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  • 1
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    Berlin, Heidelberg : Springer
    Keywords: Biochemistry ; Chemistry, Organic ; Chemistry, inorganic ; Medicine ; Toxicology
    ISBN: 9783540329121
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Keywords: Electronics ; Materials ; Nanotechnology
    ISBN: 9783540328209
    Language: English
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-9104
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Stickstoff-Düngung kann in der Regel neben einer Ertragssteigerung im Pflanzenaufwuchs auch zu einer quantitativen Variation der N-haltigen Substanz in der erntereifen Nahrungspflanze führen. Diese „Qualitätsveränderung“ des Nahrungsmittels im Komplex Rohprotein (N × 6,25) oder anderer N-haltiger Pflanzen-Inhaltsstoffe (z.B. NO3) ist ernährungsphysiologisch bedeutsam. Das Studium des N-Stoffwechsels der Pflanze unter verschiedenen Umweltbedingungen, insbesondere der Stickstoff-Düngung, hat bis heute einen umfassenden Einblick in die chemisch-analytisch erfaßbaren Fraktionen der N-haltigen Substanz in der Pflanze gebracht. Die ernährungsphysiologische Bedeutung des Komplexes der N-Fraktionen und ihrer Variabilität kann in der Regel nur grob eingeschätzt werden. Die Ursachen hierfür liegen nicht zuletzt im erforderlichen Aufwand für ernährungsphysiologische Untersuchungen. Es wird ein Einblick in den Verwertungsgang von N-Verbindungen aus Pflanzen im tierischen Organismus gegeben und die Reaktionen hervorgehoben, die ernährungsphysiologisch primär relevant erscheinen. Methoden zur Erfassung ernährungsphysiologischer Wirkungen und die Wahl geeigneter Versuchstiere für die Übertragbarkeit der Versuchsergebnisse auf den Menschen, werden diskutiert. Die Gesamtproblematik wird an Hand von Beispielen über die Änderung des biologischen Eiweißwertes durch N-Düngung (Getreide, Kartoffeln, Grünkohl) und der Wirksamkeit spezifischer ernährungsphysiologischer Noxen (NO3 im Spinat) aufgezeigt. Es wird aus den Beispielen die Schlußfolgerung gezogen, daß auf dem Gebiet der Ernährungsforschung eine Zusammenarbeit mehrerer Folgedisciplinen — Pflanzenproduktion-Ernährungsphysiologie — notwendig ist.
    Abstract: Résumé En régle générale, la fumure azotée peut également entrainer à coté d'un accroissement du rendement des cultures une modification quantitative des substances contenant de l'azot dans les plantes alimentaires à maturité. Cette modification de la qualité des produits alimentaires en ce qui concerne les matières azotées totales (N × 6,25) ou d'autres substances végétales azotées est d'une grande importance sur le plan de la physiologie de la nutrition. L'étude du métabolisme de l'azot chez les végétaux dans des conditions ambiantes diverses, en particulier lors de la fumure azotée, a donné jusqu'à présent un vaste aperçu des composants chimiquement analysables de la matière azotée végétale. L'importance nutritionelle de l'ensemble des composants azotés et de leur variabilité ne peut en général être estimée qu'approximativement. Cela provient particulièrement de l'importance des moyens nécessaires pour les recherches de physiologie nutritionelle. Nous donnons un aperçu sur le cours de la transformation des composés azotés végétaux dans l'organisme animal et soulignons les réactions qui semblent importantes au point de vue de la physiologie de la nutrition. Nous discutons les méthodes d'appréciation de la valeur nutritionelle et le choix des animaux d'expérience permettant l'application des résultats à l'homme. La position du problème est mise en évidence au moyen d'exemples qui montrent la modification de la valeur biologique de la protéine par la fumure azotée (céréales, pommes de terre, chou vert) et qui montrent l'action des nuisanies spécifiques nutritionelles (NO3 dans les épinards). On peut conclure à l'aide de ces exemples qu'une collaboration de plusieurs disciplines complémentaires-production des plantes - physiologie de la nutrition — est indispensable dans le domaine des recherches sur la nutrition.
