE IGARSS '93 Geoscience and Remote Sensing; Tokyo; Japan
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: The Cassini RADAR is a multimode instrument built both by NASA/JPL and ASI/Alenia Spazio. The instrument operates in radiometer-only, scatterometer, altimeter, and imaging modes. This paper will describe this interesting unique radar and how it will be used to collect data at Titan.
    Keywords: Communications and Radar
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