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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2006-01-16
    Description: A schematic representation of the generation and propagation processes for energetic particles of concern in solar terrestrial predictions is given. Particle precipitation at low, mid, and high altitudes is discussed with emphasis on prediction techniques. Methods given for testing of such techniques include traditional collaborations, enhanced collaborations, simulated prediction schemes, and field tests.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Marshall Space Flight Center Solar-Terrest. Predictions Proc., Vol. 2; p 433-440
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: A pseudobreakup is a phenomenon similar to the substorm expansive phase onset, including an activation of an auroral arc, a burst of Pi2 micropulsations, and enhancement of the westward electrojet. However, these effects are weak and a pseudobreak is generally assumed to be very localized. The pseudobreakups are discussed based on simultaneous observations made in space and on the ground during the substorm growth phase. In the events studied the main features listed above are found, but the significance of the localization is unclear. The optical pseudobreakup, with associated magnetic perturbations, is highly localized, but simultaneously a wide local time sector of the auroral oval may be activated. The major differences between pseudobreakups and substorm expansive phase onsets are concluded to be the intensity and the development that follows. Careful study of pseudobreakups may help to determine phase initiation, and the role of the ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling in the substorm process.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: ESA, Substorms 1; p 111-116
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Using electron count rate data at geostationary orbit, daily energy spectra, extending from 30 keV to 15 MeV, have been developed for trapped relativistic electrons at 6.6 earth radii. These spectra have been used to model the flux of these electrons into the atmosphere at 120 km. Energy deposition calculations permit daily sources of HO(x) and NO(y) to be calculated at auroral and subauroral latitudes due to relativistic electron precipitation (REP) for the period June 13, 1979, through June 4, 1988. Both short-term and long-term source variations are quite large over the period considered. The results suggest that a significant contribution to the anomalously large and unexplained global O3 declines between 1979 and 1985 has been made by the catalytic destruction of O3 by odd nitrogen in the lower stratosphere at mid to high latitudes. The results also provide evidence for a clear and strong linkage between solar variability, the state of the magnetosphere, and the chemical climatological state of the middle and lower atmosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 96; 2939-297
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Using three separate but related approaches, the question of whether the dynamic response of the magnetosphere to the solar wind input may be described by a low-order system of equations is examined. First, it is determined that the dimension of the subset (the attractor) in the high-dimensional magnetospheric phase space associated with the westward auroral electrojet (AL) index for some of the data sets compiled by Bargatze et al. (1985) is 4.0 + or - 0.2, seemingly independent of activity level. Second, direct modeling of the magnetosphere, considering the bulk properties of the tail plasma, leads to a system of equations that is similar to those previously reported as a dripping faucet model; here, the focus is specifically on the prediction of a natural frequency in this model. Finally, a peak is identified with the predicted frequency in power spectra of AL computed for intervals with both low and high activity. Peaks at other frequencies also appear in the spectra, and such resonances would be expected for a chaotic nonlinear oscillator. Combining these approaches it is concluded that at least some aspects of magnetospheric dynamics may be meaningfully modeled by low-dimensional sets of equations.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 18; 151-154
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The relationship between relativistic electron flux variations at 6.6 R(E) and various published indices and solar wind properties is studied. An attempt is made to characterize the temporal and dimensional relationships between solar wind or magnetic indices and electron flux enhancements. It is shown that the solar wind speed upstream of the earth's magnetosphere is correlated with large increases in the flux of highly relativistic electrons at geostationary orbit.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 15133-15
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Plasmoids are closed magnetic-loop structures with entrained hot plasma which are inferred to occur on large spatial scales in space plasma systems. A model is proposed here to explain the brightening and rapid tailward movement of the barium cloud released by the AMPTE IRM spacecraft on May 13, 1985. The model suggests that a small-scale plasmoid was formed due to a predicted development of heavy-ion-induced tearing in the thinned near-tail plasma sheet. Thus, a plasmoid may actually have been imaged due to the emissions of the entrained plasma ions within the plasma bubble.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 94; 17084-17
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Magnetotail observations from the ISEE 3 distant (1983) tail mission taken during the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop 8 (CDAW 8) A and G events are investigated. The ISEE 3 magnetic field, plasma, and energetic particle measurements taken in these two plasmoids have been analyzed and compared with various equilibrium structures and propagating waves/tail oscillation modes. Results indicate general agreement with either the closed-loop (Hones, 1977) or very small pitch angle flux rope (Hughes and Sibeck, 1987; Birn et al., 1989) models of plasmoid structure and poorer agreement with other hypotheses. Calculations based upon typical plasmoid and tail parameters are presented, indicating that the J and B force associated with the disconnected lobe field lines may be sufficient to accelerate plasmoids up to the speeds observed by ISEE 3. Overall, the energy expended in accelerating the plasmoids down the tail appears comparable to that dissipated in the inner magnetosphere and ionosphere. The study produces strong evidence in favor of the plasmoid model of substorm tail dynamics.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 94; 15153-15
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Energy distribution functions have been derived from energetic (30-2000 keV) electron fluxes observed simultaneously by three geosynchronous orbit satellites throughout the year 1986. These distributions, as well as others derived from empirical models of outer magnetospheric electron fluxes, can be resolved into two distinct relativistic Maxwellian components which are each fully parameterized by a density and a temperature. A four-parameter characterization is presented which provides a new, simplified procedure for the interpretation of energetic electron data in the outer magnetosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 16; 147-150
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The issue of accelertion and transport of particles in the upstream solar wind was investigated using the energetic ion and electron observations obtained simultaneously by three fortuitously positioned geostationary spececraft during a strong magnetospheric compression event of November 1, 1984. This compression event brought the subsolar magnetopause inward of the synchronous orbit. Data obtained indicate that, in the November 1 event, the process of magnetospheric ion escape was a very likely source for energetic particles both in the magnetosheath and the upstream solar wind.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 93; 14317-14
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Examination of many individual event periods in the ISEE 3 deep-tail data set has suggested that magnetospheric substorms produce a characteristic pattern of effects in the distant magnetotail. During the growth, or tail-energy-storage phase of substorms, the magnetotail appears to grow diametrically in size, often by many earth radii. Subsequently, after the substorm expansive phase onset at earth, the distant tail undergoes a sequence of plasma, field, and energetic-particle variations as large-scale plasmoids move rapidly down the tail following their disconnection from the near-earth plasma sheet. ISEE 3 data are appropriate for the study of these effects since the spacecraft remained fixed within the nominal tail location for long periods. Using newly available auroral electrojet indices (AE and AL) and Geo particle data to time substorm onsets at earth, superposed epoch analyses of ISEE 3 and near-earth data prior to, and following, substorm expansive phase onsets have been performed. These analyses quantify and extend substantially the understanding of the deep-tail pattern of response to global substorm-induced dynamical effects.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
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