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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-11-18
    Description: The recent earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand, show that active faults, capable of generating large - magnitude earthquakes, can be hidden beneath the Earth’s surface. Here we combine near - surface paleoseismic data with deep (〈5 km) onshore seismic - reflection lines to identify sub - resolution active faults and to explore the relations between fault growth over short (〈27kyr) and long (〉1Ma) timescales in the Taranaki Rift, New Zealand. Displacement rates vary temporally on individual faults by in excess of an order of magnitude over timescales of thousands to millions of years. These changes are attributed to fault interactions rather than to changes in regional strain rates. During the Holocene fault displacement rates were both faster (~50%) and slower (~50%) than their million - year averages. The short - term fault data are incomplete and biased towards the faults that have moved fastest during the Holocene. The integration of different timescale atasets provides a basis for identifying active faults not observed at the ground surface, estimating maximum fault - rupture lengths, inferring maximum short - term displacement rates and improving earthquake hazard assessment.
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/ConferencePaper
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  • 2
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    In:  Geoscience Society of New Zealand miscellaneous publication ; Year: 2011 ; Volume: 127A ; Pages: 79
    Publication Date: 2014-11-18
    Description: The recent Mw 7.1 Darfield Earthquake produced rupture of the ground surface along a fault that was not known to exist prior to the earthquake. How many more active faults remain undiscovered, how best to identify these faults and what hazard they might pose are all important questions arising from the Canterbury earthquakes. In this talk we use aerial photograph, fault trenching, seismic reflection, LiDAR and historical seismicity information post 1845 to cast light on the first two of these questions for New Zealand. On the Taranaki Peninsula, where active normal faults generally have slow displacement rates 〈0.5 mm/yr, seismic reflection lines reveal that 〈50% of active faults produce mappable traces and that even where active traces have been mapped these constitute 〈50% of the sub-surface fault length. Similar statistics also apply on the Rangitaiki Plains in the Bay of Plenty, where a recently published LiDAR digital elevation model reveals many more active normal faults with longer traces than was previously identified from 1:16000 aerial photographs and field mapping. In common with the Taranaki example the rates of sedimentation over much of the plains are comparable to the fault displacement rates (0.2-2 mm/yr) and fault scarp burial may be common. To further test the incompleteness of the geological record historical large magnitude earthquakes since 1845 are considered for all of New Zealand. Of the onshore events with magnitudes 〉7 only about half show evidence of surface rupture along the primary fault surface and have the potential to be recorded in the future geological record. For the historical data, however, the main reason active faulting was not observed is that either ground surface rupture did not occur or was below the detection threshold. Together, lack of surface rupture and scarp concealment (or destruction) by surface processes are likely to mean that many active faults, particularly with slower displacement rates (〈0.5 mm/yr), have not yet been discovered. The Taranaki and Bay of Plenty studies suggest, however, that acquisition of data, including LiDAR and seismic reflection lines, can significantly reduce this knowledge gap.
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/ConferencePaper
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-11-11
    Description: The catastrophic earthquakes that recently (September 4th, 2010 and February 22nd, 2011) hit Christchurch, New Zealand, show that active faults, capable of generating large-magnitude earthquakes, can be hidden beneath the Earth’s surface. In this study we combine near-surface paleoseismic data with deep (〈5 km) onshore seismic- reflection lines to explore the growth of normal faults over short (〈27 kyr) and long (〉1 Ma) timescales in the Taranaki Rift, New Zealand. Our analysis shows that the integration of different timescale datasets provides a basis for identifying active faults not observed at the ground surface, estimating maximum fault-rupture lengths, inferring maximum short-term displacement rates and improving earthquake hazard assessment. We find that fault displacement rates become increasingly irregular (both faster and slower) on shorter timescales, leading to incom- plete sampling of the active-fault population. Surface traces have been recognised for 〈50% of the active faults and along 50% of their lengths. The similarity of along-strike displacement profiles for short and long time inter-vals suggests that fault lengths and maximum single-event displacements have not changed over the last 3.6 Ma. Therefore, rate changes are likely to reflect temporal adjustments in earthquake recurrence intervals due to fault interactions and associated migration of earthquake activity within the rift.
