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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5001
    Keywords: AIDS ; DYANA ; HIV-1 ; NMR structure ; ribonuclease H ; RNA-DNA hybrid ; torsion angle dynamics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A high-quality NMR solution structure of the chimeric hybrid duplex r(gcaguggc)⋅r(gcca)d(CTGC) was determined using the program DYANA with its recently implemented new module FOUND, which performs exhaustive conformational grid searches for dinucleotides. To ensure conservative data interpretation, the use of 1H-1H lower distance limit constraints was avoided. The duplex comprises the tRNA–DNA junction formed during the initiation of HIV-1 reverse transcription. It forms an A-type double helix that exhibits distinct structural deviations from a standard A-conformation. In particular, the minor groove is remarkably narrow, and its width decreases from about 7.5 Å in the RNA/RNA stem to about 4.5 Å in the RNA/DNA segment. This is unexpected, since minor groove widths for A-RNA and RNA/DNA hybrid duplexes of ∼11 Å and ∼8.5 Å, respectively, were previously reported. The present, new structure supports that reverse transcriptase-associated RNaseH specificity is related primarily to conformational adaptability of the nucleic acid in 'induced-fit'-type interactions, rather than the minor groove width of a predominantly static nucleic acid duplex.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0517
    Keywords: Key words Trace elements ; Water ; Intercomparison ; Comparability ; Traceability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract  The sixth round of the International Measurement Evaluation Programme (IMEP) is presented. The programme offers reference values, established by primary methods of measurement, against which participating laboratories can evaluate their performance. The degree of comparability is thus established against the most objective references available at present. In IMEP-6, reference values for total concentrations of 14 trace elements in a synthetic and a natural water were established mainly by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). For the majority of the measurands, results traceable to the international system of units (SI) and having expanded uncertainties, U (k=2), of 2% could be established. Measurements results from 165 field laboratories in 29 countries are evaluated and presented as descriptive (regional, national and intercontinental) pictures of the participants' self-declared degree of experience, status of accreditation, performance (including target values for uncertainty set by authorities) and instrumental methods used. The participants' use of certified reference materials and calibrants has been documented, and some comments on this matter are raised. The results and characteristics for IMEP-6 are compared with those of IMEP-3 (1991–1993) and discussed in view of the forthcoming IMEP-9 (1998).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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