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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-10-02
    Description: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b00731
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-12
    Description: Terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed roughly 30% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions over the past decades, but it is unclear whether this carbon (C) sink will endure into the future. Despite extensive modeling and experimental and observational studies, what fundamentally determines transient dynamics of terrestrial C storage under global change is still not very clear. Here we develop a new framework for understanding transient dynamics of terrestrial C storage through mathematical analysis and numerical experiments. Our analysis indicates that the ultimate force driving ecosystem C storage change is the C storage capacity, which is jointly determined by ecosystem C input (e.g., net primary production, NPP) and residence time. Since both C input and residence time vary with time, the C storage capacity is time-dependent and acts as a moving attractor that actual C storage chases. The rate of change in C storage is proportional to the C storage potential, which is the difference between the current storage and the storage capacity. The C storage capacity represents instantaneous responses of the land C cycle to external forcing, whereas the C storage potential represents the internal capability of the land C cycle to influence the C change trajectory in the next time step. The influence happens through redistribution of net C pool changes in a network of pools with different residence times. Moreover, this and our other studies have demonstrated that one matrix equation can replicate simulations of most land C cycle models (i.e., physical emulators). As a result, simulation outputs of those models can be placed into a three-dimensional (3-D) parameter space to measure their differences. The latter can be decomposed into traceable components to track the origins of model uncertainty. In addition, the physical emulators make data assimilation computationally feasible so that both C flux- and pool-related datasets can be used to better constrain model predictions of land C sequestration. Overall, this new mathematical framework offers new approaches to understanding, evaluating, diagnosing, and improving land C cycle models.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-09-16
    Description: Terrestrial ecosystems absorb roughly 30 % of anthropogenic CO2 emissions since preindustrial era, but it is unclear whether this carbon (C) sink will endure into the future. Despite extensive modeling, experimental, and observational studies, what fundamentally determines transient dynamics of terrestrial C storage under climate change is still not very clear. Here we develop a new framework for understanding transient dynamics of terrestrial C storage through mathematical analysis and numerical experiments. Our analysis indicates that the ultimate force driving ecosystem C storage change is the C storage capacity, which is jointly determined by ecosystem C input (e.g., net primary production, NPP) and residence time. Since both C input and residence time vary with time, the C storage capacity is time-dependent and acts as a moving attractor that actual C storage chases. The rate of change in C storage is proportional to the C storage potential, the difference between the current storage and the storage capacity. The C storage capacity represents instantaneous responses of the land C cycle to external forcing, whereas the C storage potential represents the internal capability of the land C cycle to influence the C change trajectory in the next time step. The influence happens through redistribution of net C pool changes in a network of pools with different residence times. Moreover, this and our other studies have demonstrated that one matrix equation can exactly replicate simulations of most land C cycle models (i.e., physical emulators). As a result, simulation outputs of those models can be placed into a three-dimensional (3D) parameter space to measure their differences. The latter can be decomposed into traceable components to track the origins of model uncertainty. Moreover, the emulators make data assimilation computationally feasible so that both C flux- and pool-related datasets can be used to better constrain model predictions of land C sequestration. We also propose that the C storage potential be the targeted variable for research, market trading, and government negotiation for C credits.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The protooncogene protein, Bcl-2, protects cells from apoptosis and ensures their survival in vitro by inhibiting the action of the apoptosis-inducer, Bax. Its expression in proliferative and long-lived cells in vivo also indicates that it protects against cell death. The chondrocytes of the epiphyseal plate cartilage undergo a series of maturation steps and deposit mineral in the cartilage matrix before dying. The possibility that Bcl-2 helps protect chondrocytes until mineral deposition is completed was investigated by determining the distribution of Bcl-2 immunoreactivity in the epiphyseal plate cartilage of growing rats and its subcellular localization, using a specific antibody. The involvement of Bax in the triggering of chondrocyte death was checked by immunocytochemistry. Bcl-2 expression in the osteoblasts and the final result of their evolution, the osteocytes, was also examined in trabecular bone. Bcl-2 immunoreactivity was non-uniformly distributed throughout the epiphyseal cartilage. It was maximal in proliferative chondrocytes, decreased in mature chondrocytes, and low in hypertrophic chondrocytes, whereas there was Bax immunoreactivity in all chondrocytes examined. Immunolabeling was intense in osteoblasts but considerably lower in fully differentiated osteocytes. Bcl-2 immunoreactivity was mainly in the cytoplasm of chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and early osteocytes; the nuclei appeared clear. The subcellular distribution of Bcl-2 immunolabeling in chondrocytes, revealed by gold particles in the electron microscope, showed that gold