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  • 1
    Call number: SR 93.1124(37)
    In: Münchener geographische Abhandlungen
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 59 S.
    ISBN: 3886181030
    Series Statement: Münchener geographische Abhandlungen : Reihe A 37
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-05-03
    Description: The Laptev and Eastern Siberian shelves are the world’s broadest shallow shelf systems. Large Siberian rivers and coastal erosion of up to meters per summer deliver large volumes of terrestrial matter into the Arctic shelf seas. In this chapter we investigate the applicability of Ocean Colour Remote Sensing during the ice-free summer season in the Siberian Laptev Sea region. We show that the early summer river peak discharge may be traced using remote sensing in years characterized by early sea-ice retreat. In the summer time after the peak discharge, the spreading of the main Lena River plume east and north-east of the Lena River Delta into the shelf system becomes hardly traceable using optical remote sensing methods. Measurements of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and coloured dissolved organic matter (cDOM) are of the same magnitude in the coastal waters of Buor Khaya Bay as in the Lena River. Match-up analyses of in situ chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) show that standard Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite-derived Chl-a is not a valid remote sensing product for the coastal waters and the inner shelf region of the Laptev Sea. All MERIS and MODIS-derived Chl-a products are overestimated by at least a factor of ten, probably due to absorption by the extraordinarily high amount of non-algal particles and cDOM in these coastal and inner-shelf waters. Instead, Ocean Colour remote sensing provides information on wide-spread resuspension over shallows and lateral advection visible in satellite-derived turbidity. Satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data clearly show hydrodynamics and delineate the outflow of the Lena River for hundreds of kilometres out into the shelf seas.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Book , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Boundary layer meteorology 18 (1980), S. 221-232 
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A version of the two-flow radiative transfer model is presented as a simple method to study the relationship between substances in water and the backscattered radiation field. It is shown that under the assumption of a diffuse radiative input into a water body, the irradiance attenuation coefficient k can be regarded as an inherent property. A cuvette system is presented which allows one to measure and calculate the attenuation coefficient k, the absorption coefficient a and the backscattering coefficient Bb of various substances. The model can be used to check the applicability of a remote sensing technique for a specific research area and for specific parameters, and to estimate the expected accuracy, and the signal depth. The inversion of the model can be applied as a technique to estimate concentrations in water from the backscattered radiation. The critical assumption of a diffuse radiative input and transfer, which has to be made when using the model for natural conditions, is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1438-3888
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Interest in using remote sensing techniques, principally those involving satellite, in Wadden Sea research has centred on attempting a classification of the various sediment surface types present. Unlike most recent studies which have used mainly Landsat Multispectral Scanner data, we have assessed the feasibility of using Landsat Thematic Mapper data, which in conjunction with time series aerial photography, forms the basis of a strategy for remotely sensing the Wadden Sea. This paper focusses on an approach for extracting potentially “hidden” within-pixel information from multispectral data sets. A hierarchical (unsupervised) classification of a Thematic Mapper image successfully classified five different classes, including land, saltmarsh, water, cloud and tidal flat areas. This procedure thus enabled a “masking-out” of all classes other than those classified as tidal flat, following which a factor analysis was used to determine the minimum number of independent factors necessary to explain the observed variation in the signal received by the satellite. Three factors accounted for a total of 82% of the variation in all seven TM channels. Preliminary studies of the primary factor (score) image shows a good correlation with existing latterday cartographic data. Considering the proximate relationship between topography and other important biotic and abiotic sedimentary characteristics, this approach may prove valuable for future applications of satellite data for monitoring long-term change in physical and thus biological Wadden Sea characteristics. Ongoing research efforts are focussing on a classification and quantification of sub-pixel patchiness using aerial photography and ground surveys. The approaches taken and results obtained to date are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    GeoJournal 24 (1991), S. 27-48 
    ISSN: 1572-9893
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: Abstract Remote sensing of water colour and its application to the mapping of pigments, suspended matter and other substances by means of airborne and spaceborne sensors is discussed. After an introduction to the physical process involved, the methods for a quantitative interpretation especially of CZCS data are indicated. Applications towards the monitoring of coastal pollution, of algae blooms and of dynamic processes are shown by means of selected examples. Multispectral scanner and imaging spectrometer technologies are discussed with special reference to NASA's Earth Observation System and ESA's Earth Observation Programme.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-11-25
