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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Centaurea maculosa ; sesquiterpene lactone ; cnicin ; host-plant selection ; oviposition behavior ; antifeedant ; attractant ; Spodoptera littoralis ; Agapeta zoegana ; Stenodes straminea ; Pterolonche inspersa ; Lepidoptera ; Noctuidae ; Cochylidae ; Pterolonchidae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The sesquiterpene lactone cnicin was extracted fromCentaurea maculosa andCentaurea vallesiaca. We examined its effects on the ovipositional response and larval development of generalist and specialist insect herbivores associated withC. maculosa. For the oviposition trials, three plant species (C. maculosa, Achillea millefolium, andCichorium intybus), half of which were sprayed with 3% of cnicin, were exposed to the specialist mothsStenodes straminea, Agapeta zoegana, andPterolonche inspersa in field cages. All three species significantly preferredC. maculosa to other plants andP. inspersa significantly preferred cnicin-sprayed plants to untreated plants for oviposition. Tested over all species, cnicin significantly increased the number of eggs laid on a given plant. A larval diet test examined the toxicity of cnicin for larvae of the generalist noctuid mothSpodoptera littoralis. Cnicin concentrations of 3% and 6% were lethal and 1% and 0.5% seriously inhibited growth and development. The larvae of theC. maculosa specialistStenodes straminea survived at 6% cnicin, but none of the pupae hatched.Agapeta zoegana was able to survive at 1% and 3% cnicin. Both specialists had difficulties with the artificial diet, but weight increase and survival was not further reduced when cnicin was present compared with on the control diet. In conclusion, cnicin influenced host recognition by the specialist species, and larvae of the generalist did not survive on natural levels of cnicin. Growth and survival of the specialist were not influenced by cnicin but were considerably hampered on artificial diet.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The use of a scroll decanter centrifuge for the removal and dewatering of affinity-flocculated yeast cell debris from a crude homogenate is described. Laboratory shear modulus measurements were used to compare the structure of flocculated and nonflocculated sediments and to indicate the dewatering conditions under which the sediment could be discharged from the centrifuge. The structure of the flocculated sediment was such that a dry beach could be used within the centrifuge while still being able to discharge the solids. The scroll decanter performance for recovery and dewatering of the flocculated homogenate was found to be independent of feed flow rate and differential scroll rate. Eighty-five percent of the solid material was recovered from the flocculated homogenate while the extent of sediment dewatering resulted in the loss of only 7% of the soluble protein in the sediment. The supernatant clarity matched that achieved by low-gravity laboratory centrifugation studies.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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