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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Post-harvest rotting of Dutch white cabbage was reduced by post-harvest treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens strains CL42, CL66, CL82, Serratia plymuthica strain CL43 or Serratia liquefaciens CL80, in three storage trials carried out in an experimental cold store at Manchester University, Manchester, UK and in a commercial cold store at L.W. van Geest Farms Ltd, Spalding, UK. The amount of surface area covered by fungal growth was assessed at 6-week intervals during storage and the trimming losses were determined after 8 to 10 months. Only strains CL80 and CL82 were found to reduce fungal spoilage significantly in all three trials, and control by strain CL82 was similar to that achieved by post-harvest treatment with fungicides. In the commercial cold store, CL42 showed better results than any of the other bacterial strains.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Bacterial antagonists against Botrytis cinerea were isolated from different Brassica spp. and identified. All isolates showing in vitro antagonism at 4°C were shown to be either fluorescent pseudomonads or Serratia spp. In vitro antagonism against B. cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola was found to depend on the temperature and concentration of nutrients in the medium.Bacterial strains which showed in vitro antagonism were tested for in vivo antagonism at 4°C against B. cinerea and A. brassicicola using a leaf disc bioassay. Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates CL42, CL66, CL82 and Serratia plymuthica strain CL43 showed inhibition of Botrytis growth on leaf discs; P. fluorescens isolate CL74 and all Serratia liquefaciens isolates exhibited intermediate control. All other fluorescent pseudomonad isolates showed poor control or caused rotting of the cabbage tissue.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1546-170X
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] High concentrations of nitrite present in saliva (derived from dietary nitrate) may, upon acidification, generate nitrogen oxides in the stomach in sufficient amounts to provide protection from swallowed pathogens. We now show that, in the rat, reduction of nitrate to nitrite is confined to a ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature biotechnology 25 (2007), S. 1355-1355 
    ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: [Auszug] To the editor: I was very disappointed by your September Feature critiquing the results of Irina Ermakova, especially as I had previously considered Nature Biotechnology one of the best scientific journals in the area of biotechnology. I feel that publishing selected extracts of Ermakova's ...
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  • 5
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    Unknown
    Frankfurt a. M.: Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften
    Publication Date: 2017-03-15
    Description: In der heutigen Theorie der Optionsbewertung wird davon ausgegangen, daß die Markterwartungen genau berechenbar sind. Die Unsicherheit besteht lediglich darin, welcher Aktienkurs sich letztlich realisiert, die Eintrittswahrscheinlichkeiten sind bekannt. Dabei treten jedoch erhebliche Probleme auf, denn theoretisch erwartete Preise entsprechen oft nicht den am Markt beobachteten. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, zu untersuchen, ob auch dann eine Optionsbewertung möglich ist, wenn die Unsicherheit nicht nur auf die Stochastik reduziert wird, sondern wenn zusätzlich angenommen wird, daß Marktteilnehmer nur unscharfes Wissen über künftige Preisentwicklungen haben. Hierbei dient die Fuzzy Set Theorie zur Modellierung der nur größenordnungsmäßig bekannten künftigen Aktienkurse. Es wird in dieser Arbeit zwischen der Optionspreistheorie und der Fuzzy Set Theorie eine Verbindung geschaffen, die es zukünftig erlauben wird, die Unsicherheit im Markt besser zu modellieren, als dies mit heute dominierenden Methoden der Optionsbewertung möglich ist.
    Description: The classical option pricing theory assumes that the future payoffs are known; uncertain is only which payoff will be realized. The probability distribution is given too. But this model leads to a mismatch of theoretical prices and observable market prices. Moreover, it is not reasonable, why everyone should have the same set of crisp payoffs. In this paper we will show that options can also be valued when uncertainty is not reduced to probabilities of payoffs. In our approach the basic model is extended to the case that payoffs are described by fuzzy numbers. By connecting option pricing theory and fuzzy set theory we get a better model of real financial markets. This allows us to establish modern portfolio instruments in a fuzzy environment.
