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  • Articles  (100)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0304-3991
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters A 32 (1970), S. 331-332 
    ISSN: 0375-9601
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0378-4363
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters A 57 (1976), S. 485-486 
    ISSN: 0375-9601
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Many theories of human Stereovision are based on feature matching and the related correspondence problem. In this paper, we present psychophysical experiments indicating that localized image features such as Laplacian zerocrossings, intensity extrema, or centroids are not necessary for binocular depth perception. Smooth one-dimensional intensity profiles were combined into stereograms with mirror-symmetric half-images such that these localized image features were either absent or did not carry stereo information. In a discrimination task, subjects were asked to distinguish between stereograms differing only by an exchange of these half-images (ortho- vs. pseudoscopic stereograms). In a depth ordering task, subjects had to judge which of the two versions appeared in front. Subjects are able to solve both tasks even in the absence of the mentioned image features. The performance is compared to various possible stereo mechanisms. We conclude that localized image features and the correspondences between them are not necessary to perceive stereoscopic depth. One mechanism accounting for our data is correlation or mean square difference.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Many theories of human stereovision are based on feature matching and the related correspondence problem. In this paper, we present psychophysical experiments indicating that localized image features such as Laplacian zerocrossings, intensity extrema, or centroids are not necessary for binocular depth perception. Smooth one-dimensional intensity profiles were combined into stereograms with mirror-symmetric half-images such that these localized image features were either absent or did not carry stereo information. In a discrimination task, subjects were asked to distinguish between stereograms differing only by an exchange of these half-images (ortho- vs. pseudoscopic stereograms). In a depth ordering task, subjects had to judge which of the two versions appeared in front. Subjects are able to solve both tasks even in the absence of the mentioned image features. The performance is compared to various possible stereo mechanisms. We conclude that localized image features and the correspondences between them are not necessary to perceive stereoscopic depth. One mechanism accounting for our data is correlation or mean square difference.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract  This study concerns the detection of natural steroid hormones in hair of cattle. Estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) were chosen as representatives of estrogens and androgens. In particular, the influence of age, sex and hair pigmentation on the steroid concentrations was investigated. Samples were obtained from numerous steers, cows, bulls, and female and male calves. The extraction procedure for E2 and T from hair comprised liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction and was followed by an essential high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) step for further purification of the extracts. Final quantification was performed with specific enzyme immunoassays (EIA). Lower E2-concentrations were detected in the hair of some steers, cows, and bulls (approximately 1 ng/g), in several of these hair samples the concentrations of E2 were below the limit of detection. Testosterone was measured in the hair of steers (approximately 3 ng/g), cows (approximately 6 ng/g), and bulls (in average 15 ng/g). There was a significant difference in the testosterone concentrations of white (approximately 8 ng/g) and of black hair (approximately 33 ng/g) of bulls. In hair from all male and female calves, E2 and T were measured. The concentrations amounted approximately to 9 ng E2/g and 3 ng T/g for female calves and to 5 ng E2/g and 7 ng T/g for male calves. There was no significant influence of sex or hair colour on the steroid concentrations in hair of calves. The results suggest that the method is a powerful means to detect natural steroid hormones in hair of animal origin.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 79.40
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract An electron gun system with post-acceleration is described suitable to operation with a carbon fibre field-emission tip. The system was tested in an electron optical bench with a vacuum pressure of about 10−6 torr. The electron current was most stable if the current to the extraction electrode was minimized. The half width of the energy distribution of the electrons accelerated up to 30 keV was 215 meV for small currents (≈10−9A). The half width of the distribution increases with growing emission current. This increase may be attributed to instabilities in the surface structure due to ion bombardment and to the circumstance that more than one emission centre contributes to the electron current.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. We describe two psychophysical experiments testing predictions of the square difference mechanism we have previously proposed for intensity–based stereo. Experiment 1 assesses the relative contributions of disparity and contrast to intensity–based stereo by measuring detection thresholds. The product of disparity and contrast at threshold is shown to be constant. In experiment 2, we measure quantitatively the global depth position perceived in stereograms of curved, smoothly shaded surfaces. The results show that disparity averaging over the surface involves a contrast-dependent weighting function. The results from both experiments are consistent with predictions derived from the square difference mechanism. The relation of this mechanism to feature correspondence stereopsis and shape–from–shading is discussed and a general framework for assessing the modularity of stereopsis is presented.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. In homing tasks, the goal is often not marked by visible objects but must be inferred from the spatial relation to the visual cues in the surrounding scene. The exact computation of the goal direction would require knowledge about the distances to visible landmarks, information, which is not directly available to passive vision systems. However, if prior assumptions about typical distance distributions are used, a snapshot taken at the goal suffices to compute the goal direction from the current view. We show that most existing approaches to scene-based homing implicitly assume an isotropic landmark distribution. As an alternative, we propose a homing scheme that uses parameterized displacement fields. These are obtained from an approximation that incorporates prior knowledge about perspective distortions of the visual environment. A mathematical analysis proves that both approximations do not prevent the schemes from approaching the goal with arbitrary accuracy, but lead to different errors in the computed goal direction. Mobile robot experiments are used to test the theoretical predictions and to demonstrate the practical feasibility of the new approach.
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