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/ConferencePaper
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-11-19
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/ConferencePaper
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-02-13
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The erosion properties of brittle materials depend upon plastic deformation and crack generation at an impact or indented site. Vickers indentations have been used to investigate the plastic processes and crack systems in chemical vapour deposited zinc sulphide of different grain sizes. The hardness,H, and the “local” fracture toughnessK c, are dependent upon the grain size of the material. For small grain size material (〈50 Μm) the Vickers hardness was found to increase with decreasing grain size in accord with the Petch mechanism, i.e.H=H 0 +kd −1/2 wherek andH 0 are constants andd is the grain diameter. A maximum hardness of ca. 4 GPa has been observed for material with an average 0.5 Μm grain diameter. In large grain size material, hardness anisotropy within the grains causes significant experimental scatter in the hardness measurements because the plastic impression formed by the indenter (load 10 N and 100 N) is smaller than the grain diameter. The values ofK c obtained using an indentation technique show that for grain sizes less than 8 ΜmK c decreases with decreasing grain size. For materials with a grain size in the range 500 Μm to 8 Μm, well developed median cracks were not observed, however, the radius of the fracture zone was measured in order to estimate an “effective”K c. The “effective”K c was found to increase approximately linearly with the reciprocal root of the grain size. Consideration of the models for elastic/plastic impact and micromechanics of crack nucleation in conjuction with the variation ofK c andH, indicate that zinc sulphide with a mean grain size of 8 Μm will give the optimum solid particle and rain erosion resistance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1438-3888
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The analyses of density fields, nitrate and chlorophyll α concentrations, Lagrangian current measurements and remote sensing of sea surface temperatures demonstrated an island mixing effect for Monhegan Island (Gulf of Maine). The island's unique location within the westward flowing arm of a counterclockwise basin gyre and the bathymetry surrounding the island result in a combination of vertical mixing and upwelling to produce chlorophyll maxima on the north and south flanks of the island.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A new instrumental method has been devised for the individual, sequential, or collective measurement of the physical and chemical properties of liquids. The instrumental theory for the fiber drop analyzer (FDA) has been developed for the measurement of surface tension, viscosity, refractive index, and chemical composition of a liquid. An empirical theory is suggested for the measurement of pH in a limited range. The analytical theory for the fiber drop analyzer has been established, a prototype constructed and tested for measuring individually surface tension, viscosity, refractive index, and the chemical composition on a restricted set of test solution. The instrument is shown to have the capability to simultaneously measure the above measurands, but in addition can in individual measurement procedures, measure all these quantities. The instrument perhaps is also potentially capable of measuring specific gravity and pH in its existing form, and other optical properties of liquids with some basic modification. The laboratory FDA has been used to test a series of samples from a large cane sugar manufacturer's process and these measurements demonstrate that this technology has the potential to be used as a remote optrode industrial process monitor for sucrose manufacture and very possibly, elsewhere in other industrial applications.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An ARCTM or similar experimental apparatus provides the transient temperature history of a chemical system under adiabatic conditions. The information obtained has several applications in the design and operation of industrial systems. Of particular interest is use of the adiabatic kinetic data to define “intervention strategies” based on “allowable response times” during an emergency.The time-temperature behavior of industrial reactors can be simulated over a limited temperature range by matching the “thermal inertia” (or φ-factor) of the experimental system to that of the full-scale system. This approach is applicable even for complex reactions, minimizes the extrapolation of data, and allows the use of simple models for data interpretation. Simulation results directly give the time available to respond in the event of a thermal runaway; this in turn defines the design requirements for an intervention scheme (e.g., emergency cooling, blow down, quench, etc.). The chosen intervention system can be tested experimentally prior to and/or during process start-up.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In Part I, criteria for heat engine and heat pump placement in chemical process networks were derived, based on the “temperature interval” (T.I) analysis of the heat exchanger network problem. Using these criteria, this paper gives a method for identifying the best outline design for any combined system of chemical process, heat engines, and heat pumps. The method eliminates inferior alternatives early, and positively leads on to the most appropriate solution. A graphical procedure based on the T.I. analysis forms the heart of the approach, and the calculations involved are simple enough to be carried out on, say, a programmable calculator. Application to a case study is demonstrated.Optimization methods based on this procedure are currently under research.
    Additional Material: 27 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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