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  • 1
    facet.materialart.
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    Vienna : Sustainable Europe Research Inst. | Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2016-08-23
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: workingpaper , doc-type:workingpaper
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  • 2
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: The physical dimension of international trade is attaining increased importance. This article describes a method to calculate complete physical trade flows for all countries which report their trade to the UN. The method is based on the UN Comtrade database and it was used to calculate world-wide physical trade flows for all reporting countries in nine selected years between 1962 and 2005. The results show increasing global trade with global direct material trade flows reaching about 10 billion tonnes in 2005, corresponding to a physical trade volume of about 20 billion tonnes (adding both total imports and total exports). The share from European countries is declining, mainly in favour of Asian countries. The dominant traded commodity in physical units was fossil fuels, mainly oil. Physical trade balances were used to identify the dominant resource suppliers and demanders. Australia was the principal resource supplier over the period with a diverse material export structure. It was followed by mainly oil-exporting countries with varying volumes. As regards to regions, Latin America, south-east Asian islands and central Asia were big resource exporters, mostly with increasing absolute amounts of net exports. The largest net importers were Japan, the United States and single European countries. Emerging countries like the "Asian Tigers" with major industrial productive sectors are growing net importers, some of them to an even higher degree than European countries. Altogether, with the major exception of Australia and Canada, industrialized countries are net importers and developing countries and transition countries are net exporters, but there are important differences within these groups.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: The exploitation of coltan in Central Africa can be considered a case of conflict minerals due to its nature. Many international organizations and bodies, national governments and private sector organizations seek to address this conflict, in particular via transparency, certification and accountability along the material supply chain. This paper analyses the international trade dimension of coltan and gives evidence on the dimension of illicit trade of coltan. The authors start from the hypothesis that illicit trade of coltan sooner or later will enter the market and will be reflected in the statistics. The paper is structured in the following manner: first, a short section gives a profile of coltan production and markets; second, an overview of the mining situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and related actors. The third section addresses mechanisms, actors and measurement issues involved in the international trade of coltan. The final part draws lessons for certification and conflict analysis and offers some guidance for future research. The paper identifies two main possible gateways to trace illegal trade in coltan: the neighboring countries, especially Rwanda, and the importing countries for downstream production, in particular China. Our estimation is that the value of such illicit trade comes close to $ 27 million annually (2009), roughly one-fifth of the world market volume for tantalum production. With regard to any certification the paper concludes that this will become challenging for business and policy: (a) Central Africa currently is the largest supplier of coltan on the world market, many actors profit from the current situation and possess abilities to hide responsibility; (b) China will need to accept more responsibility, a first step would be the acceptance of the OECD guidelines on due diligence; (c) better regional governance in Central Africa comprises of resource taxation, a resource fund and fiscal coordination. An international task force may provide more robust data, however more research will also be needed.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: Die steigende Inanspruchnahme der Natur durch die Menschen und die immensen Gegensätze zwischen Arm und Reich sind zentrale Herausforderungen unserer Zeit. In diesem Beitrag wird globale Dematerialisierung, also die Minderung des weltweiten Ressourcenverbrauchs, als das zentrale Ziel gesehen und aufgezeigt, wie Handel zu diesem Ziel beitragen kann. Handelsinduzierte Umverteilungen von Ressourceninanspruchnahmen - Nutzen, Belastungen sowie Kompensationen - werden unter dem Blickpunkt internationaler Ressourcengerechtigkeit thematisiert. Es werden drei Kriterien abgeleitet, die ein alternatives Handelssystem regeln könnten und mit denen bereits heute bewertet werden kann, inwiefern der internationale Handel zur globalen Dematerialisierung und ressourcengerechteren Verteilung zwischen Armen und Reichen beiträgt.
