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  • Plasma and Beam Physics  (1)
  • captive breeding  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7160
    Keywords: captive breeding ; in situ conservation ; ex situ conservation ; zoos ; protected areas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract Growing deterministic and stochastic threats to many wild populations of large vertebrates have focused attention on the conservation significance of captive breeding and subsequent reintroduction. However, work on both gorillas and black rhinos questions this shift in emphasis. In these species, field-based conservation can be effective if properly supported and, although this is not cheap, per capita costs may still be considerably lower than for ex situ propagation in captivity. Here we attempt to broaden the scope of this debate by contrasting the breeding success and costs of in situ and captive programmes for a range of threatened mammals. Data are scarce, but we find that across nine large-bodied genera, in situ conservation achieves comparable rates of population growth to those seen in established captive breeding programmes. Moreover, comparing budgets of well-protected reserves with zoos' own estimates of maintenance costs and the costs of zoo adoption schemes, we find that per capita costs for effective in situ conservation are consistently lower than those of maintenance in captivity. Captive breeding may be more cost-effective for smaller-bodied taxa, and will often remain desirable for large mammals restricted to one or two vulnerable wild populations. However, our results, coupled with the fact that effective in situ conservation protects intact ecosystems rather than single species, lead us to suggest that zoos might maximize their contribution to large mammal conservation by investing where possible in well-managed field-based initiatives, rather than establishing additional ex situ breeding programmes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Utilizing a series of existing computer codes, ablation experiments in the Giant Planet Facility are numerically simulated. Of primary importance is the simulation of the low Mach number shock layer that envelops the test model. The RASLE shock-layer code, used in the Jupiter entry probe heat-shield design, is adapted to the experimental conditions. RASLE predictions for radiative and convective heat fluxes are in good agreement with calorimeter measurements. In simulating carbonaceous ablation experiments, the RASLE code is coupled directly with the CMA material response code. For the graphite models, predicted and measured recessions agree very well. Predicted recession for the carbon phenolic models is 50% higher than that measured. This is the first time codes used for the Jupiter probe design have been compared with experiments.
    Type: AIAA PAPER 79-1102 , American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Thermophysics Conference; June 4-6, 1979; Orlando, FL
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-24
    Description: Author(s): C. A. Lindstrøm, E. Adli, J. M. Allen, W. An, C. Beekman, C. I. Clarke, C. E. Clayton, S. Corde, A. Doche, J. Frederico, S. J. Gessner, S. Z. Green, M. J. Hogan, C. Joshi, M. Litos, W. Lu, K. A. Marsh, W. B. Mori, B. D. O’Shea, N. Vafaei-Najafabadi, and V. Yakimenko Hollow channel plasma wakefield acceleration is a proposed method to provide high acceleration gradients for electrons and positrons alike: a key to future lepton colliders. However, beams which are misaligned from the channel axis induce strong transverse wakefields, deflecting beams and reducing t... [Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 124802] Published Fri Mar 23, 2018
    Keywords: Plasma and Beam Physics
    Print ISSN: 0031-9007
    Electronic ISSN: 1079-7114
    Topics: Physics
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