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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Using a multivariate model testing procedure that distinguishes between model inadequacies and data uncertainties, we investigate the ability of the LODYC GCM to simulate the evolution of the 20°C isotherm depth during the 1982–1984 FOCAL/SEQUAL experiment in the equatorial Atlantic. Two different versions of the model are considered: the “Ri” version which has a Richardson number dependent parameterization of vertical mixing and the new “TKE” version which uses a local estimation of the turbulent kinetic energy to parameterize vertical mixing. Some effects of the forcing uncertainties are considered by forcing the TKE version with three equally plausible wind stress fields whose differences are consistent with the measurement and sampling errors, and the drag coefficient indeterminacy. The resulting uncertainties in the model response are substantial and can be as large as the differences between simulations with the two GCM versions, which stresses the need to take the forcing uncertainties into account. Although only one Ri run is available, it is shown that the “TKE” parameterization significantly improves the representation of the equatorial upwelling and the simulation of the depth of the thermocline in the eastern Atlantic. However, there remain significant differences with the observations which cannot be explained by the forcing uncertainties that were considered. The two model versions perform better in the equatorial wave guide than in the 12°N-12°S domain, and they are better distinguished over large domains than along sections, which shows that a global multivariate view point must be used in model-reality comparisons. Finally, a comparison with a linear multimode model emphasizes the need for greater model complexity to properly simulate the equatorial upwelling and the thermocline variability in the tropical Atlantic.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: The influence of the natural variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) on the atmosphere is studied in multi-centennial simulations of six global climate models, using Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA). In all models, a significant but weak influence of the AMOC changes is found during the Northern Hemisphere cold-season, when the ocean leads the atmosphere by a few years. Although the oceanic pattern slightly varies, an intensification of the AMOC is followed in all models by a weak sea level pressure response that resembles a negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The signal amplitude is typically 0.5 hPa and explains about 10% of the yearly variability of the NAO in all models. The atmospheric response seems to be due primarily due to an increase of the heat loss along the North Atlantic Current and the subpolar gyre, associated with an AMOC-driven warming. Sea-ice changes appear to be less important. The stronger heating is associated to a southward shift of the lower-tropospheric baroclinicity and a decrease of the eddy activity in the North Atlantic storm track, which is consistent with the equivalent barotropic perturbation resembling the negative phase of the NAO. This study thus provides some evidence of an atmospheric signature of the AMOC in the cold-season, which may have some implications for the decadal predictability of climate in the North Atlantic region.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Using a multivariate model testing procedure that distinguishes between model inadequacies and data uncertainties, we investigate the ability of the LODYC GCM to simulate the evolution of the 20° C isotherm depth during the 1982–1984 FOCAL/SEQUAL experiment in the equatorial Atlantic. Two different versions of the model are considered: the “Ri” version which has a Richardson number dependent parameterization of vertical mixing and the new “TKE” version which uses a local estimation of the turbulent kinetic energy to parameterize vertical mixing. Some effects of the forcing uncertainties are considered by forcing the TKE version with three equally plausible wind stress fields whose differences are consistent with the measurement and sampling errors, and the drag coefficient indeterminacy. The resulting uncertainties in the model response are substantial and can be as large as the differences between simulations with the two GCM versions, which stresses the need to take the forcing uncertainties into account. Although only one Ri run is available, it is shown that the “TKE” parameterization significantly improves the representation of the equatorial upwelling and the simulation of the depth of the thermocline in the eastern Atlantic. However, there remain significant differences with the observations which cannot be explained by the forcing uncertainties that were considered. The two model versions perform better in the equatorial wave guide than in the 12° N–12° S domain, and they are better distinguished over large domains than along sections, which shows that a global multivariate view point must be used in model-reality comparisons. Finally, a comparison with a linear multimode model emphasizes the need for greater model complexity to properly simulate the equatorial upwelling and the thermocline variability in the tropical Atlantic.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Elsevier B.V., 2006. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 54 (2007): 510-532, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2006.12.014.