    Description: Enhanced permafrost warming and increased Arctic river discharges have heightened concern about the input of terrigenous matter into Arctic coastal waters. We used optical operational satellite data from the ocean colour sensor MERIS (Medium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) aboard the ENVISAT satellite mission for synoptic monitoring of the pathways of terrigenous matter on the shallow Laptev Sea shelf. Despite the high cloud coverage in summer that is inherent to this Arctic region, time series from MERIS satellite data from 2006 on to 2011 could be acquired and were processed using the Case-2 Regional Processor (C2R) for optically complex surface waters installed in the open-source software ESA BEAM-VISAT. Since optical remote sensing using ocean colour satellite data has seen little application in Siberian Arctic coastal and shelf waters, we assess the applicability of the calculated MERIS C2R parameters with surface water sampling data from the Russian–German ship expeditions LENA2008, LENA2010 and TRANSDRIFT-XVII taking place in August 2008 and August and September 2010 in the southern Laptev Sea. The shallow Siberian shelf waters are optically not comparable to the deeper, more transparent waters of the Arctic Ocean. The inner-shelf waters are characterized by low transparencies, due to turbid river water input, terrestrial input by coastal erosion, resuspension events and, therefore, high background concentrations of suspended particulate matter and coloured dissolved organic matter. We compared the field-based measurements with the satellite data that are closest in time. The match-up analyses related to LENA2008 and LENA2010 expedition data show the technical limits of matching in optically highly heterogeneous and dynamic shallow inner-shelf waters. The match-up analyses using the data from the marine TRANSDRIFT expedition were constrained by several days' difference between a match-up pair of satellite-derived and in situ parameters but are also based on the more stable hydrodynamic conditions of the deeper inner- and the outer-shelf waters. The relationship of satellite-derived turbidity-related parameters versus in situ suspended matter from TRANSDRIFT data shows that the backscattering coefficient C2R_bb_spm can be used to derive a Laptev-Sea-adapted SPM algorithm. Satellite-derived Chl a estimates are highly overestimated by a minimum factor of 10 if applied to the inner-shelf region due to elevated concentrations of terrestrial organic matter. To evaluate the applicability of ocean colour remote sensing, we include the visual analysis of lateral hydrographical features. The mapped turbidity-related MERIS C2R parameters show that the Laptev Sea is dominated by resuspension above submarine shallow banks and by frontal instabilities such as frontal meanders with amplitudes up to 30 km and eddies and filaments with horizontal scales up to 100 km that prevail throughout the sea-ice-free season. The widespread turbidity above submarine shallow banks indicates inner-shelf vertical mixing that seems frequently to reach down to submarine depths of a minimum of 10 m. The resuspension events and the frontal meanders, filaments and eddies indicate enhanced vertical mixing being widespread on the inner shelf. It is a new finding for the Laptev Sea that numerous frontal instabilities are made visible, and how highly time-dependent and turbulent the Laptev Sea shelf is. The meanders, filaments and eddies revealed by the ocean colour parameters indicate the lateral transportation pathways of terrestrial and living biological material in surface waters.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-05-17
    Description: The Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) was established in order to better understand the complex interdisciplinary processes of northern seas and the Arctic coasts in a changing environment. Particular focus is given to the German Bight in the North Sea as a prime example of a heavily used coastal area, and Svalbard as an example of an Arctic coast that is under strong pressure due to global change. The COSYNA automated observing and modelling system is designed to monitor real-time conditions and provide short-term forecasts, data, and data products to help assess the impact of anthropogenically induced change. Observations are carried out by combining satellite and radar remote sensing with various in situ platforms. Novel sensors, instruments, and algorithms are developed to further improve the understanding of the interdisciplinary interactions between physics, biogeochemistry, and the ecology of coastal seas. New modelling and data assimilation techniques are used to integrate observations and models in a quasi-operational system providing descriptions and forecasts of key hydrographic variables. Data and data products are publicly available free of charge and in real time. They are used by multiple interest groups in science, agencies, politics, industry, and the public.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative intends to provide a long-term time series of ocean colour data and investigate the detectable climate impact. A reliable and stable atmospheric correction procedure is the basis for ocean colour products of the necessary high quality. In order to guarantee an objective selection from a set of four atmospheric correction processors, the common validation strategy of comparisons between in-situ and satellite derived water leaving reflectance spectra, is extended by a ranking system. In principle, the statistical parameters such as root mean square error, bias, etc. and measures of goodness of fit, are transformed into relative scores, which evaluate the relationship of quality dependent on the algorithms under study. The sensitivity of these scores to the selected database has been assessed by a bootstrapping exercise, which allows identification of the uncertainty in the scoring results. Although the presented methodology is intended to be used in an algorithm selection process, this paper focusses on the scope of the methodology rather than the properties of the individual processors.
