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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-06-25
    Description: Identification of retrotransposon insertions in nonmodel taxa can be technically challenging and costly. This has inhibited progress in understanding retrotransposon insertion dynamics outside of a few well-studied species. To address this problem, we have extended a retrotransposon-based capture and sequence method (ME-Scan [mobile element scanning]) to identify insertions belonging to the Ves family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) across seven species of the bat genus Myotis. We identified between 120,000 and 143,000 SINE insertions in six taxa lacking a draft genome by comparing to the M. lucifugus reference genome. On average, each Ves insertion was sequenced to 129.6 x coverage. When mapped back to the M. lucifugus reference genome, all insertions were confidently assigned within a 10-bp window. Polymorphic Ves insertions were identified in each taxon based on their mapped locations. Using cross-species comparisons and the identified insertion positions, a presence–absence matrix was created for approximately 796,000 insertions. Dollo parsimony analysis of more than 85,000 phylogenetically informative insertions recovered strongly supported, monophyletic clades that correspond with the biogeography of each taxa. This phylogeny is similar to previously published mitochondrial phylogenies, with the exception of the placement of M. vivesi. These results support the utility of our variation on ME-Scan to identify polymorphic retrotransposon insertions in taxa without a reference genome and for large-scale retrotransposon-based phylogenetics.
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-05-25
    Description: Multiple-objective optimization is common in biological systems. In the mammalian olfactory system, each sensory neuron stochastically expresses only one out of up to thousands of olfactory receptor (OR) gene alleles; at the organism level, the types of expressed ORs need to be maximized. Existing models focus only on monoallele activation,...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-11-13
    Description: Recent studies have found evidence of introgression from Neanderthals into modern humans outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Given the geographic range of Neanderthals, the findings have been interpreted as evidence of gene exchange between Neanderthals and modern humans descended from the Out-of-Africa (OOA) migration. Here, we examine an alternative interpretation in which the introgression occurred earlier within Africa, between ancestors or relatives of Neanderthals and a subset of African modern humans who were the ancestors of those involved in the OOA migration. Under the alternative model, if the population structure among present-day Africans predates the OOA migration, we might find some African populations show a signal of Neanderthal introgression whereas others do not. To test this alternative model, we compiled a whole-genome data set including 38 sub-Saharan Africans from eight populations and 25 non-African individuals from five populations. We assessed differences in the amount of Neanderthal-like single-nucleotide polymorphism alleles among these populations and observed up to 1.5% difference in the number of Neanderthal-like alleles among African populations. Further analyses suggest that these differences are likely due to recent non-African admixture in these populations. After accounting for recent non-African admixture, our results do not support the alternative model of older (e.g., 〉100 kya) admixture between modern humans and Neanderthal-like hominids within Africa.
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-10-27
    Description: Novel technological applications significantly favor alternatives to electrons toward constructing low power–consuming, high-speed all-optical integrated optoelectronic devices. Polariton condensates, exhibiting high-speed coherent propagation and spin-based behavior, attract considerable interest for implementing the basic elements of integrated optoelectronic devices: switching, transport, and logic. However, the implementation of this coherent polariton condensate flow is typically limited to cryogenic temperatures, constrained by small exciton binding energy in most semiconductor microcavities. Here, we demonstrate the capability of long-range nonresonantly excited polariton condensate flow at room temperature in a one-dimensional all-inorganic cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr 3 ) perovskite microwire microcavity. The polariton condensate exhibits high-speed propagation over macroscopic distances of 60 μm while still preserving the long-range off-diagonal order. Our findings pave the way for using coherent polariton condensate flow for all-optical integrated logic circuits and polaritonic devices operating at room temperature.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-02-03
    Description: Thermoelectric generation technology has attracted increasing attention because of its promising applications. In this work, the heat transfer characteristics and the performance of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with different cold-side heat dissipation intensity has been studied. By fixing the hot-side temperature of TEG, the effects of various external conditions including the flow rate and the inlet temperature of the cooling water flowing through the cold-sided heat sink have been investigated detailedly. It was showed that the output power and the efficiency of TEG increased with temperature different enlarged, whereas the efficiency of TEG reduced with flow rate increased. It is proposed that more heat taken by the cooling water is attributed to the efficiency decrease when the flow rate of the cooling water is increased. This study would provide fundamental understanding for the design of more refined thermoelectric generation systems.