    Keywords: D82 ; G14 ; ddc:330 ; Arbitragebewertung ; Derivate Finanzinstrumente ; Fuzzy-Logik ; Zeitstetige Optionsbewertung Arbitrage ; Contingent claims ; Fuzzy logic ; Options ; Time continuous valuation ; Optionspreistheorie ; Börsenkurs ; Stochastischer Prozess ; Fuzzy Sets ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: medium pH ; micropropagation ; plant tissue culture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Micropropagated Choisya, Daphne, Delphinium, Hemerocallis, Hosta, Iris and Photinia were found to adjust the pH of Murashige and Skoog's plant tissue culture medium (initial pH 5.6 or 3.5) to different values depending on the species. When plant growth and rooting rates were determined after plants had been grown on media initially adjusted or buffered to values between 2.6 and 5.7 the different plant species were also found to have distinct pH requirements for optimal growth and/or rooting rates.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: micropropagation ; plant tissue culture ; phytotoxicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The phytotoxic effects of antibiotic treatment on micropropagated Clematis, Delphinium, Hosta, Iris and Photinia were determined by assessing multiplication and rooting rates of plants in vitro and weaning success and flowering in vivo.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: atrial fibrillation ; atrial myocytes ; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ; membrane fluidity ; docosahexaenoic acid ; eicosapentaenoic acid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A protective effect of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in preventing ventricular fibrillation in experimental animals and cultured cardiomyocytes has been demonstrated in a number of studies. In this study, a possible role for the n-3 PUFAs in the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) was investigated at the cellular level using atrial myocytes isolated from young adult rats as the experimental model. Electrically-stimulated, synchronously-contracting myocytes were induced to contract asynchronously by the addition of 10 μM isoproterenol. Asynchronous contractile activity was reduced following acute addition of the n-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) at 10 μM, compared with no fatty acid addition (from 99.0 ±: 1.0% to 30.7 ± 5.2% (p 〈 0.05) for DHA and 23.8 ± 2.8% (p 〈 0.01) for EPA), while the saturated fatty acid, docosanoic acid (DA) and the methyl ester of DHA (DHA m.e.) did not exert a significant effect on asynchronous contractile activity. Asynchronous contractile activity was also reduced to 1.7 ± 1.7% in the presence of the membrane fluidising agent, benzyl alcohol (p 〈 0.001 vs no fatty acid addition). Cell membrane fluidity was determined by steady state fluorescence anisotropy using the fluorescent probe, TMAP-DPH. Addition of DHA, EPA or benzyl alcohol significantly increased sarcolemmal membrane fluidity (decreased anisotropy, rss) of atrial myocytes compared with no addition of fatty acid (control) (from rss = 0.203 ±0.004 to 0.159 ± 0.004 (p 〈 0.01) for DHA, 0.166 ± 0.001 (p 〈 0.01) for EPA and 0.186 ±0.003 (p 〈 0.05) for benzyl alcohol, while DA and DHA m.e. were without effect. It is concluded that the n-3 PUFAs exert anti-asynchronous effects in rat atrial myocytes by a mechanism which may involve changes in membrane fluidity.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: Na+/H+ antiporter ; ethylisopropylamiloride ; human check cell ; buccal epithelium ; saliva ; ionophore
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Proton-dependent, ethylisopropylamiloride (EIPA)-sensitive Na+ uptake (Na+/H+ antiporter) studies were performed to examine if saliva, and ionophores which alter cellular electrolyte balance, could influence the activity of the cheek cell Na+/H+ antiporter. Using the standard conditions of 1 mmol/1 Na+, and a 65:1 (inside:outside) proton gradient in the assay, the uniport ionophores valinomycin (K+) and gramicidin (Na+) increased EIPA-sensitive Na+ uptake by 177% (p 〈 0.01) and 227% (p 〈 0.01), respectively. The dual antiporter ionophore nigericin (K+-H+) increased EIPA-sensitive Na+ uptake by 654% (p 〈 0.01), with maximal Na+ uptake achieved by 1 min and at an ionophore concentration of 50 μmol/l, with an EC 50 value 6.4 μmol/l. Preincubation of cheek cells with saliva or the low molecular weight (MW) components of saliva (saliva activating factors, SAF) for 2 h at 37°C, also significantly stimulated EIPA-sensitive Na+ uptake. This stimulation could be mimicked by pre-incubation with 25 mmol/l KCl or K+-phosphate buffer. Pre-incubating cheek cells with SAF and the inclusion of 20 μmol/1 nigericin in the assay, produced maximum EIPA-sensitive Na+ uptake. After pre-incubation with water, 25 mmol/1 K+-phosphate or SAF, with nigericin in all assays, the initial rate of proton-gradient dependent, EIPA-sensitive Na+ uptake was saturable with respect to external Na+ with Km values of 0.9, 1.7, and 1.8 mmol/l, and V max values of 13.4, 25.8, and 31.1 nmol/mg protein/30 sec, respectively. With 20 μmol/1 nigericin in the assay, Na+ uptake was inhibited by either increasing the [K+]o in the assay, with an ID 50 of 3 mmol/l. These results indicate that nigericin can facilitate K+ i exchange for H+ o and the attending re-acidification of the cheek cell amplifies IINa+ uptake via the Na+/H+ antiporter. The degree of stimulation of proton-dependent, EIPA-sensitive Na+ uptake is therefore dependent, in part, on the intracellular K+ i.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0972
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract This review describes (1) bacteria, yeasts, fungi, thrips and mites found as contaminants and their effect on plants growing in vitro; (2) methods used for detecting such contaminants and the sources of contamination; and (3) methods for their prevention and/or elimination.
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