    Notes: Abstract Besides its growth stimulating and yield increasing effect on plants, fertilization with nitrogen may also lead to quantitative variation in the quality of food plants, ripe for harvesting. This variation in the quality of plant foods estimated by their crude protein (N × 6.25) content or other N-containing compounds (e.g. NO3) is of nutritional importance. Research in the nitrogen-metabolism of plants grown on variable conditions, e. g. fertilizing with different amounts of nitrogen, resulted in an extensive knowledge on N-constituents of plants as can be measured by chemical analytical methods. The nutritional significance of all the N-containing fractions and their variability in plant material can so far be estimated only marginally. Reasons for this are mainly due to the high expense of nutritional experiments. The metabolic course of N-constituents from plants feed to the animal is described, stressing those reactions being most important to nutrition. Methods of estimating the nutritive effects of plant material are discussed. The reliability of applying results obtained by animal experiments to the human are considered. The overall problems are demonstrated on figures showing the variation in the biological value (B V) of plant foods having given different amounts of N (cereals, potatoes, kale) and the effect of specific nutritionally peculiar reacting compounds (e.g. NO3 in spinach). It is concluded that research in nutrition demands cooperation of several disciplines such as plant production and nutritional physiology.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary All emissions from incomplete combustion contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which are a well-known class of carcinogens. The question whether additional carcinogenic compounds do exist in these emissions can be answered by separating the emission condensate into a PAH-containing and a PAH-free part. These parts have been tested in an animal experiment by means of a carcinogen-specific test system such as topical application onto the skin of mice or injection into the lung of rats. The investigation on the contribution of PAH-fractions and of benzo(a)pyrene to the carcinogenic potential of emission condensate from gasoline driven engines, Diesel engines, coal combustion in domestic furnaces and sidestream smoke of cigarettes shows that the carcinogenic effect of the particle phase of these pyrolytic condensates is predominantly caused by polycyclic aromatic compounds such as PAH. In all cases investigated the PAH-fraction containing 4 and more rings accounted for more than 75% of the total carcinogenic effect resulting from the implantation into the lung of rats or from the topical application onto mouse skin. The contribution of benzo(a)pyrene to the carcinogenic potency of various condensates, however, is minor in all cases investigated and accounts for only 0.17% to 4% of the total carcinogenicity as evaluated from implantation into the lung of rats (Table 1).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of nutrition 2 (1961), S. 45-64 
    ISSN: 1436-6215
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Keywords: PACS: 61.46.+w Clusters, nanoparticles, and nanocrystalline materials – 81.15.Hi Molecular, atomic, ion, and chemical beam epitaxy – 68.65.+g Low-dimensional structures (superlattices, quantum well structures, multilayers): structure, and nonelectronic properties
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract. We present a novel method for the fabrication of well-ordered, two-dimensional nanocluster arrays. The method is based on the confined nucleation of adatoms within the superstructure cells of periodic surface dislocation networks, which form in many heteroepitaxial systems. We show how quantitative understanding of adatom diffusion and heterogeneous nucleation on such surfaces can be obtained through kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations and discuss the potential of this approach.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 67 (1996), S. 1925-1929 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: In the present article we describe a new setup for an atomic force microscope in the beetle-type geometry. The microscope consists of a compact head standing on three piezo legs with a fourth central piezo carrying the cantilever tip. We use the laser beam deflection method to detect the deflection of the cantilever. All optical components are integrated into the microscope head which has a diameter of 40 mm. This compactness results in a high mechanical stability, while the adjustment of the optical pathway is still easy to handle. The microscope can be used in UHV and in air. Measurements on KBr(100) in air show the capability of the microscope to obtain a resolution up to atomic corrugations. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 108 (1998), S. 1740-1747 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The interaction of oxygen with Al(111) was investigated by STM at temperatures between 350 and 530 K, by annealing an oxygen precovered surface and by adsorption of oxygen on the hot surface. For exposures up to 10 L and temperatures up to 470 K a considerable part of the oxygen exists still in the chemisorbed state, another part transforms into Al oxide. In contrast to 300 K chemisorbed Oad atoms are mobile at elevated temperatures, and compact, hexagonal (1×1)Oad islands develop by an ordinary nucleation and growth scheme. This evidences attractive interactions between the oxygen atoms on (1×1) sites. From the lateral distribution of Oad islands a diffusion barrier of 1.0–1.1 eV is derived. The imaging of the islands of the (1×1) phase by STM depends on their size, which is understood by a different imaging of the Oad/Al adsorbate complexes at the island borders. Defects in the islands and bright features at the edges are interpreted as nuclei of aluminum oxide. Additional features which appear as topographic holes may be attributed to nonconducting Al oxide grains. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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