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018
    Description: 〈p〉Novel technological applications significantly favor alternatives to electrons toward constructing low power–consuming, high-speed all-optical integrated optoelectronic devices. Polariton condensates, exhibiting high-speed coherent propagation and spin-based behavior, attract considerable interest for implementing the basic elements of integrated optoelectronic devices: switching, transport, and logic. However, the implementation of this coherent polariton condensate flow is typically limited to cryogenic temperatures, constrained by small exciton binding energy in most semiconductor microcavities. Here, we demonstrate the capability of long-range nonresonantly excited polariton condensate flow at room temperature in a one-dimensional all-inorganic cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr〈sub〉3〈/sub〉) perovskite microwire microcavity. The polariton condensate exhibits high-speed propagation over macroscopic distances of 60 μm while still preserving the long-range off-diagonal order. Our findings pave the way for using coherent polariton condensate flow for all-optical integrated logic circuits and polaritonic devices operating at room temperature.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-07-06
    Description: Many large noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate chromatin, but the mechanisms by which they localize to genomic targets remain unexplored. We investigated the localization mechanisms of the Xist lncRNA during X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), a paradigm of lncRNA-mediated chromatin regulation. During the maintenance of XCI, Xist binds broadly across the X chromosome. During initiation of XCI, Xist initially transfers to distal regions across the X chromosome that are not defined by specific sequences. Instead, Xist identifies these regions by exploiting the three-dimensional conformation of the X chromosome. Xist requires its silencing domain to spread across actively transcribed regions and thereby access the entire chromosome. These findings suggest a model in which Xist coats the X chromosome by searching in three dimensions, modifying chromosome structure, and spreading to newly accessible locations.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3778663/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3778663/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Engreitz, Jesse M -- Pandya-Jones, Amy -- McDonel, Patrick -- Shishkin, Alexander -- Sirokman, Klara -- Surka, Christine -- Kadri, Sabah -- Xing, Jeffrey -- Goren, Alon -- Lander, Eric S -- Plath, Kathrin -- Guttman, Mitchell -- 1F32GM103139-01/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- DP5 OD012190/OD/NIH HHS/ -- DP5OD012190/OD/NIH HHS/ -- P01 GM099134/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P01GM099134/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50HG006193/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Aug 16;341(6147):1237973. doi: 10.1126/science.1237973. Epub 2013 Jul 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23828888" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line ; Chromatin/chemistry/metabolism ; Female ; *Genome ; Male ; Mice ; Models, Genetic ; RNA, Long Noncoding/chemistry/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic ; X Chromosome/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; *X Chromosome Inactivation
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1996-08-16
    Description: A signaling pathway has been elucidated whereby growth factors activate the transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB), a critical regulator of immediate early gene transcription. Growth factor-stimulated CREB phosphorylation at serine-133 is mediated by the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. MAPK activates CREB kinase, which in turn phosphorylates and activates CREB. Purification, sequencing, and biochemical characterization of CREB kinase revealed that it is identical to a member of the pp90(RSK) family, RSK2. RSK2 was shown to mediate growth factor induction of CREB serine-133 phosphorylation both in vitro and in vivo. These findings identify a cellular function for RSK2 and define a mechanism whereby growth factor signals mediated by RAS and MAPK are transmitted to the nucleus to activate gene expression.