    Description: The influence of changes in the rate of deep water formation in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre on the variability of the transport in the Deep Western Boundary Current is investigated in a realistic hind cast simulation of the North Atlantic during the 1953–2003 period. In the simulation, deep water formation takes place in the Irminger Sea, in the interior of the Labrador Sea and in the Labrador Current. In the Irminger Sea, deep water is formed close to the boundary currents. It is rapidly exported out of the Irminger Sea via an intensified East Greenland Current, and out of the Labrador Sea via increased southeastward transports. The newly formed deep water, which is advected to Flemish Cap in approximately one year, is preceded by fast propagating topographic waves. Deep water formed in the Labrador Sea interior tends to accumulate and recirculate within the basin, with a residence time of a few years in the Labrador Sea. Hence, it is only slowly exported northeastward to the Irminger Sea and southeastward to the subtropical North Atlantic, reaching Flemish Cap in 1–5 years. As a result, the transport in the Deep Western Boundary Current is mostly correlated with convection in the Irminger Sea. Finally, the deep water produced in the Labrador Current is lighter and is rapidly exported out of the Labrador Basin, reaching Flemish Cap in a few months. As the production of deep-water along the western periphery of the Labrador Sea is maximum when convection in the interior is minimum, there is some compensation between the deep water formed along the boundary and in the interior of the basin, which reduces the variability of its net transport. These mechanisms which have been suggested from hydrographic and tracer observations, help one to understand the variability of the transport in the Deep Western Boundary Current at the exit of the subpolar gyre.
    Description: Support from the European FP6 project DYNAMITE (Contract 003903-GOCE) and the Institut Universitaire de France (to CF) is gratefully acknowledged.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 24 (2011): 762-777, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3731.1.
    Description: The meridional shifts of the Oyashio Extension (OE) and of the Kuroshio Extension (KE), as derived from high-resolution monthly sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in 1982–2008 and historical temperature profiles in 1979–2007, respectively, are shown based on lagged regression analysis to significantly influence the large-scale atmospheric circulation. The signals are independent from the ENSO teleconnections, which were removed by seasonally varying, asymmetric regression onto the first three principal components of the tropical Pacific SST anomalies. The response to the meridional shifts of the OE front is equivalent barotropic and broadly resembles the North Pacific Oscillation/western Pacific pattern in a positive phase for a northward frontal displacement. The response may reach 35 m at 250 hPa for a typical OE shift, a strong sensitivity since the associated SST anomaly is 0.5 K. However, the amplitude, but not the pattern or statistical significance, strongly depends on the lag and an assumed 2-month atmospheric response time. The response is stronger during fall and winter and when the front is displaced southward. The response to the northward KE shifts primarily consists of a high centered in the northwestern North Pacific and hemispheric teleconnections. The response is also equivalent barotropic, except near Kamchatka, where it tilts slightly westward with height. The typical amplitude is half as large as that associated with OE shifts.
    Description: This work was supported in part by the L’Institut universitaire de France (CF), the WHOI Heyman fellowship, and the NASAGrant withAwardNNX09AF35G(Y.-O. K), and grants through NOAA’s Climate Variability and Predictability Program (MAA).
    Keywords: Atmospheric circulation ; Currents
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 27 (2014): 9359–9376, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00228.1.
    Description: Multidecadal variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is examined based on a comparison of the AMOC streamfunctions in depth and in density space, in a 700-yr present-day control integration of the fully coupled Community Climate System Model, version 3. The commonly used depth-coordinate AMOC primarily exhibits the variability associated with the deep equatorward transport that follows the changes in the Labrador Sea deep water formation. On the other hand, the density-based AMOC emphasizes the variability associated with the subpolar gyre circulation in the upper ocean leading to the changes in the Labrador Sea convection. Combining the two representations indicates that the ~20-yr periodicity of the AMOC variability in the first half of the simulation is primarily due to an ocean-only mode resulting from the coupling of the deep equatorward flow and the upper ocean gyre circulation near the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Current. In addition, the density-based AMOC reveals a gradual change in the deep ocean associated with cooling and increased density, which is likely responsible for the transition of AMOC variability from strong ~20-yr oscillations to a weaker red noise–like multidecadal variability.
