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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: Objective: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use.Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. Data sources: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. Review methods: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary: estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. Results: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95\% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and 〉=55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2\%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate.Conclusions Individuals whose working hours exceed standard recommendations are more likely to increase their alcohol use to levels that pose a health risk.
    Description: This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitszeit ; Alkoholkonsum ; Statistische Methode
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
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    Marine Biological Laboratory Archives (Woods Hole, Mass.)
    In:  Viktor Hamburger collection, Box 2, Folder 46, Marine Biological Laboratory Archives
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: Updates on courses and teaching
    Description: Correspondence
    Keywords: People
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Language: English
    Type: Text
    Format: image/tiff
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  • 3
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    Marine Biological Laboratory Archives (Woods Hole, Mass.)
    In:  Viktor Hamburger collection, Box 2, Folder 46, Marine Biological Laboratory Archives
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: News on travels, microscope, anatomy course
    Description: Correspondence
    Keywords: People ; Tools
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Language: English
    Type: Text
    Format: image/tiff
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  • 4
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    Marine Biological Laboratory Archives (Woods Hole, Mass.)
    In:  Viktor Hamburger collection, Box 2, Folder 46, Marine Biological Laboratory Archives
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: Personnel discussions. Travel plans for Woods Hole
    Description: Correspondence
    Keywords: People
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Language: English
    Type: Text
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  • 5
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    Arizona Board of Regents | Marine Biological Laboratory Archives
    In:  Viktor Hamburger Collection, Box 2, Folder 46, Marine Biological Laboratory Archives
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: Typewritten
    Description: H. Burr Steinbach writing to Viktor Hamburger about Woods Hole, a pre-med program, a butterfly collection, Marion, squid, and some personal details
    Description: 1 page
    Description: Correspondance
    Keywords: People
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Language: English
    Type: Text
    Format: image/tiff
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
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    Arizona Board of Regents | Marine Biological Laboratory Archives (Woods Hole, Mass.)
    In:  Viktor Hamburger collection, Box 2, Folder 60, Paul Weiss, Marine Biological Laboratory Archives
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: Invitation to dinner.
    Description: Typewritten carbon copy of original letter.
    Description: 1-page letter
    Description: Correspondence
    Keywords: People
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Language: English
    Type: Text
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  • 7
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    Marine Biological Laboratory Archives (Woods Hole, Mass.)
    In:  Viktor Hamburger collection, Box 2, Folder 46, Marine Biological Laboratory Archives
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: Personnel discussions
    Description: Correspondence
    Keywords: People
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Language: English
    Type: Text
    Format: image/tiff
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  • 8
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    Marine Biological Laboratory Archives (Woods Hole, Mass.)
    In:  Viktor Hamburger collection, Box 2, Folder 46, Marine Biological Laboratory Archives
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: General updates
    Description: Correspondence
    Keywords: People
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Language: English
    Type: Text
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  • 9
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    Marine Biological Laboratory Archives (Woods Hole, Mass.)
    In:  Viktor Hamburger collection, Box 2, Folder 46, Marine Biological Laboratory Archives
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: Update on Woods Hole and personnel
    Description: Correspondence
    Keywords: People
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Language: English
    Type: Text
    Format: image/tiff
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  • 10
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    Marine Biological Laboratory Archives (Woods Hole, Mass.)
    In:  Viktor Hamburger collection, Box 2, Folder 46, Marine Biological Laboratory Archives
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: Updates from Woods Hole
    Description: Correspondence
    Keywords: People
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Language: English
    Type: Text
    Format: image/tiff
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