    Keywords: Oceanography; Numerical Analysis
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN23655 , Remote Sensing of Environment; 162; 242-256
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: The terrigenous carbon export into the Arctic shelf systems is a major component of the Arctic Organic Carbon (OC) cycle. Mac Guire et al.(2009)in their review on the Arctic Carbon Cycle recommendate to strengthen observations and design the research sector of 'scaling' that is a key challenge to link the processes observed and understood on fine scales to larger scales, e.g., needed for modeling. Here, remote sensing observations can become important tools. Recent development of satellite ocean color sensors such as MODIS, SeaWiFS, MERIS has been accompanied by an increased effort to establish Ocean Colour (OC) algorithms (e.g., for chlorophyll, suspended matter, coloured dissolved organic matter). The ‘OCoc-from Ocean Colour to Organic Carbon’ project (IPY-project 1176), funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), is an Ocean Colour study joined with the Arctic Coastal Dynamics ACD network and Arctic Circum-polar Coastal Observatory Network ACCO-Net (IPY-project 90). OCoc uses MERIS data for synoptical monitoring of terrigenous suspended and organic matter in the late-summer ice-free waters of the Laptev See region. MERIS Reduced Resolution (RR)-LIB data are processed towards optical aquatic parameters using Beam-Visat4.2 and the MERIS Case2 Regional processor for coastal application (C2R). Calculated aquatic parameters are optical coefficients and calculated concentrations of chlorophyll, total suspended matter and coloured dissolved organic matter absorption from the water leaving reflectances. The Laptev Sea is characterized by a very shallow topography and considerable Regions of Fresh water Influence ROFIs. The maximum river discharge of the Lena River, the second largest Arctic river in terms of annual fresh water discharge happens during the spring ice-breakup in June. Fluvial systems serve as point sources for high fluxes of dissolved and particulate terrigenous materials. The Laptev Sea coast is a highly dynamic mainly sedimentary ice-rich system that delivers vast amounts of interstorage carbon and old carbon from syncryogenic deposits. Initial comparisons with expedition data (cDOM, transparency, SPM, turbidity, chlorophyll) from the German-Russian TRANSDRIFT expeditions and from German-Russian expeditions at the Laptev Sea Coast (2008 to 2010) are presented. MERIS-C2R optical parameters such as the first attenuation depth, ’Z90’, seem adequately to represent true conditions. Whereas the derived concentration parameters seem to be overestimated. The synoptic information of the optical MERIS-C2R parameters offers an immediate wealth of information. The spatial patterns of the processed MERIS C2R time series show the inter-annual scale of the atmospherically driven circulation patterns. On event scales, we need to investigate if weather patterns potentially contribute to short pulses and circulation patterns.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: Enhanced permafrost warming and increased arctic river discharges have heightened concern about the input of terrigenous matter into Arctic coastal waters. The IPY project 'ocOC- from Ocean Colour to Organic Carbon' (2008-2010) uses Ocean Colour (OC) data for synoptic monitoring of the input of terrigenous Organic Carbon (OC) from fluvial and coastal sources into Arctic coastal waters. Every late summer, Russian-German ship expeditions take part in the southern Laptev Sea (Arctic Siberia, Russia). The multi-year expedition data are the base for understanding the optico-chemico properties of the coastal waters. The coastal waters are characterized by low transparencies, resuspension events and high cDOM concentrations. The Laptev Sea Region has become an ESA CoastColour investigation site to support the use of the ground data. Ocean Colour MERIS data from 2008 on to 2010 are processed using the VISAT Beam Case2Regional Processor (C2R). The expedition data show that Siberian Arctic coastal waters are highly specific in terms of high cDOM background concentrations. Therefore, all remote sensing chlorophyll products are overestimated by an order of magnitude due to the high cDOM concentrations. The optical C2R parameters such as absorption, attenuation and the first attenuation depth are of immediate value to show the hydrographic dynamics of the Laptev Sea coastal waters
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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