    Description: Support from the NOAA Climate Program Office (Grant NA10OAR4310202 and NA13OAR4310139) and NSF EaSM2 (OCE1242989) is gratefully acknowledged.
    Description: 2015-06-15
    Keywords: North Atlantic Ocean ; Meridional overturning circulation ; Ocean circulation ; Thermocline circulation ; Climate variability ; Multidecadal variability
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 28 (2015): 1126–1147, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00285.1.
    Description: The local atmospheric response to a realistic shift of the Oyashio Extension SST front in the western North Pacific is analyzed using a high-resolution (HR; 0.25°) version of the global Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5). A northward shift in the SST front causes an atmospheric response consisting of a weak surface wind anomaly but a strong vertical circulation extending throughout the troposphere. In the lower troposphere, most of the SST anomaly–induced diabatic heating is balanced by poleward transient eddy heat and moisture fluxes. Collectively, this response differs from the circulation suggested by linear dynamics, where extratropical SST forcing produces shallow anomalous heating balanced by strong equatorward cold air advection driven by an anomalous, stationary surface low to the east. This latter response, however, is obtained by repeating the same experiment except using a relatively low-resolution (LR; 1°) version of CAM5. Comparison to observations suggests that the HR response is closer to nature than the LR response. Strikingly, HR and LR experiments have almost identical vertical profiles of . However, diagnosis of the diabatic quasigeostrophic vertical pressure velocity (ω) budget reveals that HR has a substantially stronger response, which together with upper-level mean differential thermal advection balances stronger vertical motion. The results herein suggest that changes in transient eddy heat and moisture fluxes are critical to the overall local atmospheric response to Oyashio Front anomalies, which may consequently yield a stronger downstream response. These changes may require the high resolution to be fully reproduced, warranting further experiments of this type with other high-resolution atmosphere-only and fully coupled GCMs.
    Description: We gratefully acknowledge funding provided by NSF to DS and MN (AGS CLD 1035325) and Y-OK and CF (AGS CLD 1035423) and by DOE to Y-OK (DE-SC0007052).
    Description: 2015-08-01
    Keywords: Atmosphere-ocean interaction ; Atmospheric circulation ; Boundary layer ; Cyclogenesis/cyclolysis ; Diabatic heating ; Extratropical cyclones
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-04-12
    Description: Also published as: Journal of Geophysical Research 84 (1979): 769-776.
    Description: The relation between internal wave variability and larger and smaller scales of motion is investigated, using the IWEX data set. To investigate the role of internal waves in the vertical diffusion of large scale momentum, the time variability of the vertical flux of horizontal internal wave momentum (estimated from temperature and current data) is compared to that of the mean vertical shear. It is found that internal waves cannot cause a vertical viscosity as large as proposed by Müller (1976), but that the data are too noisy to detect a possible wave‐induced viscosity in absolute value of the order of 10−2 m2 s−1 or less. Similarities in the time behavior of the total internal wave energy and that of the square mean vertical shear suggest that some kind of dynamical coupling exists between internal waves and larger scale flows. There is some evidence that the level of temperature finestructure activity also varies in a related way. An analysis of CTD station data taken during Mode demonstrates the mappability of the finestructure activity, and again suggests a relation with the geostrophic eddy flow.
    Description: Prepared for the Office of Naval Research under Contracts N00014-74-C-0262; NR 083- 004 , N00014-76-C-0197: NR 083-400 and for the National Science Foundation under Grant OCE 74-19782 .