    Description: The increasing claim of nature by mankind and the enormous gap between rich and poor are central challenges of our time. This paper discusses global dematerialisation, in other words the reduction of global resource consumption, as a central target and shows how trade can contribute to this goal. Trade induced redistributions of recource claims - use, strain and balancing - are made the subject of discussion regarding international resource justice. Three criteria are deduced that could regulate an alternative trading system, and which could evaluate already today how international trade contributes to global dematerialisation and to a fairer distribution of resources between rich and poor.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Global trade is increasingly being challenged by observations of growing burden shifting, in particular of environmental problems. This paper presents the first worldwide calculations of shifted burden based on material flow indicators, in particular direct and indirect physical trade balances. This study covers the period between 1962 and 2005 and includes between 82 and 173 countries per year. The results show that indirect trade flow volumes have increased to around 41 billion tonnes in 2005. The traded resources with the highest share of associated indirect flows are iron, hard coal, copper, tin and increasingly palm oil. Regarding the burden balance between regions, Europe is the biggest shifter whereas Australia and Latin America are the largest takers of environmental burden due to resource extraction. To evaluate the findings from a global perspective, the results are analysed in terms of resource flow induced environmental pressure related to a country's land area in terms of total and per capita area. Resource endowment and population density seem to be more relevant in determining the physical trade balance, including indirect flows, than income level.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: article , doc-type:article
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  • 6
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    Wien : Sustainable Europe Research Inst. | Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: English
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 7
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie | Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2014-08-15
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: workingpaper , doc-type:workingpaper
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  • 8
    facet.materialart.
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie | Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: Die steigende Inanspruchnahme der Natur durch die Menschen und die immensen Gegensätze zwischen Arm und Reich sind zentrale Herausforderungen unserer Zeit. In diesem Beitrag wird globale Dematerialisierung, also die Minderung des weltweiten Ressourcenverbrauchs, als das zentrale Ziel gesehen und aufgezeigt, wie Handel zu diesem Ziel beitragen kann. Handelsinduzierte Umverteilungen von Ressourceninanspruchnahmen - Nutzen, Belastungen sowie Kompensationen - werden unter dem Blickpunkt internationaler Ressourcengerechtigkeit thematisiert. Es werden drei Kriterien abgeleitet, die ein alternatives Handelssystem regeln könnten und mit denen bereits heute bewertet werden kann, inwiefern der internationale Handel zur globalen Dematerialisierung und ressourcengerechteren Verteilung zwischen Armen und Reichen beiträgt.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: workingpaper , doc-type:workingpaper
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    facet.materialart.
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    Köln : Geograph. Inst. der Univ. | Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Physische Handelsbilanzen (PHB) gehören dem Indikatorensystem der Materialflussrechnungen an und werden als Indikator für einen ungleichen ökologischen Tausch sowie für die Verlagerung von Umweltbelastungen durch den Tausch diskutiert. Mit Materialflussrechnungen wird die materielle Basis der Wirtschaft und somit die Inanspruchnahme der natürlichen Ressourcen durch den Menschen erfasst. Bislang gibt es nur wenige empirische Erhebungen von PHB mit verschiedenen methodischen Einschränkungen, hingegen eine Fülle an Interpretationen insbesondere dahingehend, dass reiche Länder Umweltlasten über den internationalen Handel auf Entwicklungsländer abwälzen. In dieser Arbeit werden die Aussagen, die die direkten und indirekten physischen Handelsbilanzen hinsichtlich eines ökologisch ungleichen Tausches zulassen, untersucht. Weiterhin werden die Übertragung des Ziels ausgeglichener monetärer Handelsbilanzen auf PHBen hinterfragt und verschiedene Zielvorstellungen, deren Erreichung durch die physischen Handelsbilanzen gemessen werden kann, diskutiert. Das Herzstück der Arbeit bildet die Entwicklung einer Methode, mit der die Handelsdaten von UNComtrade für die Materialflussrechnung und damit für die Umweltforschung vollständig zugänglich gemacht werden können. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden die direkten und indirekten physischen Handelsbilanzen aller Länder für neun Jahrgänge zwischen 1962 und 2005 berechnet. Wesentliche Ergebnisse sind: (1) Über den Handel wird der ungleiche Ressourcenkonsum sowohl erhöht als auch verkleinert, wobei es einen leichten Überhang des ersten Effektes gibt. (2) Australien ist das Land, das in den vergangenen 45 Jahren netto am meisten Ressourcen exportiert hat und am meisten Umweltbelastungen übernommen hat. Auch verschiedene Entwicklungsländer, insbesondere die so genannten Schwellenländer, verlagern Umweltbelastungen. In Summe ist es aber tatsächlich so, dass Industrieländer Umweltlasten über den internationalen Handel auf Entwicklungsländer abwälzen.
    Keywords: ddc:600
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: doctoralthesis , doc-type:doctoralThesis
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  • 10
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