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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-07
    Description: Highlights • The youngest known (2 Ma) volcanically-active subduction system. • Exceptionally diverse range of magma compositions coeval and spatially juxtaposed. • Mixing of an upwelling asthenospheric mantle melt and a slab melt. • Modern example of an immature subduction system building its proto forearc. • Modern analog of the environment where SSZ ophiolites lithosphere forms. Abstract The development of ideas leading to a greater understanding of subduction initiation is limited by the scarcity of present-day examples. Furthermore, the few examples identified so far unfortunately provide few insights into the nature of magmatism at the inception of subduction. Here we report new observations from the Matthew and Hunter (M&H) subduction zone, a very young subduction zone located in the South-West Pacific. Tectonics of the area show it is younger than 2 Ma, making the M&H the youngest known volcanically-active subduction system and hence providing unique insights into the earliest stages of subduction initiation. Volcanism in this area comprises an exceptionally diverse range of contemporaneously erupting magma compositions which are spatially juxtaposed. Pb isotopic compositions and abundance of LILE and REE strongly suggest melting of upwelling asthenospheric mantle (Indian MORB) and subducted oceanic crust (Pacific MORB of the South Fiji Basin) and the mixing of these two components. Volcanism occurs much closer to the trench compared to volcanism in more mature subduction zones. We demonstrate that the M&H subduction zone is a modern example of an immature subduction system at the stage of pre-arc, near-trench magmatism. It is not yet building an arc but what we propose to call a Subduction Initiation Terrane (SITER). Today, the proto-forearc of the M&H subduction zone is a collage of these SITERs, coeval back-arc domains and remnants of pre-existing terranes including old Vitiaz Arc crust. The M&H area represents a modern analog of a Supra Subduction Zone setting where potentially a majority of ophiolites have formed their crustal and lithospheric components. Present-day magmatism in the M&H area therefore provides clues to understanding unforeseen distribution of contrasted magmatic rock types in fossil forearcs, whether they are at the front of mature subduction zones or in ophiolites.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 23 data points
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 46 data points
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-27
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 73 data points
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-09-27
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 141 data points
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 516 data points
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1321 data points
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Terra nova 17 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3121
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: We studied more than 60 oceanic gabbros from the recent oceanic crust and from ophiolites (East Pacific Rise, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Southwest Indian Ridge, Oman ophiolite) by scanning electron microscopy and found in nearly all samples microstructures suggesting that hydrous partial melting reactions proceeded. The characteristic paragenesis consists of orthopyroxene and pargasite rimming olivine and clinopyroxene primocrysts in intimate contact with neoblastic plagioclase strongly enriched in anorthite. This is in agreement with recent water-saturated melting experiments on a variety of natural gabbros between 900 and 1000 °C. The observed microtextures in the natural gabbros imply the propagation of water-rich fluids on grain boundaries in a ductile regime causing hydrous partial melting. Thus, this type of hydrothermal activity proceeds within the deep oceanic crust at very high temperatures (900–1000 °C) without a crack system, a prerequisite in current models for enabling hydrothermal circulation.
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  • 9
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Koepke, Jürgen; Feig, Sandrin T; Snow, Jonathan E; Freise, Marcus (2004): Petrogenesis of oceanic plagiogranites by partial melting of gabbros: an experimental study. Contributions in Mineralogy and Petrology, 146(4), 414-432, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-003-0511-9
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: We performed hydrous partial melting experiments at shallow pressures (0.2 GPa) under slightly oxidizing conditions (NNO oxygen buffer) on oceanic cumulate gabbros drilled by ODP (Ocean Drilling Program) cruises to evaluate whether the partial melting of oceanic gabbro can generate SiO2-rich melts with compositions typical of oceanic plagiogranites. The experimental melts of the low-temperature runs broadly overlap those of natural plagiogranites. At 940 °C, the normalized SiO2 contents of the experimental melts of all systems range between 60 and 61 wt%, and at 900 °C between 63 and 68 wt%. These liquids are characterized by low TiO2 and FeOtot contents, similar to those of natural plagiogranites from the plutonic section of the oceanic crust, but in contrast to Fe and Ti-rich low-temperature experimental melts obtained in MORB systems at ~950 °C. The ~1,500-m-long drilled gabbroic section of ODP Hole 735B (Legs 118 and 176) at the Southwest Indian Ridge contains numerous small plagiogranitic veins often associated with zones which are characterized by high-temperature shearing. The compositions of the experimental melts obtained at low temperatures match those of the natural plagiogranitic veins, while the compositions of the crystals of low-temperature runs correspond to those of minerals from high-temperature microscopic veins occurring in the gabbroic section of the Hole 735B. This suggests that the observed plagiogranitic veins are products of a partial melting process triggered by a water-rich fluid phase. If the temperature estimations for hightemperature shear zones are correct (up to 1,000 °C), and a water-rich fluid phase is present, the formation of plagiogranites by partial melting of gabbros is probably a widespread phenomenon in the genesis of the ocean crust.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2006-11-01
    Description: To investigate the effect of water on phase relations and compositions in a basaltic system, we performed crystallization experiments at pressures of 100, 200 and 500 MPa in a temperature range of 940 to 1,220°C using four different water contents. Depending on the water activity, the oxygen fugacity varied between 1 and 4 log units above the quartz-magnetite-fayalite buffer. Addition of water to the dry system shifts the solidus  〉 250°C to lower temperatures and increases the amount of melt drastically. For instance, at 1,100°C and 200 MPa, the melt fraction increases from 12.5 wt% at a water content of 1.6 wt% to 96.3% at a water content of 5 wt% in the melt. The compositions of the experimental phases also show a strong effect of water. Plagioclase is shifted to higher anorthite contents by the addition of water. Olivine and clinopyroxene show generally higher MgO/FeO ratios with added water, which could also be related to the increasing oxygen fugacity with water. Moreover, water affects the partitioning of certain elements between minerals and melts, e.g., the Ca partitioning between olivine and melt. Plagioclase shows a characteristic change in the order of crystallization with water that may help to explain the formation of wehrlites intruding the lower oceanic crust (e.g., in Oman, Macquarie Island). At 100 MPa, plagioclase crystallizes before clinopyroxene at all water contents. At pressures 〉 100 MPa, plagioclase crystallizes before clinopyroxene at low water contents (e.g. 〈 3 wt%), but after clinopyroxene at H_2O in the melt 〉 3 wt%. This change in crystallization order indicates that a paragenesis typical for wehrlites (olivine–clinopyroxene–without plagioclase) is stabilized at low pressures typical of the oceanic crust only at high water contents. This opens the possibility that typical wehrlites in the oceanic crust can be formed by the fractionation and accumulation of olivine and clinopyroxene at 1,060°C and 〉 100 MPa in a primitive tholeiitic basaltic system containing more than 3 wt% water. The comparison of the experimental results with evolution trends calculated by the thermodynamic models “MELTS” and “Comagmat” shows that neither model predicts the experimental phase relations with sufficient accuracy. ©2006 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0010-7999
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0967
    Topics: Geosciences
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