    Keywords: Internal waves
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-12
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 31 (2018): 2771-2796, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0061.1.
    Description: The Generalized Equilibrium Feedback Analysis (GEFA) is used to distinguish the influence of the Oyashio Extension (OE) and the Kuroshio Extension (KE) variability on the atmosphere from 1979 to 2014 from that of the main SST variability modes, using seasonal mean anomalies. Remote SST anomalies are associated with each single oceanic regressor, but the multivariate approach efficiently confines their SST footprints. In autumn [October–December (OND)], the OE meridional shifts are followed by a North Pacific Oscillation (NPO)-like signal. The OE influence is not investigated in winter [December–February (DJF)] because of multicollinearity, but a robust response with a strong signal over the Bering Sea is found in late winter/early spring [February–April (FMA)], a northeastward strengthening of the Aleutian low following a northward OE shift. A robust response to the KE variability is found in autumn, but not in winter and late winter when the KE SST footprint becomes increasingly small and noisy as regressors are added in GEFA. In autumn, a positive PDO is followed by a northward strengthening of the Aleutian low and a southward shift of the storm track in the central Pacific, reflecting the surface heat flux footprint in the central Pacific. In winter, the PDO shifts the maximum baroclinicity and storm track southward, the response strongly tilts westward with height in the North Pacific, and there is a negative NAO-like teleconnection. In late winter, the North Pacific NPO-like response to the PDO interferes negatively with the response to the OE and is only detected when the OE is represented in GEFA. A different PDO influence on the atmospheric circulation is found from 1958 to 1977.
    Description: This research has received funding from the European Union 7th Framework Program (FP7 2007-2013) under Grant Agreement 308299 (NACLIM) and from NSF Grants AGS CLD 1035423 and OCE PO 1242989.
    Keywords: Atmosphere-ocean interaction ; Boundary currents ; Pacific decadal oscillation ; Atmosphere-ocean interaction ; Empirical orthogonal functions ; Regression analysis
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2009. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Springer for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Climate Dynamics 33 (2009): 777-793, doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0523-2.
    Description: An OGCM hindcast is used to investigate the linkages between North Atlantic Ocean salinity and circulation changes during 1963–2003. The focus is on the eastern subpolar region consisting of the Irminger Sea and the eastern North Atlantic where a careful assessment shows that the simulated interannual to decadal salinity changes in the upper 1500 m reproduce well those derived from the available record of hydrographic measurements. In the model, the variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is primarily driven by changes in deep water formation taking place in the Irminger Sea and, to a lesser extent, the Labrador Sea. Both are strongly influenced by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The modeled interannual to decadal salinity changes in the subpolar basins are mostly controlled by circulation-driven anomalies of freshwater flux convergence, although surface salinity restoring to climatology and other boundary fluxes each account for approximately 25% of the variance. The NAO plays an important role: a positive NAO phase is associated with increased precipitation, reduced northward salt transport by the wind-driven intergyre gyre, and increased southward flows of freshwater across the Greenland-Scotland ridge. Since the NAO largely controlled deep convection in the subpolar gyre, fresher waters are found near the sinking region during convective events. This markedly differs from the active influence on the MOC that salinity exerts at decadal and longer timescales in most coupled models. The intensification of the MOC that follows a positive NAO phase by about 2 years does not lead to an increase in the northward salt transport into the subpolar domain at low frequencies because it is cancelled by the concomitant intensification of the subpolar gyre which shifts the subpolar front eastward and reduces the northward salt transport by the North Atlantic Current waters. This differs again from most coupled models, where the gyre intensification precedes that of the MOC by several years.
    Description: Support from NSF Grant 82677800 with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and (to CF) from the Institut universitaire de France and European FP6 project DYNAMITE (contract 003903-GOCE) and (to JD) from the NOAA Office of Hydrologic Development through a scientific appointment administered by UCAR is gratefully acknowledged.
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