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Xing, J -- Ginty, D D -- Greenberg, M E -- CA43855/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- NS34814-01/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30-HD18655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1996 Aug 16;273(5277):959-63.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8688081" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases/*metabolism ; Cell Line ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/*metabolism ; Epidermal Growth Factor/pharmacology ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Growth Substances/*pharmacology ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nerve Growth Factors/pharmacology ; PC12 Cells ; Phosphorylation ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism ; Rats ; Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases ; *Signal Transduction ; Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/pharmacology ; Transcriptional Activation ; Transfection ; Tumor Cells, Cultured ; ras Proteins/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2007-04-14
    Description: The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an Indian-origin Macaca mulatta female and compared the data with chimpanzees and humans to reveal the structure of ancestral primate genomes and to identify evidence for positive selection and lineage-specific expansions and contractions of gene families. A comparison of sequences from individual animals was used to investigate their underlying genetic diversity. The complete description of the macaque genome blueprint enhances the utility of this animal model for biomedical research and improves our understanding of the basic biology of the species.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rhesus Macaque Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Rogers, Jeffrey -- Katze, Michael G -- Bumgarner, Roger -- Weinstock, George M -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Remington, Karin A -- Strausberg, Robert L -- Venter, J Craig -- Wilson, Richard K -- Batzer, Mark A -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- Eichler, Evan E -- Hahn, Matthew W -- Hardison, Ross C -- Makova, Kateryna D -- Miller, Webb -- Milosavljevic, Aleksandar -- Palermo, Robert E -- Siepel, Adam -- Sikela, James M -- Attaway, Tony -- Bell, Stephanie -- Bernard, Kelly E -- Buhay, Christian J -- Chandrabose, Mimi N -- Dao, Marvin -- Davis, Clay -- Delehaunty, Kimberly D -- Ding, Yan -- Dinh, Huyen H -- Dugan-Rocha, Shannon -- Fulton, Lucinda A -- Gabisi, Ramatu Ayiesha -- Garner, Toni T -- Godfrey, Jennifer -- Hawes, Alicia C -- Hernandez, Judith -- Hines, Sandra -- Holder, Michael -- Hume, Jennifer -- Jhangiani, Shalini N -- Joshi, Vandita -- Khan, Ziad Mohid -- Kirkness, Ewen F -- Cree, Andrew -- Fowler, R Gerald -- Lee, Sandra -- Lewis, Lora R -- Li, Zhangwan -- Liu, Yih-Shin -- Moore, Stephanie M -- Muzny, Donna -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Ngo, Dinh Ngoc -- Okwuonu, Geoffrey O -- Pai, Grace -- Parker, David -- Paul, Heidie A -- Pfannkoch, Cynthia -- Pohl, Craig S -- Rogers, Yu-Hui -- Ruiz, San Juana -- Sabo, Aniko -- Santibanez, Jireh -- Schneider, Brian W -- Smith, Scott M -- Sodergren, Erica -- Svatek, Amanda F -- Utterback, Teresa R -- Vattathil, Selina -- Warren, Wesley -- White, Courtney Sherell -- Chinwalla, Asif T -- Feng, Yucheng -- Halpern, Aaron L -- Hillier, Ladeana W -- Huang, Xiaoqiu -- Minx, Pat -- Nelson, Joanne O -- Pepin, Kymberlie H -- Qin, Xiang -- Sutton, Granger G -- Venter, Eli -- Walenz, Brian P -- Wallis, John W -- Worley, Kim C -- Yang, Shiaw-Pyng -- Jones, Steven M -- Marra, Marco A -- Rocchi, Mariano -- Schein, Jacqueline E -- Baertsch, Robert -- Clarke, Laura -- Csuros, Miklos -- Glasscock, Jarret -- Harris, R Alan -- Havlak, Paul -- Jackson, Andrew R -- Jiang, Huaiyang -- Liu, Yue -- Messina, David N -- Shen, Yufeng -- Song, Henry Xing-Zhi -- Wylie, Todd -- Zhang, Lan -- Birney, Ewan -- Han, Kyudong -- Konkel, Miriam K -- Lee, Jungnam -- Smit, Arian F A -- Ullmer, Brygg -- Wang, Hui -- Xing, Jinchuan -- Burhans, Richard -- Cheng, Ze -- Karro, John E -- Ma, Jian -- Raney, Brian -- She, Xinwei -- Cox, Michael J -- Demuth, Jeffery P -- Dumas, Laura J -- Han, Sang-Gook -- Hopkins, Janet -- Karimpour-Fard, Anis -- Kim, Young H -- Pollack, Jonathan R -- Vinar, Tomas -- Addo-Quaye, Charles -- Degenhardt, Jeremiah -- Denby, Alexandra -- Hubisz, Melissa J -- Indap, Amit -- Kosiol, Carolin -- Lahn, Bruce T -- Lawson, Heather A -- Marklein, Alison -- Nielsen, Rasmus -- Vallender, Eric J -- Clark, Andrew G -- Ferguson, Betsy -- Hernandez, Ryan D -- Hirani, Kashif -- Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard -- Kolb, Jessica -- Patil, Shobha -- Pu, Ling-Ling -- Ren, Yanru -- Smith, David Glenn -- Wheeler, David A -- Schenck, Ian -- Ball, Edward V -- Chen, Rui -- Cooper, David N -- Giardine, Belinda -- Hsu, Fan -- Kent, W James -- Lesk, Arthur -- Nelson, David L -- O'brien, William E -- Prufer, Kay -- Stenson, Peter D -- Wallace, James C -- Ke, Hui -- Liu, Xiao-Ming -- Wang, Peng -- Xiang, Andy Peng -- Yang, Fan -- Barber, Galt P -- Haussler, David -- Karolchik, Donna -- Kern, Andy D -- Kuhn, Robert M -- Smith, Kayla E -- Zwieg, Ann S -- 062023/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- R01 HG002939/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003068/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Apr 13;316(5822):222-34.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. agibbs@bcm.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17431167" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biomedical Research ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Gene Duplication ; Gene Rearrangement ; Genetic Diseases, Inborn ; Genetic Variation ; *Genome ; Humans ; Macaca mulatta/*genetics ; Male ; Multigene Family ; Mutation ; Pan troglodytes/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Species Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2007-04-14
    Description: The completion of the draft sequence of the rhesus macaque genome allowed us to study the genomic composition and evolution of transposable elements in this representative of the Old World monkey lineage, a group of diverse primates closely related to humans. The L1 family of long interspersed elements appears to have evolved as a single lineage, and Alu elements have evolved into four currently active lineages. We also found evidence of elevated horizontal transmissions of retroviruses and the absence of DNA transposon activity in the Old World monkey lineage. In addition, approximately 100 precursors of composite SVA (short interspersed element, variable number of tandem repeat, and Alu) elements were identified, with the majority being shared by the common ancestor of humans and rhesus macaques. Mobile elements compose roughly 50% of primate genomes, and our findings illustrate their diversity and strong influence on genome evolution between closely related species.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Han, Kyudong -- Konkel, Miriam K -- Xing, Jinchuan -- Wang, Hui -- Lee, Jungnam -- Meyer, Thomas J -- Huang, Charles T -- Sandifer, Erin -- Hebert, Kristi -- Barnes, Erin W -- Hubley, Robert -- Miller, Webb -- Smit, Arian F A -- Ullmer, Brygg -- Batzer, Mark A -- GM59290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002939/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Apr 13;316(5822):238-40.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biological Sciences, Biological Computation and Visualization Center, Center for Bio-Modular Multi-Scale Systems, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17431169" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cercopithecidae/*genetics ; *DNA Transposable Elements ; Endogenous Retroviruses/genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Transfer, Horizontal ; Genome ; Genome, Human ; Humans ; Macaca mulatta/*genetics ; Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid ; Retroelements
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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