particles were frequently concentrated in the mitochondria in all the cartilage zones and lay mainly within the organelles, not at their periphery. The endoplasmic reticulum contained moderate immunoreactivity and there were few gold particles in the cytoplasm and nuclei. The number of gold particles decreased in all the subcellular compartments from proliferative to hypertrophic chondrocytes. In contrast, Bax immunoreactivity changed little during chondrocyte terminal evolution, and its subcellular distribution mirrored that of Bcl-2. These immunocytochemical data indicate that Bcl-2 helps maintain chondrocytes and osteoblasts until their terminal maturation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A new optical fiber sensor was prepared for the determination of berberine in aqueous solution using a micrometer-sized flow-cell and a bifurcated optical fiber. The sensing is based on fluorescence quenching of 2-(4-diphenylyl)-6-phenylbenzoxazole (PBBO) in the PVC membrane. This process is accompanied by non-fluorescent ground-state complex formation. With this sensor, berberine can be determined in sample solutions from 2.42 × 10–5 mol L–1 to 6.04 × 10–7 mol L–1. Satisfactory reproducibility, reversibility, and short response times of less than 1 min are realized. The sensor also shows good selectivity over some common pharmaceutical species and alkali and alkali-earth metal salts, and can be used for the direct assay of berberine in commercial tablets. The results are in correspondence with those obtained by the pharmacopoeia method.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract An optical fiber sensor for the continuous determination of hydrochloric acid is presented. It is based on the fluorescence quenching of a flavone containing copolymer membrane by hydrochloric acid. The quenching efficiency is greatly enhanced in the presence of Fe(III). This enhancement is attributed to the primary inner filter effect, as well as the formation of a complex between the 4′-N,N-dimethylaminoflavone group in the copolymer and the Fe(III) species extracted from hydrochloric acid solution. The optical response is linear and reversible for 0.10–6.00 mol L–1 HCl with a response time of the order of a second. The standard deviations for repeated alternative measurements of 0.20 and 2.00 mol L–1 hydrochloric acid are 0.32% and 0.46% (n = 10), respectively, indicating a good reproducibility. Because of the covalently bonding of the dye to polymer, the sensor exhibits also a good stability. Selectivity has also been evaluated for some potential interferents. The sensor in conjunction with a flow-injection system can be used for on-line determination of hydrochloric acid.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Sedimentology 29 (1982), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Surface textures of quartz grains have been examined from five samples from the Laurentian Fan and Sohm Abyssal Plain, representing varied transport distances and power of the depositing turbidity current. The grains retain their primary irregular shape derived from glacial erosion, and glacial surface textures are preserved in dish-shaped depressions. These features have been superimposed by a slight rounding of edges and an abundance of collision-induced markings, particularly mechanical V-forms. The most intense current modification of this sort occurs in mid-Wisconsinan or earlier sands that have been transported over 1000 km to the distal Sohm Abyssal Plain by turbidity currents. Collision textures probably develop during grain flow on the steep continental slope: delicate resedimented shelf foraminifera are preserved in the same turbidites and most have been transported exclusively in suspension.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 31 (2003), S. 385-390 
    ISSN: 1434-6036
    Keywords: PACS. 87.18.Sn Neural networks – 87.16.Xa Signal transduction – 87.17.Aa Theory and modeling; computer simulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract: The influence of a weight-dependent spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) rule on the temporal evolution and equilibrium state of a certain synapse is investigated. We show that under certain conditions, a spike-induced rate-learning scheme could be achieved. Through studying the situation when a single Hodgkin-Huxley neuron is driven by a large ensemble of input neurons, we find that synchronized firing of a sub population of input neurons may be important to information processing in the nervous system. Using simulations, we show that the temporal structure of the spike trains of these synchronized input neurons can be transmitted reliably; further, synapses from these neurons will increase stably due to the STDP rule and this may provide a mechanism for learning and information storage in biologically plausible network models.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/octet-stream, 56.0 kBytes
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1013-9826
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Based on the hypothesis of equivalent strain energy and the theories of fracturemechanics and damage mechanics,the constitutive model and fracture damage mechanism ofbolted discontinuous jointed rockmass are systematically studied under the state of complex stresses.Initially , considering the equivalent strain energy , the constitutive relation of anchoreddiscontinuous jointed rockmass is derived under the state of compression-shear stresses. Theconstitutive relation under the state of tension-shear stresses is also developed according to the theoryof self-consistence. Next,the damage evolution equations of discontinuous multi-crack rockmassunder compression-shear and tension-shear are put forward according to the wing crack-initiatingcriterion. Finally,based on the above constitutive models and the damage evolution equationsthree-dimensional finite element procedures have been developed to evaluate the stability anddeformability of the surrounding rock mass during excavation and supporting. The calculated resultsindicate that above-mentioned constitutive relation and the damage evolution equations are available
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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